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THE JOURNAL OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 



institute of America 



AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



THE JOURNAL OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

VOLUME VII 
1903 





NORWOOD, MASS. 

PUBLISHED FOR THE INSTITUTE BY 



NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

66, FIFTH AVENUE 
LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., LTD. 



American Journal of Archaeology 

SECOND SERIES 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 
Vol. VII, 1903 

CDtronal 115oarD 

Editor-in-Chief 
JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, 

Professor in Harvard University. 

Associate Editors 

J. R. S. STERRETT (for the American School at Athens), 

Professor in Cornell University. 

ALLAN MARQUAND (for the American School in Rome), 

Professor in Princeton University. 

HAROLD N. FOWLER, 

Professor in Western Reserve University. 

JOHN P. PETERS (for the American School in Palestine), 
New York. 

Honorary Editors 

JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE (President of the Institute), 
Professor in Harvard University. 

JAMES R. WHEELER (Chairman of the Managing Committee 
of the School at Athena), 

Professor in Columbia University. 

ANDREW F. WEST (Chairman of the Managing Committee 

of the School in Rome), 

Professor in Princeton University. 

GEORGE F. MOORE (Chairman of the Managing Committee 

of the School in Palestine), 

Professor in Harvard University. 

Business Manager 
CLARENCE H. YOUNG, 

Adjunct Professor in Columbia University. 

ISHttorial Contributors 

Miss MARY H. BUCKINGHAM, Professor ELMER T. MERRILL, 

Classical Archaeology. Roman Archaeology. 

Professor HARRY E. BURTON, Dr. GEORGE N. OLCOTT, 

Roman Archaeology. Numismatics. 

Professor JAMES C. EGBERT, JR., Professor JAMES M. PATON, 

Roman Epigraphy. Classical Archaeology. 



CONTENTS 



PAGR 

Council of the Archaeological Institute of America . . , . vii 

Officers of the Affiliated Societies x 

Managing Committee of the School at Athens . . . . xv 

Managing Committee of the School in Rome ..... xvii 

Managing Committee of the School in Palestine .... xx 

Foreign Honorary Members of the Institute ..... xxii 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA : 

Baetylia. GEORGE F. MOORE 198 

The Founding of the School at Athens. CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 351 
The Supplementary Signs of the Greek Alphabet. 

MORTIMER LAMSON EARLE 429 

" Hermes Diskobolos." EDMUND VON MACH ..... 445 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS : 

Greek Inscriptions from Corinth. BENJAMIN POWELL ... 26 
Archaic Inscriptions from Cleonae and Corinth. S. O. DICKERMAN 147 
The Cave at Vari : 

I. Description, Account of Excavation, and History (Plates 

I, II). CHARLES HEALD WELLER .... 263 
II. The Inscriptions. MAURICE EDWARDS DUNHAM . . 289 

III. The Marble Reliefs (Plates III-IX). 

- IDA CARLETON THALLON 301 

IV. Vases, Terra-cotta Statuettes, Bronzes, and Miscellaneous 

Objects (Plates X, XI). LIDA SHAW KING . . . 320 
V. The Coins. AGNES BALDWIN . . . ... .335 

VI. The Terra-cotta Lamps (Plates XII-XIV). 

SAMUEL ELIOT BASSETT 338 
Excavations at Corinth: 1903. T. W. H 350 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES IN ROME : 

Certain Sources of Corruption in Latin Manuscripts : A Study ba.sed 
on Two Manuscripts of Livy : Codex Puteanus (Fifth Century) 
and its Copy Codex Reginensis 762 (Ninth Century). 

- F. W. SHIPLEY 1, 157, 405 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS AND DISCUSSIONS (July, 1902 -June, 1903) 
H. N. FOWLER and J. M. PATON, Editors: 

NOTES ON RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND DISCOVERIES; OTHER NEWS 101 

Oriental, Classical, and Christian Archaeology: General and Mis- 



CONTENTS 



cellaneous, 101, 357; Egypt, 103, 360; Persia, 105; Babylonia, 
105, 363 ; Syria and Palestine, 106, 364 ; Asia Minor, 107, 366 ; 
Scythia, Thrace, and Macedonia, 112, 369; Greece, 112, 371; 
Italy, 122, 380; Spain, 130, 385; France, 130, 385; Belgium, 
133, 388 ; Germany, 133, 388 ; Austria-Hungary, 134, 389 ; Great 
Britain, 135, 389 ; Africa, 137, 391. 

Byzantine, Mediaeval, and Renaissance Art: General and Mis- 
cellaneous, 138, 395; Greece and Macedonia, 396; Italy, 139, 
396; France, 142, 399; Belgium and Holland, 142, 402; Ger- 
many, 143, 402; Austria, 403; Russia, 403; England, 144, 403; 
United States, 404. 

SUMMARIES OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES CHIEFLY IN RECENT PERI- 

ODICALS ........... 229 

Oriental and Classical Archaeology: General and Miscellaneous, 
229, 451 ; Egypt, 231, 455 ; Babylonia and Assyria, 233, 455 ; 
Syria and Palestine, 234, 456; Asia Minor, 235, 458; Greece, 
236, 461 ; Italy, 246, 478 ; France, 250, 484 ; Austria, 486 ; Great 
Britain, 487. 

Early Christian, Byzantine, and Mediaeval Art: General and Mis- 
cellaneous, 251; Italy, 253, 488; France, 256, 491; Belgium, 
492 ; Germany, 492 ; Great Britain, 256, 493. 

Renaissance A rt : General and Miscellaneous, 494 ; Italy, 256, 
495; France, 260, 499; Belgium, 261, 500; Germany, 261, 502; 
Switzerland, 262 ; Bohemia, 262 ; Great Britain, 502. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL BOOKS (1902). 

-H. N. FOWLER, Editor 209 
General and Miscellaneous ..... ... 209 

Egyptian Archaeology ......... 212 

Oriental Archaeology ........ . 213 

Classical Archaeology ... ...... 213 

Greek and Roman ....... ... 213 

Greek (I, General and Miscellaneous, 215; II, Architecture, 217; 
III, Sculpture, 217; IV, Vases and Painting, 218; V, Inscrip- 
tions, 218; VI, Coins, 218). 

Roman (I, General and Miscellaneous, 218; II, Architecture, 220; 
III, Sculpture, 221 ; IV, Vases and Painting, 221 ; V, Inscrip- 
tions, 221 ; VI, Coins, 221). 
Christian Art ........... 221 

(I, General and Miscellaneous, 221 ; II, Early Christian and 
Byzantine, 224; III, Mediaeval, 224; IV, Renaissance and 
Modern, 226.) 

Abbreviations used in the News, Discussions, and Bibliography . . 145 



CONTENTS V 

PAGE 

GENERAL MEETING OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMER- 
ICA, PRINCETON, December 31, 1902, January 1-2, 1903 . . 72 

PROCEEDINGS, WITH TITLES AND BRIEF ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS 

AND ADDRESSES: 

The Portrait of Virgil. J. B. CARTER 72 

The Toledo Manuscript of the Germania of Tacitus. F. F. ABBOTT . 73 

Post-Mycenaean Influence in Cyprus. P. V. C. BAUR ... 74 
The Origin of the Slanderous Stories concerning Phidias traced to a 

Corrupt Manuscript. EDMUND VON MACH ..... 75 

Graeco-Roman Textiles. WALTER LOWRIE 76 

A Painting by Hieronymus Bosch in the Princeton Art Museum. 

ALLAN MARQUAND 76 
New Light on the Earliest Forms of the Christian Church. 

A. L. FROTHINGHAM, JR. 77 

The Study of Greek Sculpture. D. CADY EATON .... 78 

Notes on Greek Lampstands. C. B. GULICK . . . . .79 

The Greek Colonial Movement as a Commercial Factor. J. C. HOPPIN 80 

New Points in the History of the Acropolis at Athens. M. L. D'OoGE 81 

Baetylia and Other Holy Stones. G. F. MOORE .... 82 

Some Archaeological Notes on Asia Minor and Syria. G. F. BARTON 82 

The Place of Sacrifice among the Primitive Semites. S. I. CURTISS . 83 
A Comparison of the Scenes on White Lecythi and on Grave Stelae. 

ARTHUR FAIRBANKS 84 

The Significance of Dress. ALICE C. FLETCHER .... 84 

Heracles Alexicacus. J. R. WHEELER * . . . . . .85 

The Rule of Symmetry in Early Oriental Art. W. H. WARD . . 86 

The Venus of Milo. H. N. FOWLER 87 

The Basilica Aemilia. T. B. LINDSAY 88 

The Personal Address in Roman Epitaphs. TRACY PECK . . 88 

Two Tombs from the Necropolis of Marissa. J. P. PETERS . . 89 
A Recent Visit to Greek Lands. W. W. GOODWIN . . .91 
The Influence of Art upon Certain Traditional Passages in the Epic 

Poetry of Statius. K. F. SMITH 93 

The Pre-Periclean Propylon of the Acropolis at Athens. 

C. H. WELLER 93 

A Greek Door of Stone at the Argive Heraeum. E. L. TILTON . 94 

On the vofj.l<r/jLa.Ta -rrtipyiva of Aeschylus, Pers. 859. J. D. ROGERS . 95 
An Amphora with a New Ka\6s-Name, in the Boston Museum of Fine 

Arts. G. H. CHASE . 96 

Archaeological Details from Syriac Inscriptions. ENNO LITTMANN . 96 
Greek Sculptures in California. ALFRED EMERSON . . . .97 
Five Unpublished Churches of the First Quarter of the Fifth Century, 

in Northern Central Syria. H. C. BUTLER . . . . ' . 98 

Titles of Papers withdrawn . 99 



PLATES 



PAGE 

I. The Cave at Vari : General Plan ....... 263 

II. The Cave at Vari : Sectional Plans . . . . . .263 

III-IX. The Cave at Vari : Marble Keliefs I-VII 301 

X. Fragments of a Red-figured Vase from the Cave at Vari . . 320 

XT. Terra-cotta Figurines from the Cave at Vari .... 320 

XII. Terra-cotta Lamps from Vari : D&vices on Borders . . . 338 

XIII. Lamps from Vari : Devices on Disks and Borders . . . 338 

XIV. Seven Terra-cotta Lamps from Vari 338 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT 

Archaic Inscription from Cleonae : Face A ...... 147 

Archaic Inscription from Cleonae : .Face B ...... 147 

Archaic Inscription from Cleonae : Face C . . . . . . . 147 

Archaic Inscription from Corinth . . . . . . . .154 

Codex Puteanus : Facsimile of the Upper Part of a Folio . . . 165 

The Cave at Vari : Entrance 265 

Interior View after the Excavation 266 

Steps descending into the Larger Room 267 

Seated Figure hewn in the Rock 268 

Figure of Archedemus and Shrine of Apollo Hersus ..... 270 

Figure of Archedemus and Shrine of Apollo Hersus . . . . .271 

Portion of the Wall uncovered ......... 274 

Interior View as the Excavation was beginning ...... 280 

Interior of the Smaller Division of the Cave 282 

Group of Laborers near the Entrance to the Cave ..... 286 

Types of Mouths of Lutrophori 323 

Inscriptions on Vases from Vari 326 

Terra-cotta Lamp from Corinth 339 

Types of Lamp Handles from Vari 341 

Terra-cotta Lamp from Vari 342 

Terra-cotta Lamp from Corinth . . . . .... . 343 

Three Inscribed Lamps from Vari : Reverse . . . . . . 345 

Discus-thrower on an Attic Red-figured Vase in Boston . . . .447 



vi 



archaeological ^Institute of america 



COUNCIL OF THE INSTITUTE 

1903-1904 



President 

PROFESSOR THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR, LL.D., Tale University, of the Con- 
necticut Society. 

Honorary Presidents 

PROFESSOR CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, LITT.!)., LL.D., D.C.L., Harvard 

University, of the Boston Society. 

HON. SETH LOW, LL.D., New York, of the New York Society. 

PROFESSOR JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D., LL.D., LITT.D., Harvard Uni- 
versity, of the Boston Society. 

Vice-Presidents 

MR. CHARLES P. BOWDITCH, A.M., Boston, of the Boston Society. 
PRESIDENT DANIEL C. OILMAN, LL.D., Baltimore, of the Baltimore Society. 
PROFESSOR W J McGEE, LL.D., Bureau of American Ethnology, of the 

Washington Society. 
MR. EDWARD ROBINSON, A.B., Boston, of the Boston Society. 

Secretary 

PROFESSOR FRANCIS W. KELSEY, PH.D., University of Michigan, of the 
Detroit Society. 

Associate Secretary 

PROFESSOR MITCHELL CARROLL, PH.!)., The Columbian University, of 
the Washington Society. 

Recorder 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM N. BATES, PH.D., University of Pennsylvania, of the 
Pennsylvania Society. 

Treasurer 

MR. JAMES H. HYDE, A.B., 120, Broadway, New York, of the New York 
Society. 

vii 



yiii AECHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

Editor-in-Chief of the Journal 

PROFESSOR JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, LL.D., Harvard University, of the Bos- 
ton Society. 

Business Manager of the Journal 

PROFESSOR CLARENCE H. YOUNG, PH.D., Columbia University, of the New 
York Society. 

Other Members of the Council 

MR. CYRUS ADLER, PH.D., Smithsonian Institution, of the Washington 
Society. 

PROFESSOR HAMILTON FORD ALLEN, Washington, Pa., of the Pittsburgh 
Society. 

PROFESSOR FRANK COLE BABBITT, PH.D., Trinity College, of the Con- 
necticut Society. 

MR. SELDEN BACON, A.M., LL.B., New York, of the Wisconsin Society. 

HON. SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL.D., Yale University, President of the Hew 
Haven Society. 

PROFESSOR F. O. BATES, PH.D., Detroit, of the Detroit Society. 

MR. GEORGE W. BATES, A.M., Detroit, President of the Detroit Society. 

MR. ROBERT C. H. BROCK, Philadelphia, President of the Pennsylvania 
Society. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD CAPPS, Pn.D., Chicago University, of the Chicago 
Society. 

PROFESSOR WALTER DENNISON, PH.D., University of Michigan, of the 
Detroit Society. 

PROFESSOR MARTIN L. D'OOGE, PH.D., LL.D., Lirr.D., University of Michi- 
gan, of the Detroit Society. 

MR. HOWARD P. EELLS, A.B., Cleveland, President of the Cleveland Society. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR FAIRBANKS, Pn.D., loica State University, President 
of the Iowa Society. 

HON. JOHN W. FOSTER, LL.D., Washington, President of the Washington 
Society. 

PROFESSOR HAROLD N. FOWLER, PH.D., Western Reserve University, of 
the Cleveland Society. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., PH.D., Princeton Univer- 
sity, of the Baltimore Society. 

PROFESSOR BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Johns Hop- 
kins University, President of the Baltimore Society. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM FEN WICK HARRIS, A.M., Harvard University, of 
the Boston Society. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM HENRY HOLMES, Smithsonian Institution, of the 
Washington Society. 

PROFESSOR JOSEPH CLARK HOPPIN, PH.D., Bryn Mawr College, of the 
Pennsylvania Society. 

MR. CHARLES L. HUTCHINSON, LL.D., Chicago, of the Chicago Society. 

MR. JOHN B. JACKSON, A.M., Pittsburgh, President of the Pittsburgh 
Society. 

MR. JAMES LOEB, A.B., New York, of the New York Society. 



COUNCIL OF THE INSTITUTE ix 

REV. WALTER LOWRIE, A.M., Philadelphia, of the Pennsylvania Society. 
PROFESSOR J. H. T. MAIN, PH.D., Iowa College, of the Iowa Society. 
PROFESSOR W. G. MANLY, A.M., University of Missouri, President of the 

Missouri Society. 

MR. THEODORE MARBURG, Baltimore, of the Baltimore Society. 
PROFESSOR ALLAN MARQUAND, PH.D., L.H.D., Princeton University, of 

the New York Society. 

Miss ELLEN F. MASON, Boston, of the Boston Society. 
PROFESSOR GEORGE F. MOORE, D.D., Harvard University, of the Boston 

Society. 
PROFESSOR EDWARD DEL A VAN PERRY, PH.D., Columbia University, 

President of the New York Society. 
MR. FREDERIC J. DE PEYSTER, A.M., LL.B., New York, of the New 

York Society. 
PROFESSOR SAMUEL BALL PLATNER, PH.D., Western Reserve University, 

of the Cleveland Society. 

PROFESSOR JULIUS SACHS, PH.D., New York, of the New York Society. 
PROFESSOR F. W. SHIPLEY, PH.D., Washington University, of the Missouri 

Society. 
PROFESSOR CHARLES FORSTER SMITH, PH.D., University of Wisconsin, 

President of the Wisconsin Society. 
PROFESSOR FRANK B. TARBELL, PH.D., University of Chicago, President 

of the Chicago Society. 
PROFESSOR FITZGERALD TISDALL, PH.D., College of the City of New 

York, of the New York Society. 

PROFESSOR CHARLES C. TORREY, PH.D., Yale University, of the Connecti- 
cut Society. 

PROFESSOR ALICE WALTON, Pn.D., Wellesley College, of the Boston Society. 
PROFESSOR MINTON WARREN, PH.D., LL.D., Harvard University, of the 

Boston Society. 

MR. WILLIAM A. WAY, Pittsburgh, of the Pittsburgh Society. 
PROFESSOR ANDREW F. WEST, PH.D., LL.D., Princeton University, of the 

New York Society. 
PROFESSOR JAMES R. WHEELER, PH.D., Columbia University, of the New 

York Society. 

MRS. H. WHITMAN, Boston, President of the Boston Society. 
PROFESSOR THEODORE F. WRIGHT, PH.D., Cambridge, of the Boston 

Society. 



affiliate* Societies 
of tfje &rrfjaeolojjical 
Institute of America 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETIES 

1903-1904 



BOSTON SOCIETY 

President 
MRS. H. WHITMAN. 

Vice-President 
PROFESSOR HENRY W. HAYNES, A.M. 

Secretary 
MR. ERNEST JACKSON, A.M. 

Treasurer 
MR. GARDINER M. LANE, A.B. 



NEW YORK SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR EDWARD DEL A VAN PERRY, PH.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

MR. MORRIS K. JESUP, LL.D. 
REV. JOHN P. PETERS, PH.D., Sc.D., D.D. 
RT. REV. HENRY C. POTTER, S.T.D., LL.D. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE, LL.D. 
MR. HORACE WHITE, LL.D. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR NELSON G. McCREA, Pn.D. 

Treasurer 
MR. EDWARD L. TILTON. 



OFFICERS OF THE AFFILIATED SOCIETIES xi 

BALTIMORE SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L, 

Vice-Presidents 

MR. MENDES COHEN. 
Miss ALICE C. FLETCHER. 
PRESIDENT DANIEL C. GILMAN, LL.D. 
MR. WILLIAM W. SPENCE. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR KIRBY F. SMITH, PH.D. 

Treasurer 
MR. EDGAR G. MILLER. 



PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY 

President 
MR. ROBERT C. II. BROCK. 

Vice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR HERMAN V. HILPRECHT, PH.D., D.D., LL.D. 
PROFESSOR JOSEPH CLARK HOPPIN, PH.D. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM N. BATES, Pn.D. 



CHICAGO SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR FRANK BIGELOW TARBELL, PH.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

MR. JOHN J. GLESSNER. 

HON. FRANKLIN MACVEAGH, A.B., LL.B. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR CLARENCE F. CASTLE, PH.D. 

Treasurer 
PROFESSOR EDWARD CAPPS, PH.D. 



xii ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMEltKJA 

DETROIT SOCIETY 

President 
MR. GEORGE WILLIAMS BATES, A.M. 

Vice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR MARTIN L. D'OOGE, Pii.D., LL.D., Lrrx.D. 
COL. FRANK J. HECKER. 
HON. WILLIAM E. QUIXBY, LL.D. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
MR. PERCY IVES. 



WISCONSIN SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR CHARLES FORSTER SMITH, PH.D. 

V ice-President 
Miss ALICE G. CHAPMAN. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR MOSES STEPHEN SLAUGHTER, PH.D. 

Acting Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR GRANT SHOWERMAN, PH.D. 



CLEVELAND SOCIETY 

President 
MR. HOWARD P. EELLS, A.B. 

Vice-President 
MR. MALCOLM S. GREENOUGH, A.B. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR HAROLD NORTH FOWLER, Pn.D. 



OFFICERS OF THE AFFILIATED SOCIETIES xiii 

CONNECTICUT SOCIETY 

President 
HON. SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR JAMES M. PATON, PH.D. 
PROFESSOR D. CADY EATON, A.M. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR HORATIO M. REYNOLDS, A.M. 



MISSOURI SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR W. G. MANLY, A.M. 

Vice-Presidents 

HON. GARDNER LATHROP, LL.B. 
PROFESSOR F. W. SHIPLEY, PH.D. 

Secretary 
MR. C. E. MILLER. 

Treasurer 
PROFESSOR W. E. GRUBE, A.M. 



"WASHINGTON SOCIETY 

President 
HON. JOHN W. FOSTER, LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

HON. SAMUEL PIERPONT LANGLEY, LL.D., D.C.L. 
PRESIDENT CHARLES W. NEEDHAM, LL.D. 
RT. REV. MGR. DENNIS J. O'CONNELL, D.D. 
MRS. ELIZABETH J. SOMERS, M.A. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR MITCHELL CARROLL, Pn.D. 

Treasurer 
MR. JOHN B. LARNER, LL.B. 



xii ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMEliUJA 

DETROIT SOCIETY 

President 
MR. GEORGE WILLIAMS BATES, A.M. 

Vice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR MARTIN L. D'OOGE, Pn.D., LL.D., Lixx.D. 
COL. FRANK J. HECKER. 
HON. WILLIAM E. QUINBY, LL.D. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
MR. PERCY IVES. 



WISCONSIN SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR CHARLES FOHSTER SMITH, PH.D. 

V ice-President 
Miss ALICE G. CHAPMAN. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR MOSES STEPHEN SLAUGHTER, PH.D. 

Acting Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR GRANT SHOVVERMAN, PH.D. 



CLEVELAND SOCIETY 

President 
MR. HOWARD P. EELLS, A.B. 

Vice-President 
MR. MALCOLM S. GREENOUGH, A.B. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR HAROLD NORTH FOWLER, PH.D. 



OFFICERS OF THE AFFILIATED SOCIETIES xiii 

CONNECTICUT SOCIETY 

President 
HON. SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR JAMES M. PATON, PH.D. 
PROFESSOR D. CADY EATON, A.M. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR HORATIO M. REYNOLDS, A.M. 



MISSOURI SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR W. G. MANLY, A.M. 

Vice-Presidents 

HON. GARDNER LATHROP, LL.B. 
PROFESSOR F. W. SHIPLEY, PH.D. 

Secretary 
MR. C. E. MILLER. 

Treasurer 
PROFESSOR W. E. GRUBE, A.M. 



WASHINGTON SOCIETY 

President 
HON. JOHN W. FOSTER, LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

HON. SAMUEL PIERPONT LANGLEY, LL.D., D.C.L. 
PRESIDENT CHARLES W. NEEDHAM, LL.D. 
RT. REV. MGR. DENNIS J. O'CONNELL, D.D. 
MRS. ELIZABETH J. SOMERS, M.A. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR MITCHELL CARROLL, PH.D. 

Treasurer 
MR. JOHN B. LARNER, LL.B. 



xiv ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

IOWA SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR ARTHUR FAIRBANKS, PH.D. 

V ice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR J. H. T. MAIN, PH.D. 
PROFESSOR W. S. EBERSOLE, A.M. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
MRS. MAX MAYER. 



PITTSBURGH SOCIETY 

President 
MR. JOHN B. JACKSON, A.M. 

Vice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. OR ABBE. 

DR. WILLIAM J. HOLLAND. 

PRESIDENT JAMES D. MOFFAT, D.D., LL.D. 

HON. HENRY KIRKE PORTER, LL.D. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR HAMILTON FORD ALLEN. 

Treasurer 
MR. WILLIAM A. WAY. 



American Srfjool 
of Classical Studies 
at 



MANAGING COMMITTEE 

1903-1904 



Chairman 
PROFESSOR JAMES R. WHEELER, PH.D., of Columbia University. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR HORATIO M. REYNOLDS, A.M., of Yale University. 

Treasurer 
MR. GARDINER M. LANE, A.B., of Boston. 

PROFESSOR H. M. BAIRD, D.D., LL.D., of New York University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM N. BATES, PH.D., of the University of Pennsylvania. 

PROFESSOR A. C. CHAPIN, A.M., of Wellesley College. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD B. CLAPP, PH.D., of the University of California. 

PROFESSOR MARTIN L. D'OOGE, PH.D., LL.D., Lrrx.D., of the University 
of Michigan. 

PROFESSOR EDGAR A. EMENS, A.M., of Syracuse University. 

PROFESSOR HAROLD N. FOWLER, PH.D., of Western Reserve University. 

PROFESSOR ABRAHAM L. FULLER, PH.D., of Adelbert College of West- 
ern Reserve University. 

PROFESSOR HENRY GIBBONS, PH.D., of the University of Pennsylvania. 

PROFESSOR BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L., of Johns 
Hopkins University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM W. GOODWIN, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L., of Harvard 
University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM GARDNER HALE, LL.D., of the University of Chi- 
cago. 

PROFESSOR ALBERT HARKNESS, PH.D., LL.D., of Brown University. 

MR. THEODORE WOOLSEY HEERMANCE, PH.D. (ex officio, as Director 
of the School), Athens, Greece. 

PROFESSOR JOHN H. HEWITT, LL.D., of Williams College. 

PROFESSOR JOSEPH CLARK HOPPIN, PH.D., of Bryn Mawr College. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE E. HOWES, PH.D., of the University of Vermont. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. LAMBERTON, Lrrx.D., of the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

xv 



xvi AMERICAN SCHOOL AT ATHENS 

PROFESSOR ABBY LEACH, A.M., of Vassar College. 
PROFESSOR GEORGE DANA LORD, A.M., of Dartmouth College. 
Miss ELLEN F. MASON, of Boston. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE F. MOORE, D.D. (ex officio, as Chairman of the Man- 
aging Committee of the School in Palestine), of Harvard University. 
PROFESSOR CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, Lirr.D., LL.D., D.C.L., of Harvard 

University. 

PROFESSOR JAMES M. PATON, PH.D., of Wesleyan University. 
PROFESSOR BERNADOTTE PERRIN,-Pn.D., LL.D., of Yale University. 
PROFESSOR EDWARD DELAVAN PERRY, PH.D., of Columbia University. 
MR. FREDERIC J. I>E PEYSTER, A.M., LL.B., of New York. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM CAREY POLAND, A.M., of Brown University. 
PROFESSOR W. K. PRENTICE, PH.D., of Princeton University. 
PROFESSOR LOUISE F. RANDOLPH, of Mt. Holyoke College. 
PROFESSOR RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, PH.!)., of New York. 
PROFESSOR H. N. SANDERS, A.B., of Bryn Mawr College. 
PROFESSOR THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR, LL.D. (ex officio, as President of 

the Institute),- of Yale University. 

PROFESSOR PAUL SIIOREY, Pii.D. of the University of Chicago. 
PROFESSOR H. DEF. SMITH, A.M., of Amherst College. 
PROFESSOR HERBERT WEIR SMYTH, PH.D., of Harvard University. 
PROFESSOR J. R. SITLINGTON STERRETT, PH.D., of Cornell University. 
PROFESSOR FRANK B. TARBELL, PH.D., of the University of Chicago. 
PROFESSOR FITZGERALD TISDALL, PH.D., of the College of the City of 

New York. 

PROFESSOR HENRY M. TYLER, A.M., of Smith College. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE, LL.D., of Columbia University. 
PROFESSOR ANDREW F. WEST, PH.D., LL.D. (ex officio, as Chairman of 

the Managing Committee of the School in Rome), of Princeton University. 
PRESIDENT BENJAMIN IDE WHEELER, PH.D., LL.D., of the University 

of California. 
PROFESSOR JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D., LL.D., Lirr.D., of Harvard 

University. 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL ROSS WINANS, PH.D., of Princeton University. 
PROFESSOR JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, LL.D. (ex officio, as Editor-in-Chief 

of the Journal of the Institute), of Harvard University. 



American Skjjool 
of Classical Stutrtes 
in Eome 



MANAGING COMMITTEE 

1903-1904 



Chairman 
PROFESSOR ANDREW F. WEST, PH.D., LL.D., of Princeton University. 

Secretary 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL BALL PLATNER, PH.D., of Western Reserve Univer- 
sity. 

Treasurer 
MR. C. C. CUYLER, A.B., of New York. 

PROFESSOR FRANK FROST ABBOTT, PH.D., of the University of Chicago. 

MRS. WILLIAM F. ALLEN, of Madison. 

MR. ALLISON V. ARMOUR, A.B., of New York. 

MR. GEORGE A. ARMOUR, A.B., of Princeton. 

PROFESSOR SIDNEY G. ASHMORE, L.H.D., of Union University. 

MR. ROBERT BACON, A.B. (ex officio, as Trustee of the School), of New 

York. 

PROFESSOR G. E. BARBER, A.M., of the University of Nebraska. 
PROFESSOR H. J. BARTON, A.M., of the University of Illinois. 
PROFESSOR CHARLES E. BENNETT, A.B., of Cornell University. 
MRS. EMMONS BLAINE, of Chicago. 

PROFESSOR D. BONBRIGHT, LL.D., of Northwestern University. 
PROFESSOR J. EVERETT BRADY, PH.D., of Smith College. 
MR. WILLIAM H. BUCKLER, of Baltimore. 

PROFESSOR HENRY F. BURTON, A.M., of the University of Rochester. 
PROFESSOR J. S. CLARK, A.B., of the University of Minnesota. 
RT. REV. MGR. THOMAS J. CON AT Y, J.C.D., D.D., Bishop of Los Angeles. 
MR. FREDERIC R. COUDERT, J.U.D., LL.D., of New York. 
PROFESSOR W. L. COWLES, A.M., of Amherst College. 
PROFESSOR A. N. CURRIER, LL.D., of the State University of Iowa. 
HON. HORACE DAVIS, LL.D., of San Francisco. 
PROFESSOR S. C. DERBY, A.M., of the Ohio State University. 
PROFESSOR JAMES H. DILLARD, Lrrr.D., of Tulane University. 
RT. REV. WILLIAM C. DOANE, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of Albany. 
PROFESSOR MORTIMER LAMSON EARLE, PH.D., of Barnard College. 
PROFESSOR JAMES C. EGBERT, JR., PH.D., of Columbia University. 

xvii 



xviii AMERICAN SCHOOL IN ROME 

MR. LOUIS R. EHRICH, A.M., of Colorado Springs. 

PROFESSOR ALFRED EMERSON, PH.D., of the University of California. 

PROFESSOR HENRY P. EMERSON, A.M., of Buffalo. 

PROFESSOR HAROLD N. FOWLER, PH.D., of Western Reserve University. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., PH.D., of Princeton Uni- 
versity. 

His EMINENCE CARDINAL JAMES GIBBONS, of Baltimore. 

MR. SAMUEL S. GREEN, A.M., of Worcester. 

PROFESSOR ALFRED GUDEMAN, PH.D., of Cornell University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM GARDNER HALE, LL.D., of the University of 
Chicago. 

PROFESSOR ALBERT G. HARKNESS, A.M., of Brown University. 

PROFESSOR KARL POME ROY HARRINGTON, A.M., of the University of 
Maine. 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL HART, D.D., D.C.L., of the Berkeley Divinity School. 

PROFESSOR ADELINE BELLE HA WES, A.M., of Wellesley College. 

PROFESSOR G. L. HENDRICKSON, A.B., of the University of Chicago. 

PROFESSOR CHARLES G. HERBERMANN, PH.D., LL.D., of the College of 
the City of New York. 

PROFESSOR JOHN H. HEWITT, LL.D., of Williams College. 

RABBI EMIL G. HIRSCH, PH.D., LL.D., of Chicago. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. HOUGHTON, A.M., of Bowdoin College. 

MR. CHARLES L. HUTCHINSON, LL.D., of Chicago. 

MR. JAMES H. HYDE, A.B. (ex officio, as Trustee of the School), of New 
York. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE E. JACKSON, A.M., of Washington University. 

PROFESSOR H. W. JOHNSTON, PH.D., of the Indiana University. 

PROFESSOR J. C. JONES, PH.D., of the University of Missouri. 

RT. REV. MGR. J. J. KEANE, D.D., Archbishop of Damascus. 

PROFESSOR FRANCIS W. KELSEY, PH.D., of the University of Michigan. 

CHANCELLOR J. H. KIRKLAND, PH.D., of Vanderbilt University. 

HON. ERNEST B. KRUTTSCHNITT, A.M., of New Orleans, La. 

COMMENDATORE PROFESSORE RODOLFO LANCIANI, LL.D., of the University 
of Rome. 

MR. GARDINER M. LANE, A.B., of Boston. 

MR. ELLIOT C. LEE, A.B. (ex officio, as Trustee of the School), of Boston. 

REV. CHARLES STANLEY LESTER, D.D., of Milwaukee. 

PROFESSOR T. B. LINDSAY, PH.D., of Boston University. 

PROFESSOR GONZALEZ LODGE, PH.D., of the Teachers' College, New York 
City. 

PROFESSOR JOHN K. LORD, PH.D., of Dartmouth College. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR C. McGIFFERT, D.D., of Union Theological Seminary. 

PROFESSOR ALLAN MARQUAND, PH.D., L.H.D., of Princeton University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. MERRILL, PH.D., L.H.D., of the University of 
California. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE F. MOORE, D.D. (ex officio, as Chairman of the Man- 
aging Committee of the School in Palestine), of Harvard University. 

PROFESSOR J. LEVERETT MOORE, PH.D., of Vassar College. 

REV. R. J. NEVIN, D.D., Rector of the American Church in Rome. 



MANAGING COMMITTEE xix 

MR. CLEMENT NEWBOLD (ex officio, as Trustee of the School), of Phila- 
delphia. 
PROFESSOR RICHARD NORTON, A.B. (ex officio, as Director of the School), 

Rome, Italy. 

Rx. REV. MGR. DENNIS J. O'CONNELL, D.D., Bishop of Portland. 
PROFESSOR E. M. PEASE, PH.D., of Washington. 
PROFESSOR TRACY PECK, A.M., of Yale University. 
PROFESSOR W. E. PETERS, LL.D., of the University of Virginia. 
PROFESSOR JOHN WINTHROP PLATNER, D.D., of Andover Theological 

Seminary. 

PROFESSOR EDWIN POST, PH.D., of De Pauw University. 
RT. REV. HENRY C. POTTER, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of New York. 
HON. WILLIAM POTTER, of Chestnut Hill. 

PROFESSOR JOHN C. ROLFE, PH.D., of the University of Pennsylvania. 
HON. J. G. SCHMIDLAPP, of Cincinnati. 

PROFESSOR EDWIN R. A. SELIGMAN, LL.B., PH.D., of Columbia University. 
PROFESSOR THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR, LL.D. (ex officio, as President of 

the Institute), of Yale University. 

PROFESSOR EDGAR S. S HUM WAY, PH.D., of Brooklyn, N.Y. 
PROFESSOR M. S. SLAUGHTER, PH.D., of the University of Wisconsin. 
PROFESSOR FRANK SMALLEY, PH.D., of Syracuse University. 
PROFESSOR CLEMENT L. SMITH, LL.D., of Harvard University. 
PROFESSOR KIRBY F. SMITH, PH.D., of Johns Hopkins University. 
PROFESSOR W. O. SPROULL, PH.D., LL.D., L.H.D., of Cincinnati. 
MR. GEORGE R. STETSON, of Washington. 
MRS. CORNELIUS STEVENSON, Sc.D., of Philadelphia. 
MR. WALDO STORY, A.M., of Rome. 

PROFESSOR LEWIS STUART, A.M., of Lake Forest University. 
MR. THOMAS THACHER, LL.D. (ex officio, as Trustee of the School), of 

New York. 

PROFESSOR HENRY VAN DYKE, D.D., LL.D., of Princeton University. 
COMMENDATORE PROFESSORE ADOLFO VENTURI, Director-General of the 

National Galleries of Italy. 

REV. MARVIN R. VINCENT, D.D., of the Union Theological Seminary. 
PROFESSOR ARTHUR T. WALKER, A.M., of the University of Kansas. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE, LL.D., of Columbia University. 
PROFESSOR MINTON WARREN, PH.D., LL.D., of Harvard University. 
Hox. II. B. WENZEL, A.B., LL.B., of St. Paul. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. WHEELER, PH.D., of Bryn Mawr College. 
PROFESSOR JAMES R. WHEELER, PH.D. (ex officio, as Chairman of the 

Managing Committee of the School at Athens), of Columbia University. 
MRS. HENRY WHITMAN, of Boston. 

VICE-CHANCELLOR B. L. WIGGINS, A.M., of the University of the South. 
PROFESSOR MARY G. WILLIAMS, PH.D., of Mt. Holyoke College. 
PROFESSOR JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, LL.D. (ex officio, as Editor-in-Chief 

of the Journal of the Institute), of Harvard University. 



American Srfjool 

for riental Stufcg antr 

in ^Palestine 



MANAGING COMMITTEE 

1903-1904 



Chairman 
PROFESSOR GEORGE F. MOORE, D.D., of Harvard University. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR CHARLES C. TORREY, PH.D., of Yale University. 

Treasurer 
PROFESSOR JAMES HARDY ROPES, PH. D., of Harvard University. 

REV. JOHN P. PETERS, PH.D., Sc.D., D.D., of New York. 

PROFESSOR THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR, LL.D. (ex officio, as President of the 

Institute), of Yale University. 
REV. WILLIAM HAYES WARD, D.D., LL.D., of New York. 

BOARD OF COUNCILLORS 

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FOLLOWING INSTITUTIONS: 

ANDOVER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

AUBURN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

BOSTON UNIVERSITY. 

BROWN UNIVERSITY. 

BRYN MAWR COLLEGE. 

COLGATE UNIVERSITY. 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 

EPISCOPAL THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL, Cambridge. 

GENERAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, New York. 

HARTFORD THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 

HEBREW UNION COLLEGE, Cincinnati. 

JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. 

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. 

TRINITY COLLEGE. 

UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, New York. 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

YALE UNIVERSITY. 



MANAGING COMMITTEE xxi 



AND THE FOLLOWING INDIVIDUALS : 

PRESIDENT JAMES B. ANGELL, D.D., LLJX, of the University 

of Michigan. 

KEV. E. T. BARTLETT, D.D., of Philadelphia. 
MR. JAMES C. CARTER, LL.D., of New York. 
HON. T. JEFFERSON COOLIDGE, LL.D., of Boston. 
Miss MARIA L. CORLISS, of Providence. 
MR. ROBERT FULTON CUTTING, of New York. 
PRESIDENT DANIEL C. GILMAN, LL.D., of Baltimore. 
MR. JAMES LOEB, A.B., of New York. 
MR. J. PIERPONT MORGAN, of New York. 
MR. M. TAYLOR PYNE, t A.M., LL.B., of Princeton. 
REV. EDWARD S. ROUSMANIERE, A.M., of Providence. 
MR. F. A. SCHERMERHORN, A.B., of New York. 
MR. JACOB H. SCHIFF, LL.D., of New York. 
MR. ISAAC N. SELIGMAN, of New York. 



Archaeological 
Institute 
of America 



FOREIGN HONORARY MEMBERS 



PROFESSOR ALEXANDER CONZE, Pii.D., German Imperial Archaeological 

Institute, Berlin. 

PROFESSOR WILHELM DORPFELD, Pii.l)., LL.l)., German Imperial Archaeo- 
logical Institute, Athens. 

PROFESSOR PERCY GARDNER, Lixx.D., University of Oxford. 

SIR RICHARD JEBB, LITT.D., D.C.L., LL.D., M.P., University of Cam- 
bridge. 

PROFESSOR GASTON MASPERO, D.C.L., College cle France, Paris. 
PROFESSOR ADOLF MICHAELIS, PH.D., LL.D., University of Strasburg. 



xxii 



American School 
of Classical Studies 
in iEome 



CERTAIN SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN 
MANUSCRIPTS : 

A STUDY BASED UPON TWO MANUSCRIPTS OF LIVY : CODEX 
PUTEANUS (FIFTH CENTURY), AND ITS COPY CODEX REGI- 
NENSIS 762 (NINTH CENTURY) 1 



I. INTRODUCTION 

THE tendency of Latin textual criticism has in late years 
been more and more in the direction of a conservative adhe- 
rence to the authority of manuscripts, wherever possible. This 
may be seen in the gradually diminishing number of emen- 
dations and conjectures in the critical apparatus of recent 
editions of the Latin texts. Scholars now hesitate much longer 
about marking a word or an expression as corrupt merely 
because it is unusual. Confidence in all but very late manu- 
scripts is on the increase. Recent years have seen the re- 
instatement of not a few manuscript readings whose place had 
long been taken by conjectures. A knowledge of palaeography 
is more and more becoming an essential factor in textual criti- 
cism, and, except in the case of texts which depend wholly 
upon manuscripts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 

1 In this article, which will appear in successive numbers of the JOURNAL, 
these topics will be discussed, each in a separate chapter : I. Introduction ; 
II. Codex Reginensis 762 ; III. Mistaken Word-divisions ; IV. Dittography ; 
V. Errors of Omission ; VI. Confusion of Letters ; VII. Confusion of Sim- 
ilar Words ; VIII. Corruptions arising from Mistaking the Numeral Signs ; 
IX. Errors due to Abbreviations ; X. Errors due to Corrections in the Codex 
Puteanus ; XI. Errors of Conscious Emendation ; XII. Spelling and Pronun- 
ciation ; XIII. Miscellaneous Examples illustrating the Cumulative Growth of 
Corruptions. 

1 



2 F. W. SHIPLEY 

one of the chief tests of an emendation is coming to be, 
Is it capable of palaeographical explanation? 

This tendency to place textual criticism more nearly upon a 
palaeographical basis has not been accompanied by a corre- 
sponding change in the character of the illustrative material 
used in books and manuals upon the subject. The collections 
of examples now placed before the student are not without 
their value, but they fail along the lines in which textual criti- 
cism has made the greatest advance. These examples consist 
for the most part in (1) a comparison of the corrupt reading 
of a manuscript with a conjectured emendation of a scholar, or 

(2) in a comparison of the readings of two or more manu- 
scripts of the same author, of which the relationship is generally 
uncertain, or at least remote. Illustrations chosen according 
to either method are often misleading to the student, even 
granting that, in the first method, the scholar's conjecture is 
what the author actually wrote. A great many corruptions to 
be found in manuscripts of all periods are no longer in their 
initial stages, but are the complex result of several distinct 
processes of growth. The student, with nothing before him 
but what the author is supposed to have written and the cor- 
rupt reading of, let us say, a thirteenth century manuscript, 
may be dealing only with a corruption in a late stage. All the 
earlier steps are missing, and certainty with regard to them is 
out of the question. Such an illustration has little value for 
him, leading as it does to no conclusion which is surely right, 
and possibly to one which is wholly wrong. Likewise, neither 
of these methods keeps clearly before the student the character 
of the errors common to certain styles of writing and certain 
periods of time. Both of them are lacking in palaeographical 
details. 

To be of the greatest practical value, illustrations of cor- 
ruptions should fulfil the following conditions : (1) the two 
extremes which are compared should not be too widely sepa- 
rated ;. (2) neither of them should be based upon conjecture ; 

(3) each illustration should present but a single stage in the 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 3 

progress of an error, or at any rate should present but one stage 
at a time ; (4) the cause of the error should be reasonably cer- 
tain ; (5) each example should keep distinctly before the 
student the periods of time and the palaeographical conditions 
involved. Material for illustrations which would answer all 
these conditions is not entirely wanting, though little use has 
heretofore been made of it. It is to be found in a class of 
neglected manuscripts whose readings have no place in the criti- 
cal apparatus of the text editions, namely, direct copies of 
originals which are still extant. The circumstance which ren- 
ders such copies useless for the constitution of the text of a 
given author makes them of the greatest value in throwing 
light upon the history of the texts in general. By comparing 
such a copy with its original it is possible, as it were, to look 
over the shoulder of the mediaeval scribe as he sits at his task. 
One may follow his hand and eye as he copies letter by letter 
and word by word. The difficulties with which he has to con- 
tend either in the script or the text of his original are clearly 
revealed. It is possible to see exactly how he performed his 
work, whether faithfully or carelessly, whether he has adhered 
closely to his text or altered freely, and, when he has made 
errors, how and why they came to be made. The extent to 
which the text suffered in his hands is thus made clear in every 
detail. Illustrations taken from the readings of two such 
manuscripts, original and copy, would enable the student to 
draw his own conclusions with full data before him, the style 
of the script of the original, the date of each manuscript, the 
conditions under which the copy was made, and the knowledge 
that, in the case of corruptions, he is dealing with but a single 
stage. By this method it is possible to see exactly what, in the 
copying of a given manuscript, actually happened, and then to 
turn the information to account in considering the texts of 
other manuscripts produced under the same conditions, the 
originals of which are now lost. 

Examples chosen by this method are as nearly as possible 
upon a palaeographical basis, and offer the student definite 



4 F. W. SHIPLEY 

illustration. The comparison of a single pair of representative 
manuscripts and the errors arising from a single process of 
transcription would serve to give him a clear idea of the tendency 
to corruption at a given period. A study of the errors exhib- 
ited in four such sets of copies and originals, each set repre- 
senting a distinct phase of the history of Latin texts, would 
give him a more definite conception of the whole field than 
he can possibly get from the more or less random examples of 
the manuals. For instance, a ninth century copy of an original 
of the fourth or fifth century, an eleventh century copy of an 
original of the ninth, a thirteenth century copy of an original of 
the eleventh, and a fourteenth or fifteenth century copy of an 
original of the thirteenth, would serve respectively to illustrate 
the tendencies of the periods which they represent, and collec- 
tively the entire history of Latin texts in so far as extant manu- 
scripts make this possible. 

For the last three of these four periods there is no lack of 
illustrative material of the nature indicated. A search in the 
libraries would probably disclose an abundance of neglected 
copies of extant manuscripts. The first of these periods, which 
is in many respects the most important, is represented, so far as 
I am aware, only by the single pair of manuscripts which form 
the subject of the present article. These are (1) the famous 
codex Puteanus (National Library, Paris, 5730), of the fifth 
century, which contains the third decade of Livy's history, and 
(2) a ninth century copy of it now in the Vatican library, and 
catalogued as Reginensis 762. 

That the significance of these two manuscripts may be prop- 
erly understood, let me first point out some of the character- 
istics of the period to which they belong, and the representative 
nature of the manuscripts themselves. The epoch from the 
fifth century to the ninth is one which is unique in the history 
of the texts of the Classical Latin authors. It is marked by a 
period of almost total inactivity in the multiplication of copies 
of their works, and is followed by one of unparalleled activity. 
Almost all of our extant manuscripts of these writers that 



SOURCES OF COEEUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 5 

are earlier in date than the very end of the eighth century are 
the capital and uncial manuscripts of the fourth, fifth, and the 
beginning of the sixth centuries. The interval from the middle 
of the sixth century to the closing years of the eighth is repre- 
sented by very few existing manuscripts of any but the Church 
writers. This fact would seem to indicate that, while there 
was no lack of activity in the reproduction of the writings of 
the Christian fathers, the copying of the works of the pagan 
Latin writers was almost totally arrested for over two centu- 
ries. 1 The active production of copies of the works of the 
pagan writers begins anew with the revival of learning under 
Charlemagne. To this new and wonderful activity, which 
arose with the closing years of the eighth century and contin- 
ued through the tenth, we are indebted for the preservation of a 
large proportion of our Latin texts. 2 The task of copying was 

1 Of the authors who wrote before the official victory of Christianity the fol- 
lowing works are, to the best of my knowledge, the only ones which have been 
preserved in manuscripts surely belonging to this period : the Agrimensores, 
s. VI- VII ; Apuleius (?), de Herbarum Medicaminibus, s. VI- VII ; Ovid, ex 
Ponto (fragment), s. VI* VII ; the Pandects, s. VI- VII ; Probus (?), Catholica, 
s. VI-VII, VII-VIII, VIII-IX ; excerpts from Pliny and Apicius, s. VII- VIII; 
Censorinus, s. VII ; Lactantius, s. VII ; Sacerdos, s. VII-VIII ; Commodianus, 
Carmen Apologeticum, s. VIII ; Notae Tironis et Senecae, s. VIII ; the Anthol- 
ogy of the Codex Salmasianus, s. VII-VIII. Of these, Commodianus and Lac- 
tautius were Christian writers ; Probus, Censorinus, and Sacerdos were writers 
on Grammar ; the works of the Agrimensores, the above-mentioned work on 
Materia Medica ascribed to Apuleius, the excerpts from Pliny and Apicius, the 
Pandects, and the Notae Tironis et Senecae were all of a technical or semi-tech- 
nical nature. It would seem probable, then, that with few exceptions such 
manuscripts only were copied in the seventh and eighth centuries as, from the 
nature of their subject-matter, did not conflict with the doctrines of the Church. 

2 The oldest manuscripts of a large proportion of the extant literature from 
Plautus to the official victory of Christianity are of the ninth and tenth cen- 
turies. The following is a list of the works of which the text is based upon 
manuscripts of this period (viz., the ninth and tenth centuries, and the last 
decade of the eighth) : Plautus (the Codex Vetus for portions not contained in 
the Ambrosian palimpsest) ; Lucretius ; Catullus, c. 62 ; Caesar; Salhist; Rhe- 
torica ad Herennium ; the following works of Cicero: Pro Fonteio, pro 
Flacco, post reditum in senatit, post red. ad Quirites, de domo sna, de haruspi- 
cum responsis, pro Sestio, in Vatinium, pro Caelio, de provinciis consul aribus, 
pro Balbo, In Pisonem, pro Marcello, Philippics, Rhetorica, de Oratore, Brutus, 
Orator, Part. Orat., Topica, ad Familiares, de Legibus, Paradoxa, Academica 
Priora, Tusc. Disp., de Natura Deorum, Cato Maior, de Divinatione, de Fato, 



6 F. W. SHIPLEY 

performed by monks. The usual practice in the scriptoria of 
the various monasteries in the ninth century seems to have 
been to secure, for the purpose of making a copy, the oldest 
available manuscript of a given author either preserved in the 
library to which the scriptorium belonged, or borrowed from 
that of another monastery. The oldest available manuscripts 
were, in the case of the pagan writers, those of the fourth or 
fifth century in capital 1 or uncial writing. Consequently the 
three hundred years from the end of the fifth century to the 
beginning of the ninth represent but a single link in the his- 
tory of the texts of those Latin authors whose writings are 
preserved in manuscripts not earlier than the ninth century. 
In all that time the text of such an author has passed through 
but a single stage in the process of corruption. The errors 
which have crept into the text in the making of the ninth cen- 
tury copy constitute the only difference between the trustwor- 
thiness of a ninth century manuscript of a given author and 
that of its archetype of the fifth. 

This single process of transcription marks what is perhaps 

Timaeus, de Amicitia, de Offidis ; the Culex, Copa, Aetna, and Moretum for- 
merly ascribed to Virgil ; Bernese scholia on Virgil ; Horace ; Ovid, Amores, 
Heroides, de Medicamine Faciei, Ars Amatoria, Hemedia Amoris, Fasti, Meta- 
morphoses, ex Ponto (for the greater part), Halieutica ; Grattii Cynegetica ; Livy, 
first decade, with the exception of books III-VI, and the Periochae ; Justin us ; 
Seneca Khetor ; Verrius Flaccus (Epitome Pauli} ; Hyginus ; Vitruvius ; Ara- 
tea Germanici ; Manillas; Phaedrus ; Seneca, Tragoediae (excerpta), 'ATroKoXo- 
Krij/Twtns, Dialogues, Epistolae, de dementia, de Beneficiis ; Valerius Maximus ; 
Curtius Rufus ; Persius ; Lucan ; Quintilian ; Calpurnius Flaccus ; Ilias La- 
tina ; Petronius ; Valerius Flaccus ; Statius ; Martial ; Juvenal ; Tacitus, 
Annals I-VI ; Pliny's Letters; Pliny the elder; Potnponius Mela; Celsus ; 
Columella ; Apicius ; Marcellus ; Frontinus (except the de Aquis} ; Siculus 
Flaccus ; Nemesianus, Cynegetica ; Disticha and Monosticha Catonis ; Sueto- 
nius ; Minucius Felix ; Florus, Sell. Eom. ; Apuleius, de Platone et eius dog- 
mata ; Calpurnius Flaccus ; Terentius Scaurus ; Gargilius Martialis ; Flavius 
Caper ; Aero ; Porphyrio ; Gellius ; Maecianus ; Cyprian ; Tertullian ; Q. Sere- 
nus Sammonicus ; Scriptores Historiae Augustae ; Arnobius. Roughly speak- 
ing, this list includes considerably more than half of the extant classical 
literature, and the ratio of ninth century authoritative manuscripts upon this 
list to those of the tenth century is about 3 to 1. This shows how important a 
place the ninth century holds in the preservation of the texts. 

1 Capitals were reserved for favourite authors, Virgil in particular. 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 1 

the most critical period in the history of Latin texts. It is not 
in itself characterized by intentional alterations such as are 
common in manuscripts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centu- 
ries. The corruptions are due almost entirely to ignorance or 
carelessness on the part of the scribes, much more rarely to 
attempts at emendation. But, although serious corruptions are 
few, this period is rich in the germs of future corruptions, on 
account of a new factor in the making of manuscripts. This 
factor is the division of the text into words, which now for the 
first time comes into general practice. In the manuscript of 
the fifth century there was ordinarily no word-division what- 
ever. The fifth century scribe, if he did not understand the 
meaning of the text before him, was able to conceal his igno- 
rance and evade all difficulties resulting therefrom by copying 
letter by letter, a process in which the text of the author 
suffered but little. The scribe of the ninth century, on the 
other hand, was forced to make words out of the undivided 
text of his original, and, with only a superficial understanding 
of the sense of what he was copying, it is not surprising that 
he often divided wrongly. The errors thus made are not in 
themselves difficult to emend, but, simple though they were, 
they frequently became magnified into grave corruptions in the 
efforts of the scribes of a later age to restore sense to the pas- 
sages thus distorted. 

Of this important process of transcription no manuscript 
could be more thoroughly representative than the Reginensis 
762. The Puteanus^ 1 from which this copy was made, is a 
typical manuscript of the fifth century, in uncial script, with 
words undivided. The Reginensis itself is one of the very best 
examples of the work of the French monasteries at the begin- 
ning of the ninth century. 2 The centre of the new activity in 
the production of manuscripts, and of the reform in writing 
which began with the closing years of the eighth century and 
spread over a large part of Western Europe, was the monastery 

1 For a full description see Introd. to the text edition of A. Luchs. 

2 A fuller description of the manuscript is given in chap. II. 



8 F. W. SHIPLEY 

of St. Martin at Tours. Its abbot Alcuin, who was Charle- 
magne's minister of education, was the pioneer of the new 
movement. It was in this monastery that the Reginensis was 
produced, a few years after Alcuin's death. It is written in 
the reformed script known as the Caroline minuscule. This 
manuscript is not the work of a single scribe. Eight monks 
were simultaneously engaged upon it, who, to judge from their 
orthography, were of more than one nationality. It conse- 
quently represents the concentrated efforts of the scriptorium 
of St. Martin's at the time when this monastery was the centre 
of the ninth century revival, which was then at its height. 

In the present article I have endeavoured to illustrate the 
tendencies to corruption which characterize the transcription 
from manuscripts in majuscule writing into Caroline minus- 
cule with divided words, by means of actual examples of scribal 
errors drawn from a comparison of the readings of the Putea- 
nus with those of its copy the Reginensis. Since collating the 
manuscripts in 1896 I have made use of the material collected, 
in giving courses in Latin palaeography. The results encour- 
age me to believe that the collection may prove helpful to other 
students and give a clearer idea of the errors common to this 
important period than they now get from the illustrations in 
the manuals, which are drawn from miscellaneous sources. 
The starting-point of the error is in every case certain, being 
simply the reading of the Puteanus. The cause of each error 
is therefore in the majority of cases beyond dispute. As I 
have already said, the Reginensis is the work of eight scribes, 
seven of whom have each copied a quota amounting to consid- 
erably more than a book of Livy's text. Among them more 
than one nationality is probably represented. For this reason 
the errors here given represent the tendencies of the period 
much more fairly than if they had been drawn from the work 
of a single scribe. 

For convenience of reference, the examples in the following 
chapters are arranged in categories, with a minimum of com- 
mentary on each variety of error. The reading of the Puteanus 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 9 

is usually given first, followed by the erroneous reading in the 
Regmensis. Henceforth the Puteanus will be represented by 
the letter P, and the Regmensis by the letter R. 1 

To illustrate several stages in the progress of an error I 
have occasionally made use of the corrections found in both 
manuscripts. Corrections in P are designated as follows : P 1 , 
if the correction is by the scribe, P 2 , if by the first corrector, 
P 3 , if by the second corrector. 2 Correctors in R are much 
more difficult to discriminate, owing to the variety of inks 
and hands (see chaps. II and XI). For our present purpose it 
will suffice to designate the corrections made by the scribe as 
R 1 , and all later corrections as R 2 . For the purpose of tracing 
a stage further the corrections begun in the Reginensis, I have 
added in a limited number of cases the readings of Codex Medi- 
ceus (Florence, Laurentian Library, LXIII, 20), which is in 
turn a copy 3 of R. This manuscript will be indicated by the 
letter M. In all the examples in which I have given several 
steps in the progress of an error I have tried to keep each stage 
distinct. 

The following exposition is intended, in a general way, to 
cover all the points of consequence afforded by the study of 
the two manuscripts. Accordingly, while this paper contains 
certain new facts and points of view, it of course has also 
to deal with many that are already familiar with the special 
advantage, however, as already shown, that the two points 
of comparison in each case are actual examples drawn from 
two extant manuscripts, of which one is the direct copy of the 
other. 

1 This letter is used by A. Luchs to denote another manuscript of this decade 
of Livy, in the Spirensian group. No confusion, however, can result, inasmuch 
as in the present article we are concerned with but three manuscripts, all of 
which belong to the Puteanus group. 

2 All the corrections in P designated by Luchs as P 4 , P 5 , were made after R 
had been copied. 

3 Although M is in the main a copy of R, its readings seem to indicate, 
especially in the early portion of the manuscript, that the scribe who copied it 
had also before him either P or some copy of it other than R. This is a matter 
which I hope to deal with in another paper. 



10 F. W. SHIPLEY 

I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness to Professor Wm. 
Gardner Hale, who suggested this piece of work to me while 
director of the American School of Classical Studies in Rome 
(1895-96), and to state, at his request, that his attention was 
called to the availability of these two manuscripts for the pres- 
ent purpose by Professor W. M. Lindsay, now of the Univer- 
sity of St. Andrews. To Professor Hale, and to Professor 
Frank Frost Abbott of the University of Chicago, I am also 
deeply grateful for many valuable criticisms. 

II. THE CODEX REGINENSIS 762 

I have already given in the preceding chapter a general 
account of R, but my description of it was there confined 
merely to such points as directly concerned the purpose of 
the present article. Before proceeding to deal with the errors 
of its scribes, I shall first give a more detailed account of this 
manuscript and its making, concerning which a great many 
more data are known than is usual in the case of manuscripts 
of so early a date. 

Being a copy of an existing original, and more mutilated l 
than the original both at the beginning and at the end, it is of 
no value for the constitution of the text of the third decade 
of Livy, though the readings of M, its eleventh century copy, 
are to be found in the apparatus of the critical editions for the 
beginning of Book XXI, which is missing in P. But from a 
purely palaeographical standpoint it is much more interesting 
than either the Puteanus (P), or its own copy, the Mediceus (M), 
and has been the subject of various articles by palaeographical 
scholars, among whom are Wolfflin, 2 Chatelain, 3 and Traube. 4 
Its interest lies not merely in the fact that it is one of the best 

1 It begins with the words velut caeci evadunt (XXII, 6, 5), and ends with 
deinceps continua amplexus (XXX, 5, 7). 

2 Philologus, XXXIII, 1874, pp. 186-189. 

3 Revue de Philologie, vol. XIV, 1890, p. 79 ; Paleographie des Classiques 
Latins, 9 e livraison, 1895, with facsimile. 

4 L. Traube, Sitzungsberichte der Munchener Akademie, 1891, Heft 3, p. 425. 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 11 

examples of the developed calligraphy of Tours, but also in the 
interesting data furnished by the signatures at the end of the 
various quaternions, which throw no little light upon the method 
of procedure in manuscript-making in the Middle Ages. 

These signatures occur regularly at the end of each quater- 
nion, as follows : Gyslai^, fol. 6 ; Aldo, fol. 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 
52 ; Fredeg, fol. 60, 68, 76, 84, 92, 97 ; Nauto, fol. 103, 111 ; 
Theogrm or Theogrimh, fol. 119, 127, 135, 141; Theodegii, 
fol. 157, 165, 173, 179, 185 ; Ansoalo!, fol. 193, 201, 209, 217, 
228 ; Landemarus, fol. 236, 242, 250 ; each folio being signed 
upon the verso side. The manuscript was therefore the work 
of eight different scribes, each of whom, to judge from the 
amount done by those whose work is preserved to us in its 
entirety, copied about forty-four folios of the text, with the ex- 
ception of Nauto 1 and Theogrimh, who together copied that 
number. Chatelain noticed 2 that the end of the work of Gys- 
larius corresponded, even to a syllable, with the end of qua- 
ternion IX of P ; that of Aldo, with the end of quaternion 
XVIII ; that of Fredeg, with quaternion XXVII ; that of Nauto 
and Theogrimh together, with quaternion XXXVI ; that of 
Theodegri, with quaternion XLV ; that of Ansoaldus, with 
quaternion LIV ; and that the writing of the last page of the 
work of each scribe was spread out or condensed so as to co- 
incide with the end of the quaternion of P. He concluded, 
therefore, that the old fifth century uncial manuscript had been 
taken apart, and equal portions, of nine quaternions each, had 
been given out to the scribes to be copied simultaneously. It 
has further been pointed out by Traube (Sitzungsbericlite der 
Muncliener Akademie, 1891, Heft 3, p. 425), that the names of 
these scribes are to be found in the Libri Oonfraternitatum 
Sancti G-alli 3 in the list of the monks of Tours, and that they 
all occur in a definite place upon the list, namely, in the second 

1 The work of Nauto stops abruptly about two-thirds of the way down a 
page (fol. 112 recto), and his part was completed by the scribe whose signature 
was Theogrimh. 

2 Revue de Philologie, vol. XIV. 3 Ed. Piper, Mon. Germaniae. 



12 F. W. SHIPLEY 

of the seven columns devoted to the monks of St. Martin's <> 
Tours. From this he infers that in the monastery of St. Mai- 
tin there was a definite class of monks who performed thr dntj 
of scribes, and were regularly engaged as such in the srrij>i<> 
rium of the monastery. The names corresponding to the signa 
tu res are as follows : 

Signatures in B List in Col. 14, Lib. Confr. 8. Galli 

Gyjslaix Gislarius (no. 8) 

Aldo Aldo (no. 10) 

Fredeg Fredegaudus (no. JJ7) 

Nauto Nauto (no. 30) 

Theogrimn Teutcrhnus (no. 20) 

Ansoaldus Anaoaldus (no. 4) 

Landemarus Landemarua (no. 24) 

It will bo soon that one name is missing, namely, the one cor 
responding to the signature TheodegrI, but it is just possible 
that TheogriifTn and TheodegrI were one and the same person 
Nauto did not finish his full quota of nine quaternions, bu 
stopped abruptly two-thirds of the way down fol. 112 recto 
after having completed a little over two quaternions. It is pos 
sible that TheodegrI, after finishing his own portion, completed 
that of Nauto, using a different- abbreviation in his signature 
Tin; abbot at the head of the list of monks of St. Martin's 
in the Lilri Confraternitatnm is Fridegisus, 1 the successor o; 



1 Chatelain, in his Pal&ographie dcs Clfuwiqup.* Latins (O p livraison), give 
one the impression that the scribe whose signature was Fredeg, and Fridegisui 
(lie abbot, were one and the same person. In the hope that this might prove t< 
be the case, and that I should find in the copy of the third of the scribes th< 
work of a great Carolingian scholar, I studied that part of the manuscript will 
particular care. There was nothing, however, in the work of the scribe Fredeg 
to distinguish it from that of the other scribes. It contained even more thar 
the average number of careless or ignorant blunders, and this portion of the cop] 
could hardly have been made by a man who had a reputation for learning. Othej 
considerations also add to the probability that the abbot was not the copyist 
It is hardly likely that the chancellor of Louis le Pe"bonnaire could find time i< 
copy manuscripts with the monks in the scriptorium ; and, even if that wen 
probable, he would have chosen the first part of the work in preference i> tin 
third. I agree, therefore, with Traube in identifying the scribe whose siunatun 
is Fredeg with Fredegaudus, whose name is number 37 in column 14 >l tin 
Libri Confraternitatnm. 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IX LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 13 

Alcuin, who held the abbacy from 804-834. Traube is conse- 
quently justified in placing the date of R between those years. 
The fact that all these scribes were monks of Tours makes it 
certain that the work of transcribing was done at Tours ; for it 
is not likely that so many monks would be sent to Corbie to 
copy the Puteanus, which at this time belonged to the monas- 
tery of that town. It is much more probable that the uncial 
manuscript was borrowed 1 for copying, and this supposition 
would account for the haste shown in putting so many scribes 
to work upon making the copy, the concentration, apparently, 
of the energies of the entire scriptorium upon this one task. 

In R we have, therefore, an example of the developed cal- 
ligraphy of Tours, produced within thirty years of the death of 
Alcuin. This monastery was, under his abbacy (from 796 to 
804, the year of his death), the centre of the new activity in the 
production of manuscripts and of the reform in writing which 
spread over almost the whole of western Europe. 2 The manu- 
script should therefore be thoroughly characteristic of the new 
movement, not merely in the style of the writing, but also in 
respect to the fitness of the ninth century monks for the task 
of copying the texts of the old Latin writers. In the hand- 
writing of these eight scribes there is little variation. It is 
almost impossible in the case of several of them to distinguish 
at first sight the hand of one from that of another, which goes 
to show that, in this one scriptorium at least, the Caroline 
minuscule had been brought as nearly as possible to uniform- 
ity. On the other hand, it would seem that greater attention 
was given to uniformity in handwriting than in other features 
of the work of the copyist. In these there is considerable dis- 
parity. For instance, the signature of Theogriii is attached to 
the quaternion which ends with fol. 119vo; but by means of 
the character of the errors, aside from the writing, one can see 

1 Chatelain suggested this probability before Traube discovered that the scribes 
of the Reginensis were to be identified with the monks of the monastery of St. 
Martin at Tours. 

2 Exceptions to this statement are England and Ireland and the monasteries 
of southern Italy. 



14 F. W. SHIPLEY 

that the whole quaternion, and nearly a folio in addition, 
not the work of the monk whose name is signed to it, but thj 
of Nauto. The three quaternions copied by this scribe ai 
relatively free from errors, while the quaternions signed wit 
the names of Theogiin, Theodegri, Ansoaldus, and Landemari 
are full of absurd blunders. These last-mentioned scribes a] 
each prone to errors which are peculiar to themselves, a fa< 
which, together with variations in orthography which are coi 
stant with certain scribes, would seem to indicate that moi 
than one nationality was represented. The majority of tl 
errors found in the manuscript are, however, common to al 
They are due, for the most part, to carelessness, to a defei 
tive knowledge of Latin that was not sufficient to enable tl 
scribe to understand, except in a more or less random way, tl 
meaning of the text he was copying, and to difficulties arisin 
from lack of familiarity with the continuously written uncii 
script. Their work shows almost no intentional alteratioi 
and the emendations are of the most superficial nature ; indee< 
the majority of the scribes did not sufficiently understan 
the meaning of the text to have been equal to any deliberal 
emendation of consequence. The errors, though numerou 
are in themselves unimportant, but in the hands of scribe 
of a later age they would undoubtedly have become magnifie 
into serious corruptions. 

Each quaternion of the Reginensis was corrected, as soon 
it was completed, by some person or persons who supervise 
the work of the scriptorium. This is shown by the sim 
larity between the ink of the correctors and that used by tl; 
scribes, and the non-recurrence, in the second quaternion ( 
each scribe's work, of errors which were common in the firs' 
These corrections, which will be treated in a subsequent chaj 
ter, are usually of a superficial nature and, in point of scholai 
ship, are not much above the level of those made by the scribe 
themselves. 

It was my first intention to give, along with each scribf 
error contained in the following chapters, the initial of th 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 15 

name of the scribe by whom the error was made. The inser- 
tion of so many initials, however, seems likely to cause 
unnecessary confusion. I have therefore indicated in the 
accompanying table the exact portion of Livy's text copied 
by each scribe. In the case of each error the number of 
book, chapter, and section is given, and by referring to this 
table it will be possible to see at a glance the name of the 
scribe by whom a given error was made. 

INDEX OF PORTIONS COPIED BY THE VARIOUS SCRIBES 

XXIT, 6, 5 uelut caeci evadunt to XXII, 21, 2 sed praeterquam quod copied 
by Gislarius. 

XXII, 21, 2 ipsorum Hispanorum to XXIII, 35, 1 cum post Can-[nensem~\ 
copied by Aldo. 

XXIII, 35, 1 \_Can~]-nensem pugnam to XXV, 9, 10 alia portam Tem-[enitida] 
copied by Fredeg. 

XXV, 9, 10 \_Tem~\-enitida adiret to XXV, 39, 14 cum Hasdrubale copied by 
Nauto. 

XXV, 39, 14 dece (= decem) millia to XXVI, 28, 4 Galliae et le-[cjionibus] 
copied by Theogrm. 

XXVI, 28, 4 [le~]-gionibm praeesset to XXVII, 38, 6 cum omnes cense-\_rent~\ 
copied by Theodegri. 

XXVII, 38, 6 [cense~\-rent primo to XXVIII, 35, 7 quod pleni-\ui\ copied by 
Ansoaldus. 

XXVIII, 35, 7 \_pleni~\-us nitidiusque to XXX, 5, 7 deinceps continue, am- 
plexus copied by Landemarus. 

III. MISTAKEN WORD-DIVISIONS 

The comparative freedom of Capital and Uncial manuscripts 
from serious corruptions is due in large measure to the fact that 
the words of the text were usually l not divided. The letters 
of the text were written one after the other, with no inter- 
ruption except an occasional break to indicate the paragraph ; 
consequently it was never absolutely necessary for the scribe in 
making his copy to follow the sense of what he was copying. 
He might evade all difficulties arising from his own ignorance 

1 In the poem on the battle of Actium, found at Herculaneum, and in some 
early Virgil manuscripts, the words, though not spaced, are divided by points. 
This however was exceptional. 



16 F. W. SHIPLEY 

or from corruptions in his original, by simply writing the 
letters one by one without puzzling over the words they 
formed. He might indeed, as he copied, make wrong mental 
divisions of the words; but, if he did not in forming such 
wrong mental divisions also add, omit, or change a letter, his 
error could not in any way affect the text of his copy. 

With the closing years of the eighth century, however, as a 
result of the Caroline reform, it became the regular practice to 
write each word separately. The Carolingian scribe, when set 
to make a copy of a continuously written majuscule manuscript, 
was forced to write his copy not letter by letter, but word by 
word. To do this rightly demanded a knowledge of the con- 
text, and the ability to read and understand Latin, in which, 
as examples will clearly show, the eight scribes of R were any- 
thing but proficient. Their work is consequently full of wrong 
divisions of words, both where the sense of the passage was 
perfectly plain, and where corruptions in the original made the 
division really difficult. When in doubt, the scribes occasion- 
ally left the words undivided ; but, as a rule, they resorted 
more or less blindly to some random grouping of the letters. 

Errors of this nature form by far the largest class of the 
mistakes made by the scribes of R, and many of the illustra- 
tions given under other headings can be indirectly traced to 
this source. These errors due to wrong division of words are in 
themselves comparatively insignificant, and, were the Puteanus 
lost, the emendation of this class of corruptions in the Reginensis 
would present little or no difficulty to a modern scholar. But 
the serious aspect of such errors is that they form the starting- 
point of further and more formidable corruptions in eleventh, 
twelfth, and thirteenth century copies of ninth century manu- 
scripts. The scribes of a later age had education enough to 
recognize that there were errors, but not sufficient knowledge 
or care to rectify them ; and, in the superficial attempts which 
they made at restoring sense to the passages, all clues by which 
they might be emended by more careful scholars were fre- 
quently lost. 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 17 

Before proceeding to take up in detail the various kinds of 
error arising from this source, I shall first give a few examples, 
chosen at random, of some of the more absurd word-divisions, 
in which the efforts of the scribes have resulted in nonsense, or 
in combinations of letters which do not form Latin words. 1 

XXV, 11, 3 uallo urbem ab arce intersaepire statuit P, inter 
saepi restatuit R. XXV, 11, 14-15 censebant esse. Puni- 
cas enim . . . P, censebantes sepunicas enim R. XXV, 11, 
17 haut magna mole P, haut magnam ole R. XXV, 18, 
11 pertulere (perpulere Luchs) turmales P, per tuleretur males 
R. XXV, 40, 2 uertit. Visebantur enim . . . P, uertitui se- 
bantur enim R. XXV, 40, 6 ita peruagatus est hostium agros 
ita socios ad retinendos P, agrositas ocios R. XXVIII, 25, 
7 talia quaerentes (querentes Lucks') aequa orare seque ea . . . 
P, talia quaerentisae quaorares eque ea R. XXVIIII, 4, 2 fru- 
mentum conuehere tela arma parare P, conueheret ela R. 
XXVIIII, 5, 1 mandata masinissae scipioni exponit P, manda- 
tam asinis sae R. XXVIIII, 8, 9 qui cum magno piaculo sa- 
crilegii . . . P, magnopia culosacri legii R. 

The first four of these examples have been selected from the 
portion copied by the scribe Nauto. He was the most careful 
of all the scribes in the matter of dividing words. In his 
three quaternions there are many more word-divisions quite as 
absurd as the four just given, and in the work of the other 
scribes they occur several times to the page. All of these ex- 
amples are taken from a context in which the sense is perfectly 
clear. The scribes appear not to have grasped it and seem to 
have divided the letters at random. 

Many of the errors of this class admit of no explanation ex- 
cept that of stupidity on the part of the scribe, but the greater 
number may be grouped into certain broad classes according to 
the conditions under which the errors occur. 



1 In giving the readings of P, I shall divide the words as they are divided in 
the printed texts. The reader will, however, understand that they are undivided 
in the manuscript. Where much of the context is given I have put in italics 
the part which is wrongly divided in R. 



18 F. W. SHIPLEY* 

The easiest and simplest form of error in the division of 
words is to be found in the case of groups of letters which 
admit of being divided in two different ways, both of which 
give actual Latin words, e.g. 3JXVIII, 36, 8 ad muros tumultu 
maiore quam ui subierunt P. Here the scribe Landemarus has 
written quam uis ubi erunt. He was satisfied with having made 
four Latin words and did not stop to think of the sense of the 
passage. 

Other examples are : XXII, 25, 14 si penes se summa impe- 
ril consiliique sit P, consilii quesit R. Quesit is no doubt 
meant for quaesit. XXIII, 35, 8 cogere tueri P, cogeret 
ueri R. XXIII, 46, 12 cogn online Taurea P, cognominet 
aurea R. XXIIII, 15, 4 fortissimus quisque pugnator esse de- 
sierat P. R has for the last three words pugnator es sedesi- 
erat ; this gave trouble to the scribe who copied M, and in 
that manuscript fortissimus is made to agree with pugnatores. 
Thus M has fortissimos quisque pugnatores sedesierat. XXV, 
40, 12 degenerem Afruni P, degenere niafrum R. XXV, 41, 1 
arma prope|re capere P, arma prope recapere R. XXV, 41, 2 
effusis equis P, effusi se quis R. XXVI, 27, 14 se minime 
censere P, semini me censere R. XXVI, 40, 3 Cartliaginien- 
sium P, Carthagini ensium R. XXVI, 51, 13 at ubi adpropin- 
quare tres duces P, adpropinquaret res R. XXVIII, 25, 9 in 
praeseiitia ut coepisset P, in praesenti aut coepisset R. 
XXVIII, 33, 6 quam quantam edere leuia . . . P, quam quanta 
medere leuia R. XXVIII, 33, 16 ad partem pugnae capes- 
sendae (capessendam Lucks) steterat P, capessenda est et 
erat R. 

Frequently the scribe's uncertainty in the division of words 
is caused by the possibility that a given letter may be either 
the final letter of one word or the initial letter of the next, e.g. 
in the above list cogeret ueri for cogere tueri. 

This is the case particularly with the letter s. It will be 
possible to give only a few examples in comparison with the 
large numbers to be found of this species of error. XXII, 43, 2 
apud milites . . . mixtos ex conluuionem (= conluuione) P, 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 19 

mixtos sex R. XXIIII, 15, 6 eques etiam in hostes emissus P, 
in hoste semissus R. Here the division is partly due to m, 
which the scribe supposed should take the ablative. XXIIII, 
16, 12 ne discrimen omne uirtutis ignauiaeque pereat P, uirtuti 
signauiaeque R. XXV, 12, 3 praetori sullae P, praetoris ullae 
R. XXV, 15, 11 in aciem capias educit P, copia se ducit R. 
XXV, 40, 2 hostium quidem ilia spolia P, illas polia R. -XXV, 
40, 5 omiiis belli artes edoctus P, arte se doctus R. XXVI, 
27, 13 uestigia sceleris P, uestigias celeris R. XXVI, 29, 2 in 
consulum conspectu stantis P, conspectus tantis R. XXVI, 
34, 13 iamq. (= Q.) fuluii saeuitiam P, iamque fuluiis aeuitiam 
R. XXVI, 36, 11 in publicis tabulis esse P 2 (P 1 has tabulis 
tabulis), in publici stabulis esse R. XXVI, 39, 13 pedestres 
acies urgebant P, pedestres acie surgebant R. XXVIIII, 5, 4 
mitti sibi ab domo praesidia P, mittis ibi R. 

False word-divisions are also very common in cases where a 
word ending with a is followed by a word beginning with e. 
The scribes were prone to regard the final a and the initial e 
as a diphthong, and to place the ae at the end of the first of the 
two words, thus changing a nominative into a genitive or 
dative case, or into a nominative plural, or adding the ending 
to words which did not admit of it. Examples of this class of 
error are : 

XXII, 33, 9 comitia edicturum P, comitiae dicturum R. 
XXII, 37, 9 cui prouincia sicilia euenisset P, siciliae uenisset 
R. XXIIII, 4, 5 in qua e|doctus (eductus Lucks) P, in quae 
doctus R. The mistake was aided by the fact that in P the 
line ended with e. XXV, 40, 13 pugnae fortuna euenisset P, 
pugnae fortunae uenisset R. This was also the reading of M, 
but an ignorant corrector emended to pugnae fortuna uenisset. 

-XXV, 41, 13 lentulo Sardinia e|uenit P; here e ends the 
line, causing the scribe of R to divide wrongly lentulo sardiniae 
uenit. XXVI, 26, 6 crimina edita ficta P, criminae dita ficta R. 

XXVI, 33, 9 quorum culpa eminebat P, quorum culpae mine- 
bat R, which is emended by a corrector in M to quorum culpa 
minebat. XXVI, 44, 4 submissa e castris P, submissaQ castris 



20 F. W. SHIPLEY 

R. XXVIIII, 2, 5 qua equitatum P, quae quitatum R. 
XXVIIII, 2, 11 procella equestri P, procellae questri R. 
XXVIIII, 16, 3 grata ea patribus admonitio P, gratae a patri- 
bus admonitio R. 

Naturally the tendency would be to place the diphthong at 
the end of the first word, inasmuch as there it forms an ending. 
Examples in which the ae is placed at the beginning of the 
second word are very few, e.g. : XXVIIII, 1, 10 quia edictum 
imperatoris erat P, qui aedictum peratoris erat R. There ae is 
regarded as the equivalent of e. 

Sometimes a final ae is broken up so that the e is attached to 
the following word, e.g. : XXII, 26, 1 ad spem liberalioris for- 
tunae iecit (fecit Lucks) P, fortuna eiecit R. XXVI, 34, 11 
capuae iusserunt P, capua eius erunt R. 

Errors of a somewhat similar nature arise from the phonetic 
equivalence of ae and e in the middle ages, e being written 
instead of the final diphthong. Examples are : XXIII, 49, 12 
prouiiicia ut quae maxime P, prouinci aut quern axime R. 
XXVIIII, 10, 8 quae ratio transportaiidae P, queratio trans- 
portandae R. XXVI, 36, 12 scribae referundo P, scribere 
ferundo R, an error which has been copied into M. 

A fruitful cause of errors of all kinds 1 is the occurrence of 
proper names or other strange words with which the scribes 
were not familiar. Its influence is often felt in the division 
of words. E.g. : XXIIII, 1, 12 a Claudio 2 praetore P, ac lau- 
dio praetore R. XXIIII, 17, 8 omissa spe Nolae potiundae 
P, omissas penolae R. XXV, 40, 6 et Hannone Numidae P, 
et hanno nenumidae R. The scribe of M wrote first et 
hanno numide. XXVI, 28, 1 Aetoli Acarnanes Locrique 
P, aetolia carnanes locrique R. XXVI, 41, 11 ... sensi. 
Trebia . . . P, sensit rebia R. XXVI, 41, 13 uadenti Has- 
drubali ad Alpis R, uadenti hasdrubalia dalpis R. XXVIIII, 



1 See chap. XI, on Emendation. 

2 For the reader's convenience I have inserted capitals in the proper names in 
giving the readings of P. There is, of course, no distinction in the manuscript 
itself. 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 21 

12, 14 ab Romanis Ilienses P, ad romani silienses R. 
XXVIIII, 24, 12 ad Cannas ignauiae eorum P, ad canna sig- 
nauiae R. An excellent example of the trouble which the 
scribes had with Latin proper names is the prophecy of 
Marcius, XXV, 12, 5. Here P has Amnern Troiugenam 
Ro|manae fugae (= Romane fuge) Cannam|ne te alienigenae 
co|gant in campo Diome|dis conserere manus. This is writ- 
ten in R as follows : amnemtro iugenam romanae fugae cannam 
ne te alienigenae cogant in campodio me dis conserere manus. 

In the foregoing examples the scribes have merely divided 
the letters in such a way as to form words not intended by the 
author. The error does not always stop here, however, and a 
second error is often a consequence of the first. The scribe, 
having begun with a wrong word-division, finds after he has 
written one or more words that he has a residuum of letters 
which do not make a word. He is compelled, therefore, by a 
conscious or unconscious alteration of the text to form a word 
out of what is left of the group of letters. This is usually 
done in some such simple way as the changing of a single letter 
or the addition of a letter necessary to the formation of a word. 
These additions or alterations are made for the most part quite 
unconsciously. The unbroken array of letters which are not 
grouped in any way is responsible for the illusion of the scribe. 
Enough letters are left to suggest a word to his mind, and he 
does not notice that he has mentally changed a letter or added 
one which was not there. 1 Sometimes individual habits of spell- 
ing and pronunciation are also factors in causing the addi- 
tional error. In the lists of examples I shall also include a few 
cases in which the scribe has merely divided the words wrongly, 
and the alterations have been made consciously by the cor- 
rectors or by the scribes on second reading. 

(1) Examples of the change of a letter : XXVI, 40, 1 consul 

1 These errors which result from mental word-division are not confined to 
manuscripts of the ninth century and later. They are also frequent in the con- 
tinuously written manuscripts of the fourth and fifth centuries. See Heraeus, 
Quaestiones Criticae et Palaeographicae de Vetustissimis Codicibus Livianis, 
1, ' Incrementa orationis ex verborum prava distinctione nata.' 



22 F. W. SHIPLEY 

iam inagna parte anni circumacta P, consiliam magna per te 
R. XXVIII, 28, 6 in sicilia messanam P, in siciliam esse 
nam R. XXII, 34, 10 dictator esset P, dictatores sed R.- 
XXVI, 40, 18 hos neque relinquere laevinus in insula turn 
primum noua pace coalescente velut materiam nouandis rebus 
satis tutum ratus est, (Lucli8)\ uelut materiam nouamdis reb. 
satis tutum P, uelut materiam nouam disrepsatis tutum R. Here 
the scribe, thinking that disreb. satis formed a single word, con- 
sciously or unconsciously made the phonetic change of b to p 
before s. XXVI, 48, 10 quod amoti tantae dignitatis . . . 
f uerant P, quodam oti tantae R ; a corrector has changed the 
unintelligible oti into uti, which makes a Latin word but does 
not help the sense in any way. XXV, 16, 14 ibi paucis uerbis 
transigi rem posse P ; tramigirem posse was first written by the 
scribe of R, who subsequently changed it to transigerem posse, 
and finally to transigere posse. XXVI, 39, 18 ... mox praedae 
fuere thurinis metapontinisque. Ex onerariis quae cum com- 
meatu sequebantur, perpaucae in potestatem hostium uenere, 
(Luchs) ; mox praede fuere thurinis metapontinisque. Ex hone- 
rariis que cum meatu seqiiabantur ... P. The scribe of R wrote 
. . . fueret hurinis . . . cum meatus equabantur . . . , and a cor- 
rector has changed fueret tofuerit. The passage was copied by 
the scribe of M, as follows : mox prede fuerit hurinis . . . quae 
commeatus equabantur. 

(2) Examples of the addition of a letter : XXV, 11, 16 pla- 
nae et satis latae uiae patent in omnis partes P, patenti nominis 
partes R. XXVI, 30, 10 orare se patres conscriptos, ut, si 
nequeant omnia, saltern quae comparent (compareant Luchs) 
cognoscique possint, restitui dominis iubeant P, sine que ante 
omnia R, e being added to make a word of the letters ant which 
were left over through the erroneous division of sine and que. 
XXVI, 34, 9 censuerunt ne quis . . . haberet P, censuerunt 
inequis R. XXII, 19, 10 in hanchoras (=anchoras) evehe- 
rentur P. The scribe in R has wrongly divided the passage 
and made of it in hanc hora se ueherentur ; a corrector, in order 
to make hora agree in case with hanc, has altered the passage 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 23 

to read in hanc horam se ueherentur. The insertion of more 
than one letter by a scribe is unusual, though not uncommon 
in the work of the correctors. An example of the insertion of 
a syllable on the part of a scribe is to be found in XXII, 21, 3. 
Here P has mandonius indebilisque ( = Indibilesque) ; the scribe 
of R having wrongly written mandonius inde found that the 
remaining letters bilisque did not make sense, and added a syl- 
lable to make nobilisque. The passage now reads in R mandonius 
inde nobilisque. 

Mistaken word-divisions are not by any means the only 
errors for which the lack of word-division in the Puteanus is 
responsible. A very large proportion of the examples of ditto- 
graphy and haplography, of the unconscious substitution of one 
word for another, of omissions of all kinds, of confusion of let- 
ters, and of other forms of corruption which appear in R, find 
their real starting-point in the bewilderment caused the scribe 
by the unbroken array of letters which confronted him in his 
original. It should therefore be kept in mind, in consider- 
ing the errors given in Chapters IV to IX, that this is in the 
majority of cases a secondary, if not a primary cause. 

IV. DITTOGRAPHY 

Dittography, the inadvertent repetition of a word, a syllable, 
or a letter, is a species of lapsus calami too common in our own 
writing to need further definition. It is a form of error to 
which the mediaeval scribe was perhaps a little more prone 
than we are for the reason that his task of copying manu- 
scripts was almost entirely mechanical. In the case of the 
scribes of R, who were copying a manuscript in which there was 
no division of words, the opportunities for errors of this nature 
were greatly increased. Their mistakes were often due as 
much to the erring of the eye as to that of the hand, and for 
that reason were more likely to lead to corruption. 

(1) Dittography of a Letter. --The largest number of ex- 
amples in R of the dittography of a letter are due directly or 



24 F. W. SHIPLEY 

indirectly to the confusion of the eye of the scribe caused by the 
continuously written text of the uncial manuscript. In glanc- 
ing back to the page of his model after having written a word 
or syllable, inasmuch as there was nothing in the line to indi- 
cate the place where he had taken his eye from the page, the 
scribe sometimes unconsciously allowed the last letter of the 
word just written to arrange itself with the next group of let- 
ters. The letter was thus written twice, once at the end of one 
word, and again at the beginning of the next. Such doubling 
of letters is sometimes a cause, and sometimes a result, of wrong 
word-division. 

Examples : XXIIII, 3, 9 arce satis . . . tuta P, arces satis 
. . . tuta R. XXIIII, 8, 20 lacus thrasumennus et cannae, 
tristia . . . exempla P, canna et tristia R. XXIIII, 14, 7 ser- 
uili supplicio P, seruilis supplitio R. XXIIII, 22, 15 quoniam 
eum P, quoniam meum R. XXIIII, 33, 3 iouis it (= id) tern- 
plum est P, iouis sit templum est R. XXVII, 43, 10 haec 
senatu scripta P, haec senatus scripta R. XXVIII, 35, 5 animo 
speciem P, animos speciem R. XXVIIII, 24, 9 item circum 
oram maritimam P, circum moram R. XXII, 19, 10 anchoralia 
(= ancoralia) P, ancora alia R. XXIII, 44, 7 animaduertit P, 
anima aduertit R. XXVIIII, 3, 1 tradenda deditionemque P, 
tradenda adeditionemque R. 

Sometimes the repetition of a letter is a mere accident of 
writing, the scribe unconsciously writing it a second time. 
These repetitions, which have nothing to do with the division 
of words and do not usually affect the sense of the passage, are 
comparatively unimportant and do not usually lead to corrup- 
tions. Examples are : XXVIIII, 3, 14 defectione P, defec- 
tio|one R. XXVIIII, 36, 10 etruriam P, ettruriam R. 
XXIIII, 18, 12 manu emiserat P, manuemisserat R. XXIIII, 
23, 2 eomitia . . . habita. creatus . . . andranodorus P, habita- 
acreatus R. 

(2) DittograpTiy of Syllables and of Words. The repetition 
of syllables or words is not nearly so common as the repetition 
of a letter. Examples of the dittography of a word are com- 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 25 

paratively few in R, and none would be likely to lead to fur- 
ther corruption unless the following : XXV, 41, 13 pisoni 
iurisdictio urbana pupio sicilia . . . evenit P. Here the scribe 
of R has written, pisoni iurisdictio urbana pupio urbana sicilia 
. . . evenit. XXIIII, 38, 7 aut uis aut fraus timeri possit P, 
aut ut uisa ut fraus R. An interesting repetition of a syllable 
is seen in XXVIIII, 3, 5 frumentum sex mensum imperatum 
sagaque et togae exercitui P, frumentum sex mensum imperatum 
sagatoique et togae exercitui R. 

[To be continued.] 

F. W. SHIPLEY. 



American Sctjooi 
of Classical 
at 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



THE inscriptions presented in the following list represent the 
finds of Greek inscriptions from the excavations at Corinth from 
the beginning of the excavations there by the American School of 
Classical Studies in 1896, until the close of the campaign of 1901. 

A fragment of an inscription in the old Corinthian alphabet, 
which was found in 1898, will be treated independently by 
Mr. S. O. Dickerman. The inscriptions, dating from Byzantine 
times and engraved on a marble pavement which was uncovered 
in 1901 (cf. Am. J. Arch. Suppl. to Vol. V, 1901, pp. 28 f.), 
have also been omitted. These last, together with the designs 
and devices accompanying them, should be treated as a unit in 
a separate paper. 

The arrangement of the inscriptions in the present paper is 
in their chronological order, so far as that can be determined. 
In the case of some small fragments collected prior to 1900, the 
exact locality where they were found and also the year of their 
discovery are unknown ; where these particulars are not given, 
ignorance of them may be taken for granted. 

The paucity, fragmentary character, and, for the most part, 
late date of the inscriptions found at Corinth still continue to 
be a source of surprise and disappointment. A total of some 
sixty Greek inscriptions, together with a much smaller number 
of Latin ones, as the result of six yearly excavating campaigns 
on such a site as Corinth, is not a rich reward, and, moreover, 
few of the following are of importance as regards the history 
or topography of the city. Concerning some of the fragments, 
comment or interpretation is unnecessary or impossible. 

American Journal of A rchaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 26 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VII (1903), No. 1. 



GEEEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 27 

The fact that all the inscriptions, excepting possibly the first 
nine, date from the rebuilding of the city by Julius Caesar in 
46 B.C., shows how complete was the destruction of the older 
town by Mummius one hundred years before. As a number of 
terra-cotta architectural fragments and other remains belonging 
to the ancient city have been unearthed in the lower levels of 
the excavations, it cannot be said that we have not dug deep 
enough for the older Greek inscriptions. The scattered marble 
fragments lying about after the destruction of the city would 
be the first food for the lime-kiln which was to furnish the 
building material for the new town, and, of these fragments, 
broken inscriptions are by far the most convenient to handle 
and transport. Undoubtedly the greater part of the stone 
documents of ancient Corinth are lost forever, and will never 
be unearthed. 

It is also a. great disappointment at times to find a large 
block on which an old inscription has been chiselled out, leaving 
the surface either bare, with but scant traces of letters here and 
there, or filled with another inscription of the later period, and, 
in our opinion, of less importance. 

The topography of the region about the " straight road " to 
Lechaeum, however, is now quite familiar. This must have 
been a busy thoroughfare in Roman times, and here, in the 
flanking colonnades, it was the fashion to dedicate statues to 
friends, relatives, and benefactors, as the discovery of bases in 
that region seems to indicate. 

It is hoped that the finds of future years will yield inscrip- 
tions of more historical value and in a better state of preser- 
vation than those of the past. But where a city has been 
continuously inhabited from the earliest times to the present 
day, as is the case at Corinth, inscriptions are among the things 
least likely to survive, so that the hope may be vain. 

1. A fragment of a small vase, found in 1901, along with 
many other pieces in a cutting a few paces east of the staircase 
which leads up to the east end of the terrace on which stood 



28 



BENJAMIN POWELL 




the temple of Apollo, i.e. the Old Temple. None of the othei 
fragments, however, belonged to the same vase as this one, 
The piece is 0.034 m. in height b} 
0.03 m. in width. The material is s 
fine, light-yellow clay; the color usec 
in the decoration is a chocolate brown 
The inscription is in the Old Corinthian 
epichoric alphabet, and is painted retro- 
grade. The letters are about 0.005 m, 
in height and form the word irdpevvos 
Not enough of the scene is left, fron 
which the whole might be reconstructed, and so we cannoi 
determine who this Trdpevvos is. 

The fragment shows a helmeted warrior who seems to b( 
lying 011 his back. His circular shield, which he holds uj 
beside him, is emblazoned with an eagle volant, while his speai 
projects into the field above the rim of the shield and divide! 
the inscription. At the right, we see the naked thigh and th< 
bent arm of another warrior who is striding to the right ; hi 
holds a spear in the uplifted hand. The shaft of this spea: 
follows the line of the break at the upper right side of th< 
fragment, and so passes up through the pattern which boundi 
the field. Another spear is seen at the left, crossing tha 
of the fallen warrior ; this is probably held in the hand o 
a third warrior coming from that direction. It may be sup 
posed that the whole scene represented the struggle ove: 
the dead body of a hero who had fallen in battle. 



2. A handle of a vase with black 
glaze, found in 1901 near the tri- 
glyphon which borders the u Old 
Fountain " on the south (cf . Am. J. 
Arch. Vol. VI, 1902, p. 318), at a 
depth of 1.50 m. below the top of 
the triglyphon. The handle is 0.035 m. in length and 0.018 m 
in width; the letters are about 0.01 m. in height, and an 




GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



29 



scratched through the black glaze. The dedication is to Eucles 

Eu/cXe. The fragment probably dates from the early part 

of the fifth century B.C. 

3. A block of white marble, found in 1899, at the eastern 
side of the fountain of Pirene (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1899, p. 685). 
The block is 0.92 m. in length, 0.44 m. in width, and 0.11 m. 



thick. The inscribed face (at the end of the block) is 0.81 m. 
in length ; the letters are 0.05 m. in height. 

The inscribed surface describes a gentle curve, and this, 
together with two square holes in the upper surface, tends 
toward the conclusion that the stone formed part of a base, 
erected, as the inscription shows, by a native of Cyzicus. The 
Doric form Kv&Kavd? is used. The forms of the letters would 
place the inscription in the first half of the fifth century B.C. 



4. A block of soft sand- 
stone, found in 1901, imme- 
diately in front of the west 
wall of the vaulted chamber 
which lies south of the tem- 
ple of Apollo. The stone 
was not far from the pres- 
ent surface of the earth, 
i.e. it was on a level with 
the top stone of the wall 
which closes this vaulted 
chamber in front, and was 
5.50 m. distant from it 
toward the south. It 
could not have been near 
its original position. 
Height, 0.73 m.; width, 





30 BENJAMIN POWELL 

0.53 m.; thickness, 0.355 m. Letters, 0.02 m. to 0.025 m. 
height. 

Above the inscription is a cutting in the stone, 0.385 m. 
length, 0.10 m. in width, and 0.05 m. in depth. Its purpo; 
is not clear, although the block probably formed a base f< 
a statue. The surface of the stone is badly battered ar 
the letters are indistinct: the stone itself is broken away i 
the bottom. The inscription is probably contemporary wil 
Lysippus (e. 325 B.C.). 

5. A base of dark-blue marble, found in 1901, on top of tl 
south front of the triglyphon bounding the " Old Fountain 
(cf. Am. J. Arch. Suppi. to Vol. V, 1901, p. 28 ; ibid. Vol. V 
1902, p. 316). Although found bottom side upward and s 
not in its original position, yet it fits a cutting near by an 
probably formed one of a series of bases for statues, whic 




were placed in the beddings cut on top of this triglyphon 
The stone is 0.30 m. in thickness, and its upper surfac 
was 0.705 m. square. This upper surface is battered at eac 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



31 



side and the face bearing the inscription is broken away, so 
that the last letters have disappeared. The accompanying 
photograph and diagram give the details of these two sur- 




faces. The two bosses, used in handling the block, remain 
at the sides. The inscription was the same as the pre- 
ceding, AVO-ITTTTOS eV [cfycre, and is probably contemporaneous 
with it, although the upper and lower strokes of the ^ in 
this inscription are not parallel, and the T is made with the 
upper strokes curved, while in the preceding the corresponding 
istrokes of the ^ are parallel and the Y is made with straight 
j lines. The letters are from 0.02 m. to 0.025 m. in height and 
I are only 0.06 m. from the bottom of the block. 

In the upper surface are still to be seen the reduced forms 
of the feet of the statue and the leaded fastenings which sup- 
ported them. Judged from the mode of fastening, the statue 
was certainly of bronze, and as the actual size of the feet would 



32 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



be somewhat larger than the slots under them, which are 0.18 
in length, the figure was about life size. The right foot \ 
but slightly in advance of the left, and was turned somew] 
more outwards. Since no other marks for fastenings appe 
as would be the case with a draped female figure, it is safe 
conclude that this statue by Lysippus was male, possibly mi 

6. A block of white marble, built into the outer wall of 
house of Panteles Pantazes at Old Corinth. It is broken 
all sides. Height, 0.39 m.; width, 0.12 m.; letters, 0.03 
in height. 




NetVfto? 



For the name Nemo?, cf. C.L G-. 3662. 

The stone was probably a grave stele, dating from the fou: 
century B.C. 

7. A block of soft sandstone, found in a grave near ( 
Corinth by a peasant. Height, 0.34 m. ; width, 0.23 m. ; thii 
ness, 0.12 m. Letters, 0.025 m. in height. The inscribed fi 
is covered with a light stucco, as are also the top and ri 
side. 

The feminine name, MemX/a'?, is not otherwise known, 1 
there seems to be no alternative ; the masculine forms Mevi 
/ca9, Mez>a\tf77<?, and MeraX/a'Sa? are common. The second na 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



33 



is also a feminine form, and, instead of being the name of the 
parent, it may refer to Phliasia, the district about the city of 
Phlius, which was some miles southwest from Corinth. 



jENAAKIAo 
!|JAr "IA2IIA 



8. A block of soft sandstone, uncovered in 1900. It is built 
into a basis or wall, which lies a short distance south of the 




rubble wall at the west end of the Propylaea. Height, 0.48 m. ; 
width, c. 0.72 m.; the thickness is uncertain, 0.42 in. appears. 
The stone is part of an architrave block of the Ionic or Corin- 



34 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



thian order, and shows the three bands cut in different plane 
The letters are 0.05 m. in height, and are cut on the two upj 
bands. The fragment is probably of the Corinthian order, i 
asmuch as a Corinthian pilaster capital of the same material 
built into the foundation next to it. The bands are preserv 
for a distance of 0.38 m. only, and the few letters are so wo 
as to be indecipherable. 

9. A small fragment of white marble, found in 1900, at 
considerable depth, among the foundation walls in the nort 
west corner of the Agora. The stone is broken on all sid 
except at the left, which is preserved intact to a height of or 




TOYA 



0.065 m. The fragment is clearly a part of a slab which v 
0.06 m. thick ; the length of the lines is uncertain, the great< 
width of the stone preserved being but 0.09 m. The remai 
of only four lines appear, with the bare suggestion of a fif 
which came immediately after the lower break. The lett< 
are 0.011 m. in height, and are clearly cut, with sharp, flari 
apices terminating the straight strokes. The oblique stroke 
the K does not reach the lower line, as is also the case wi 
the second vertical stroke of the P. The horizontal strokes 
the ^ are parallel. From these considerations we may safe 
assume that the inscription belongs to the second century B. 
and coming before the destruction of Corinth, would be plac 
in the first half of the century. 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 35 

Beginning with the second line, we see the letters Iff 1 , and 
the tirst stroke of another letter which can be only an A ; hence 
we are dealing with a hipparch. The only mention that we 
find of a hipparch at this time in the Achaean League, whose 
chief city was Corinth, is in Polybius, XXVIII, 6, where the 
historian gives an account of the deliberations of a council of 
chosen men of the League to choose sides in the war between 
Perseus and the Romans in 169 B.C. The course of modera- 
tion or a leaning toward Rome was thought best by all, 
although two of the members of the council, Apollonides of 
Sicyon, and Stratius of Tritaea, were hostile to Rome. The 
other four members were Arcesilaus and Ariston of Megalo- 
polis, Xenon of Patrae, and Polyaenus. It is then probable 
that we are dealing with the hipparchy of Polybius, for he 
was chosen hipparch of the Achaean league at this time, and 
Archon was made general. Basing my conjectures on Poly- 
bius's account, I infer that the inscription ran as follows : 

["ESofei' rfj TWV 'A.%aiwv {3ov\rj, TOV "Ap%a)va] 

[TT/OO? TTJV (TTpaTTjyiav evBeas TrpOTropevecrOac^ 

fca[l rbv HoXvftiov TOV Meya\07ro\iTrjv .... TT/JO? TTJV 

lTnr\_ap'%iav teal . . . TOV Selva <f)V\dp%ovTa TT)? Seure'-] 

/oa? (frv[\r)$ TavTrjs rr)? 7^0^1177? yuerecr^oW&JZ'] 

TOV *A/o/[cTTa)^o9 /cal TOV 'Aptce(n\dov M.<ya\07ro\LTcov, TOV 
[BeWzw? TlaTpea Kal TOV TloXvatvov .... 

The inscription was probably broken into small fragments and 
scattered, when Corinth was sacked by the Romans in 146 B.C. 

10. Stamped handles of amphoras ; the first four found in 
1901 west of the " Old Fountain," and the others found in 1900 
in the northwestern corner of the Agora. The last two are 
of yellow Rhodian clay; the others are of the red Cnidian 
variety. 

a. A circle 0.03 m. in diameter; in the centre a rose, and 
around the border the inscription. The letters are 0.0035 m. in 
height. Another stamp of this kind was found in 1900, and the 
name is also known from other localities (cf. Athen. Mitth. vol. 



36 



BENJAMIN POWELL 




XXI [1896], pp. 143 f., Pridik, 'Amphoren-Stempel aus Athe 

where the subject of these amphora handles is well treated). 

b. An oblong stamp : length, 0.033 m. ; width, 0.02 m. L 

ters, 0.0025 m. in height. The symbol is the beak of a trirei 



IA! 



'E7rl Apdtcov- 



Both names are found on amphora handles, but not in this co 
bination (cf. Athen. Mitth. vol. XXI [1896], pp. 127 ff., nos. 
99, 100, 101, 154, and 168, 171). 

c. An oblong stamp: length, 0.045 m. ; width, 0.015 
Letters, 0.004 m. in height. 



HIAAAYNTA 

KAEYTTOAtO.tf 

4'///r<V '/'""/' \ tf/fttt Vft 



t 'AfJivvra 



(Cf. Athen. Mitth. vol. XXI [1896], pp. 127 ff., nos. II, 13, a 
II, 192, 193, 219.) 

d. An oblong stamp, badly worn: length, 0.055 m. ; wid 
0.02 m. Letters, 0.005 m. in height. 



\ & \ 



GEEEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



37 



(Cf. Athen. ffitth. vol. XXI [1896], pp. 127 ff., nos. I, 1 ; II, 
2,3.) 

e. An oblong stamp: length, 0.045 m. ; width, 0.018 m. 
Letters, 0.004 m. in height. The symbol is a dagger or short 
sword. 



E 

AINEA 
KtsllAlfrtf 



'E[Vl 
A.lvea 



(Cf. Dumont, Insc. Ceram. G-rec, p. 145, no. 16 ; p. 162, no. 
124, and p. 186, nos. 270-271.) 

f. An oblong stamp: length, 0.055 m. ; width, 0.017 m. 
Letters, 0.004 m. in height. The symbol is a cross. 




(Cf. Athen. Mitth. I.e. p. 147, no. 68.) 

g. An oblong stamp, broken at the right end : length pre- 
served, 0.036 m. ; width, 0.019 m. Letters, 0.003 m. in height. 
The symbol is a dagger. 



* / 

A(JL)P|o>N J 
K N IA10N -^4/ 



KvtSiov. 



(Cf. Athen. Mitth. I.e. p. 161, nos. 168-169.) bapfav is, I 
believe, unique for these inscriptions. 



38 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



h. An oblong stamp, broken at the left end : length, 0.043 n 
width, 0.011 m. Letters, 0.004 m. in height. The sta] 
is very badly worn. 



rA?AflN j ..]'A/B 

LNU,fa.aN__J Kl "' M * 



/. An oblong stamp, broken at the left end : length, 0.05 n 
width, 0.02 m. Letters, 0.004 m. in height. The syml 
seems to be the fore part of a dog. 




(Cf. Athen. Mitth. I.e. p. 171, nos. 242-243.) 

/'. An oblong stamp: length, 0.047 m. ; width, 0.016 
Letters, 0.005 m. in height. 




(Cf. Athen. Mitth. I.e. p. 130, no. 6.) 

k. A circular stamp, 0.024 m. in diameter; in the centre 
rose, and around the border the inscription : 




GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



39 




11. Two fragments of 
blue limestone, found in 
1900: total length, 0.165 
m. ; width, 0.08 m. ; 
thickness (very irregu- 
lar), 0.11 m. Letters, 
0.025 m. in height. The 

stone is broken on all sides, excepting the upper edge. The 
straight strokes of the letters show pronounced, swallow-tailed 
apices. 

12. A fragment of white marble, found in 1900, near one of 
the Doric columns, which are in situ on a stylobate toward the 

southeast foot of the terrace of the 
Old Temple : height, 0.38 m.; width 
of left face, 0.07 m. ; width of right 
face, 0.045 m. The fragment appar- 
ently belonged to a block with three 
inscribed faces, the angles of which 
are also faced to a width of 0.057 m. 
The letters on the left face are 0.02 rn. 
in height ; those on the right face 
are but 0.015 m. The letters on the 
left face show the ends of names 
arranged in a column ; they are cut 
within carefully ruled lines. The 
letters on the right face show the 
beginnings of names in a correspond- 
ing series ; the third and fourth 
names have been erased with a chisel, 
but some of the strokes still appear. The third name may have 
been 'T-^f/cX?}? ; not enough remains of the others to conjecture 
their whole form. 

13. A fragment of white marble, found in 1901, in the first 
ruined chamber to the west of the vaulted chamber before men- 
tioned : height, 0.24 m. ; width, 0.27 m. ; thickness, 0.055 m. 




40 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



Letters, 0.04 m. in height. It is broken on all sides, excepting 
the left, where appears the end of an egg and dart ornament, 
and also a scale pattern adjoining. 




KOL 



to? 



It probably formed part of an honorary tablet giving the titles 
of some official. 

14. A block of hard blue limestone, found in 1901, on the 
level of the Byzantine pavement in front of the vaulted cham- 
ber before mentioned : total height, 0.245 m. ; width, 0.25 m. ; 
thickness, 0.11 m. The original smooth surface is preserved on 
the face, top, bottom, and left side ; the bottom is cut backward 
in a curve, both in front and at the side. The back was left 
rough. The stone was probably built into a wall as a sort of 
bracket, but as it is broken away at the right, we cannot deter- 
mine its extent. The inscribed face is 0.185 m. in height; 
the letters are about 0.02 m. in height. Only the beginnings 
of the four lines of the inscription are preserved : 



TITo 



APETA1E 
E1CTEA 




a/oera? eV[e/ca Trpo^eviav /cdl 

TroXireiav (?) 
t<? re av[rbv /ecu etcydvovs. 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



41 



The decree dates from Roman times, and grants honors to a 
certain Titus. 

15. A fragment of blue limestone, found in 1901 : height, 
0.135 m. ; width, 0.15 m. ; thickness, 0.23 m. Letters, 0.045 m. 




in height. The stone is broken on all sides but the right. 
Remains of two lines appear, the second of which shows the 
ending of a name in -05. 

16. A fragment of white marble, broken on all sides : height, 
0.12 m. ; width, 0.06 m. ; thickness, from 0.045 in. to 0.055 m. 




BL . 



The inscription is cut on a transverse band, and part of an orna- 
mental band appears above this. Letters, 0.015 m. in height. 



42 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



17. A large block of 
white marble, badly broken 
and worn: height, 0.72 m.; 
width, 0.48 m. ; thickness, 
0.17 m. Letters, 0.04 m. 
in height. The block was 
taken from the main exca- 
vating area and placed with 
many others near the Mu- 
seum ; the presence of let- 
ters was not noticed until 
afterwards. The inscribed 
surface is worn smooth, as if 
the stone had. at some time, 
been placed face upwards in 
a pavement. Only the ends 
of four lines remain. 



18. A fragment of friable, crystalline stone, found in 1901, 
in one of the buildings to the west of the road to Lechaeum : 




height, 0.18 m. ; width, 0.19 m. ; thickness, 0.08 m. Letters, 
0.035 m. in height. The stone is broken on all sides excepting 
the top. 

19. A fragment of blue limestone, found in 1901, near the 
vaulted chamber before mentioned: height, 0.10 m. ; width, 
0.105 m. ; thickness, 0.039 m. Letters, 0.075 m. in height. 
The fragment is broken on all sides. 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



43 





20. An irregular fragment of white mar- 
ble, found in 1900, on the dumping ground: 
height, 0.265 m. ; width, 0.12 m. Letters, 
0.055 m. in height. The remains of four 
lines appear. Two peculiar marks of abbre- 
viation are seen in the second line ; one is 
over the first letter, M, and the other sepa- 
rates the M from the folloAving A. It is 
possible that the mark over the M is an H, 
and indicates the abbreviation of the participial ending, 



21. A statue base of white marble, found in 1899, lying in 
front of the east apse of the court of the fountain of Pirene. 
The base measures 0.345 m. in height, 0.67 m. in width, and is 
0.665 m. deep. A moulding at the top and bottom runs around 
all sides. The right side has a relief representing a garland 
with musical instruments. The inscribed face of the stone 
measures 0.63 m. x 0.18 m., and the letters are 0.03 m. in 
height. The forms of 6, C, and UJ on this inscription are found 
on three other inscriptions dealing with Regilla, viz. C.I. A. 
Ill, 1333 a, C.I. a. 6184, and C.I. a. 6280, whereas C.I. A. Ill, 
1417, an inscription from Eleusis (cf. 'E0. 'Apx- 1885, p. 152) 
and an inscription from Olympia (cf. Arch. Zeit. 1878, p. 94, 
no. 149), which date from the same period, have E, ^, and ft, so 
that the style of writing seems to have varied during the same 
years. At the end of the first line UJN are joined together, and 
this is also the case with H N in No. 23. 



44 



BENJAMIN POWELL 









& 









trapa 
L ecropas el/cdva c 



Herodes Atticus married Appia Annia Regilla about 143 A.D., 
and she died about 161 A.D. Herodes died about 177-180 A.D., 
and this statue was probably erected in the interim between the 
deaths of wife and husband, or about 162 B.C. It was fitting 
that the Corinthian Senate should honor Regilla, for Herodes 
had been a benefactor of the city in building a roofed theatre 
(cf. Philostratus, Vit. Soph. II, 1, 5), had embellished the Isth- 
mian sanctuary (cf. Paus. II, 1, 7), and had also built an 
Odeum (cf. Paus. II, 3, 6), which may be the same structure 
as that mentioned by Philostratus. Gurlitt (Ueler Paus. p. 58 ; 
Frazer's Paus. Introd. pp. xvi and xvii) would place Pausanias's 
account of Corinth later than 165 A.D., but it may be an argu- 
ment for an earlier date for his second book that Pausanias 
makes no mention of this statue of Regilla, which was un- 
doubtedly erected before 165 A.D. and would be a fit subject 
for remark. After her death Regilla was also honored by 
the Odeum at Athens (cf. Philos. $.), by the Triopeium on 
the Appian Way near Rome (C.I.G-. 26), and by a statue set 
up in Eleusis (cf. 'Ec. 'A/o^. 1885, p. 152). 

The poetical use of Sto-t/^to? as applied to things Corinthian 
is matched by examples in Anthol VII, 745, and IX, 151, 
Paus. V, 2, 5, and Theoc. Id. XXII, 158. 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 
i 



45 



The elicdva aaxfipocrvvTis of this epigram is a parallel to TO 
rfjs ol/cta? of the bilingual inscription ((7.J. Gr. 6184), and 
the %eO/za Tnjywv "the gush of the springs" is the six- 
chambered fountain of Pirene, near which the base was found. 
(For the topographical value of this inscription, cf. R. B. Rich- 
ardson's paper on Pirene, Am. J. Arch. vol. IV [1900], p. 235, 
where a photograph of the stone is given.) 

22. A statue base of bluish marble, found in 1900, at the 
foot of the stairway leading to the Propylaea. The stone has 
a moulding at the top which extends across the front and around 
the two sides, the back being left rough because the statue 
was to be placed against a wall. The top measures 0.70 m. in 
width, and is 0.65 m. in depth ; the greatest preserved height 
from the break is 0.95 m. The width of the inscribed face is 
0.54 m. and the letters have an average height of 0.04 m., 
although their breadth arid spacing is governed by the number 
of letters to be put in a line. 



MMJACAOrXW.C 

oAMmYio 

MOfCMHC 




777777}?] 



46 BENJAMIN POWELL 

It is tempting to suppose that the use of the adjective Tlepi 
K\ijlov, as applied to alpa, refers not to any direct descent fron 
Pericles, but rather that a man who possessed .such " blood ' 
reflected the spirit of the Periclean age and belonged to a fam 
ily of artists. A Greek sculptor named Diogenes, who wa; 
also from Athens, is the only person found in literature win 
comes under this head. Pliny (Nat. Hist. XXXVI, 38) says tha 
a certain Diogenes of Athens made the sculptures for the Pan 
theon of Agrippa in Rome (c. 27 B.C.), and in the same pa/a 
graph mentions, among other artists, a certain Hermolaus. Wi 
may possibly identify the father and son of our inscription a; 
the two artists mentioned by Pliny. A possible identificatioi 
of a Diogenes, whose name is given on the plinth of a statui 
found at Nineveh, with the Attic artist has also been mad< 
(cf. A. S. Murray, in J.H.S. Ill, p. 240). The name Zeicovv 
Sem)?, conjectured in the seventh line of our inscription as tin 
name of the man who dedicated this statue " near to the Pire 
nian fount," seems plausible. The third letter of this line cai 
be nothing but A or A, and the following one only 6 or C a: 
regards form coming after either A or A, this last must b< 
the vowel. This, then, does away with the possibility of an 
other 6 following, so the second of these three similar mark 
ings must be C and the next after that, coming as it doei 
before a certain K, must be 6 again. After the K, parts of C 
and Y remain. It is seen that the first word must be ry&e, anc 
this leaves CGKOY, from which it remains only to supply th< 
Roman name 'ZeKovv&elvos to furnish a subject for o-rrjcre and t< 
complete the first part of the pentameter. This name is knowi 
to exist from two inscriptions, C.I.Gr. 3714 and 6524 and 
being Roman, would connect Diogenes with Roman affairs, ai 
is the case with the Diogenes of Pliny. 

In line 6 we have the adjective " Pirenian," and from th< 
provenience of the inscription, which was found not far fron 
the spring of Pirene, we may easily conjecture -^777779 from th< 
7T777&>i> of the preceding inscription. The word itself is jus' 
the proper length for the space at our disposal. 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 47 

The statue was probably set up in a colonnade at the side of 
the road leading from the Propylaea to Lechaeum, and so was 
near " Pirene's fount," to which Pausanias turned off just after 
leaving the Propylaea. 

23. A statue-base of bluish marble, found in 1900, at the foot 
of the stairway leading to the Propylaea. The block has a 
moulding at the top and bottom, extending across the front and 
around the two sides, while the back is hewn off as in no. 22. 
The stone is 1.34 m. in height, 0.73 m. wide at the base, and 
0.70 m. deep. The inscribed face is 0.855 m. high, and 0.52 m. 
wide; but the six lines reach only 0.33 m. from the top of this 
face. The letters are 0.03 m. in height, and are very unevenly 
and carelessly cut, sometimes decreasing decidedly in size toward 
the ends of the lines in order to obtain space for the whole line 
of the verse, as may be seen at the end of line 5. 

E]t9 TVTTOV elfiepdevra 'Wvvopos avOvjrdroio 

^]/07racre Tt9 fjLOpfyrjv, T[^]8' eve<y 
M.op(f)r)V Xttoro/AO? never} ' /JLei/JLijaaro 

'EX 
cr^rrjcre 



t /cao-iyvrJTOV ev SieTrcov ']L(f)vpr)V. 



The name of Ithynor from I6vva> is unique, but that of 
Eutychianus is found in inscriptions. None of the cases found, 
however, can be identified with this Eutychianus, who ruled 
Corinth as proconsul after the death of his brother. Probably 
these two men were proconsuls of Achaea sometime after Ves- 
pasian's reign (70-79 A.D.), when Achaea was again made a 
Roman province after having been given its independence by 
Nero. 

In the form fjLeve'y horn an adjective /*eVeo9, we have a aira^ 
Xeyd/jLevov. The form comes from //-eW?, as TeXeo9 from re'\o9. 

In line 3, we find ei written for I in the aorist of fjujj^ofut*. 

It seems not unlikely from the general style of the verse, the 



48 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



r 



No. 23 (see p. 47). 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 49 

use of the rare form o-rrja-e in both inscriptions, together with 
the name 'Ec/w/o?;, and the evident inclination of the verse-maker 
to emphasize artistic qualities in such expressions as " a pleasing 
type," " catching and cutting the form," " with forceful skill," 
and " giving graciously the whole embellishment to mother 
Greece," that this inscription and the one preceding were made 
by the same man. 

The base was found near the preceding one, and was probably 
set up in the same colonnade. 

24. A large marble base, found in two parts the smaller in 
1899, and the larger in 1900 to the west of the line of shops 
bordering the roadway leading northward from the Propylaea. 
The stone is edged by a moulding above and below, and is 
0.75 m. in width, 0.335 m. in height, and 1.32 m. in depth. 
The inscribed face is 0.165 m. broad, and was about 0.68 m. 
long, i.e. 0.49 m. (length of larger portion) + 0.19 m. (length 
of smaller). The letters of the first and last lines are 0.02 m. 
in height, while those of the other lines are but 0.017 m. The 
letters are accurately and beautifully cut, in contrast to the three 
preceding inscriptions. A, E, ^, and ft are used. The cross 
stroke of the H in the last line was omitted by the stone-cutter. 
We have here the same Gn. Cornelius Pulcher, son of Tiberius 
Cornelius Pulcher, of the Fabian tribe, who is also honored 
by a similar inscription which was found in a ruined church at 
Damala, the old Troezen (cf. C.LQ-. I, 1186). Boeckh says 
that the titles there given to Cornelius stand probably in the 
order of their acquirement. The only point of correspondence 
with our inscription is that he is aywvoOerris ILaia-apeicov 'lad- 
niwv in both cases. In the Troezenian inscription are given the 
additional titles of ^etX/a/o^o? (tribune) of the fourth Scythian 
legion, which served in Syria at the time of Dio in 219 A.D. 
(cf. Dio Cassius, Hist. Rom. 79, 7), avTia-Tpdriryos of Corinth, 
instead of arrparrjyo^ as in our inscription, and ev9r)vias einfjLe- 
XTJT???. He is aycovoQerrj? of the games named after Nerva, 
Trajan, the Germans, and the Dacians, besides of those men- 



50 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



tioned in our inscription, and he is also ay&voOerrjs of tt 
Asclepieia at Epidaurus. Other additional titles are genen 
and secretary of the Achaeans, and high priest and governc 
of Caesar. His friend, Gn. Cornelius Philiscus, set up tt 
inscription to Cornelius Pulcher at Troezen, but in the preset 
instance at Corinth, it was done by his sister, Calpurnia Frontim 



THZF^OlKMEAAAWXHNMIOTOYlCOlNOYTDNUMQM 



KAMlOYPNIA(f)PONTElNAI IAAE/V 




TV. 



viov <&a$ia(jL) ITo{)[X 



ov aycovoderrjv Kat[o-a]/?eio 



p^?;^ cnro TOV KOLVOV TMV 



, SiKaioSorrfV ap^ov[ra roi 



TT}? 'EXXaSo? Kal ' 

piov Bia fliov ' 
eirirpoirov AljvTrrov Kal ' 

TLave\\rjviov Kal lepea 
'A&piavov Have\\rjVLOV aXXa? re peydXas Scopeas eiribovra K( 

rrjv areX[eiay] rrj TroXet 



I have not found the title of eVtr/ooTro? of both Egypt ai] 
Alexandria occurring elsewhere. A body of epitropoi or pn 
curators, together with a dioiketes, administered the domai 
lands of Egypt in Roman times. These state lands consiste 
of the properties which had belonged to the Ptolemies, the po 
sessions of state debtors and properties for which no heirs < 
claimants appeared (cf. T. G. Milne, A History of Egypt und 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 51 

Roman Rule, p. 11 and references). Alexandria had a separate 
body of officers, and Cornelius Pulcher seems to have been 
specially attached to that city also. This was the office of the 
epitropos until the reforms of Diocletian toward the end of 
the third century A.D., when the dioiketes had his title changed 
to epitropos of the royal property. 

The other titles found in this Corinthian inscription, with 
the exception of Helladarch over Epirus, are common in inscrip- 
tions of the period. 

From the last line, Cornelius seems to have been a special 
benefactor of Corinth, and the Corinthian inscription, from 
its additional titles, is probably of later date than that from 
Troezen. It can be dated no farther back than the subjugation 
of the Dacians in 104 A.D., and is probably to be placed some- 
time after the end of Trajan's reign (116 A.D.). 

It is curious to note that the customary Y B (" by decree of 
the senate ") is not found on the inscription ; it occurs, how- 
ever, on the Troezenian base. Another difference from the 
Troezenian inscription is that El is used instead of H in the 
endings of the names of the games. 

25. A statue-base of white marble, found in 1899, on the 
east side of the Propylaea staircase. The base has a moulding 
at the top and bottom, and measures 0.60 m. in width, 0.30 m. 
in height, and 0.58 m. in depth. The inscribed face is 0.565 m. 
long by 0.16 m. wide. The letters are 0.03 m. in height. 



Yv. 
A 



This Cornelius Pulcher is undoubtedly the important personage 
of the preceding inscription. 





TN 


KOPNHMONHOYAXPON 




ATeUlOCIOYCTOC 





52 BENJAMIN POWELL 

In the drawing I have given the first letter of the secoi 
line as A, but on the stone the cross stroke is very faint, inde< 
but a mere scratch, and is probably accidental. The first lett 
may, therefore, be A, as in the following inscription. With tl 
possibility of an A, the Aulus Gellius, here mentioned as tl 
dedicator of the statue, may be the well known writer 
the Nodes Atticae, in which case the statue was set up som 
time before his death in 180 A.D. Of course, the point b 
tween the name and abbreviation would show conclusively th 
his name could not have been Agellius, as was once suppose 

26. A base of white marble, found in 1901, in a late w 
built on the west buttress of the Propylaea, immediately to tl 
right of the entrance. Height, 0.305 m.; width preserve 
0.54 m.; depth, 0.57 m. Length of inscribed face preserve 
0.47 m.; width, 0.145 m. Letters, 0.035 m. in height. Tl 
base is broken at the right side. 




A * 



The same Gnaeus Cornelius Pulcher is here represented 
in the preceding inscription, but here the dedicator is Luci 
Gellius Menandrus and not Lucius (?) Gellius Justus. 

These two corresponding statues probably stood on eith 
side of the stairway which leads up to the Propylaea. T] 
statues are probably to be found among the numerous headle 
and footless draped Roman statues recently exhumed near by 

27. A part of a statue-base of bluish marble, found in 190 
at the foot of the Propylaea stairs. The stone has a mouldii 
around the face and two sides of the bottom, but is left rou 
and square at the back. It is 0.65 m. in height, and the ba 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



53 



measures 0.72 m. in width by 0.75 m. in depth. The inscribed 
face is 0.55 m. wide, and is preserved to a height of 0.30 m. 
The letters are 0.045 m. in height. 



t 



B 



L 



\ 



fc/eoVt \a[_iv<p ..O.K. 



The base resembles nos. 22 and 23, and we have here the end 
of an elegiac stanza. 

28. A small fragment of hard limestone, found in 1900, in the 
northwest corner of the Agora. Through the line of letters it 



. *Iov\[iov 



measures 0.10 m.; the height is 0.10 m., and thickness 0.095 m. 
The letters are 0.045 m. in height. This small piece was evi- 
dently broken from the corner of a block. 




29. A fragment of blue limestone, found in 1901, at the foot 
of the steps leading to the Propylaea. It is broken on all sides 



54 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



but the left, which shows a smooth surface. Height, 0.095 m. 
width, 0.085 m. ; thickness, 0.07 m. The letters, which forme< 
the beginning of a word, are 0.045 m. in height. 




30. A marble placque, found in 1899, near the east end o 
the temple of Apollo. The stone is broken at the top and a 
the right side. Its height is 0.255 m., breadth, 0.24 m., am 
thickness, 0.04 m. The inscription was surrounded by a flat 
raised border 0.04 m. broad, and from the appearance of thi 
break at the back where the stone is bevelled, it probably con 
tained but one column. The letters are 0.015 m. in height. 





-T-TCl |\ 1 | UIX 

KOPOONH \ 
K^AAKHNIA\ 
BOI/U rX 




4 

KAITUUP T ^ 




HCCCHNH T ^ 


j 



Ae~]vtcrpo\_v 



Botcu er(?;) [ . . 
K.\irci)p er(rf) ? 
^T; r(?;) q 



Leuctrum is probably the small place on the west coast o: 
Laconia, now Lestro. It is mentioned by Xenophon, Hell. VI 
5, 24; Plut. Pel. 20; Paus. Ill, 21, 7 and 26, 4 ; Strabo, VIII 
360-361; Ptol. Ill, 16, 9; and Pliny, IV, 5 (8). Boiae is z 
place in Laconia mentioned by Strabo, VIII, 36, 4 ; Paus. I 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



55 



27, 5 ; III, 21, 7, and Schol. Aeschin. 2, 75. The other names 
are well known. 

The general appearance of the letters, which are irregularly 
and poorly cut and late in form (cf. , UJ), as well as the deno- 
tation of the numbers, show that the inscription is some years 
after the best Roman period of the second century A.D., and 
so can have had nothing to do with the Achaean League, to 
which, curiously enough, all these towns formerly belonged. 
The inscription probably deals with certain privileges which 
were granted to the towns named for a certain number of 
years. The only numbers preserved show that Clitor had this 
privilege for six years and Messene for ninety. 

31. A large cylindrical block of white marble, found in 1900, 
in the northwest corner of the Agora. The block was used as 
a statue-base, and the upper and lower edges are worked into 
a slightly raised margin. The stone is 1.35 m. in diameter, 
and 0.88 m. thick. The space occupied by the two lines is 
but 0.30 m. broad, and the letters are 0.06 m. in height, in the 
style of the late Roman period (cf. 6, AA, C, UJ). 




ewer] e/3i?7? eve/ca. 

The block was originally inverted, and had an inscription in 
older characters, which have been chiselled out, leaving but 
scant traces. 






56 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



32. A fragment of a relief of white marble, found in 189 
in the valley near the steps leading to the Propylaea. Tot 
height, 0.295 m. ; width across the inscribed face, 0.31 m 
thickness, 0.10 m. The relief is mutilated on all sides exce] 
the lower. The inscribed band is 0.105 m. in width, and tl 
letters are 0.025 m. in height. 




'E,r 



The relief represents a draped figure walking from the le: 
toward a table, which appears to be draped with a cloth. Tl 
feminine name Eu*:a/07ra> is not known, but the masculine fon 
Eu/ca/3?ro9 is common in inscriptions. 

33. A fragment of bluish white marble of poor quality 
Height, 0.175 m.; width, 0.20 m.; thickness, 0.14 m. Tl: 



J/MTOTTUJ 




. . . O)V 



a 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM COEINTH 



57 



stone is broken at each end, but the upper and lower sides are 
worked into mouldings which meet at the back in a surface 
0.07 m. in width. The letters are 0.025 m. in height. 

34. A fragment of bluish marble, found in 1901, a short dis- 
tance south of the vaulted chamber before mentioned [cf. no. 4]. 




(OV . 



yap 



Height, 0.12 m.; width, 0.20 m.; thickness, 0.17 m. Letters, 
0.07 m. in height. The stone is irregularly broken on all sides, 
and the remains of but two lines of the inscription are seen. 

35. A block of hard bluish 
marble, found in 1901, near the 
foot of the steps leading to the 
Propylaea, between the line of 
the colonnade and the shops at 
the west of the road, and some 
little distance north of the basis 
which is built in the side-walk. 
Height, 0.77 m. ; width, 0.435 
m.; thickness, 0.335 m. Letters, 
0.055 m. in height. The lower 
end of the stone is battered, but 
in the top is a dowel hole, with 
a channel cut to the edge of the 
stone ; evidently this block origi- 
nally formed part of a pilaster. 
It is rough at the back, but the 
face and sides are smooth. The 
inscription has been nearly obliterated and only a few letters 
remain visible. Some rectangles have been scratched on the 




58 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



inscribed surface at a later date, to be used in playing game 
the block was probably used as a paving stone at that time. 

We can fill out the first line as HOTT[I\IOV N~\ivwov. Popili 
is a common Roman name, and the Ninniaii gens also is knowi 
cf . Dio Cass. XXXVIII, 14 ; XXXIX, 35, and C.L a. 6616 

In the fourth line which appears we may conjecture 



(TTOV. 

36. A slab of coarse, crystalline white marble, found in 18 
near the fountain of Pirene. Height, 0.41 m.; width, 0.245 m 
thickness, 0.145 m. The stone is broken at the top and < 
each side. The letters are from 0.012 m. to 0.025 m. in heigh 
The surface of the block is so worn that the letters are almc 
illegible, and there is but a small space where they can be rei 
Avith certainty. 







.... to ... 

. . . 7TV (?) . 06 . . . 

. . a KOL/JLTJ [rrjpiov (?) 
. . -puwtrjs /3[o .... 
ev icaico[ls . . . 

OpOL 2itfl 



K\al 7eVo? rjv cr 
. . -voj]V evei\r)[(rt 
10 ... a . 5 real crre- 



It seems safe to supply ^LICV\_WVOS in line 6, but not enough i 
the inscription can be read to judge of its intent. 

37. A slab of bluish marble, found in 1901, in the third she 
on the west of the road to Lechaeum. The stone is broken c 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



59 



all sides. Height, 0.27 m. ; width, 0.43 m. ; thickness, 0.038 m. 
Letters, c. 0.035 m.; = 0.025 m.; P = 0.055 m. The letters 
are clearly cut and show traces of red paint. 



I 



i l v 1 I 



NUHC OCAYTT E 

KMAAA o N e P <-AJ C 



OL 



. . . \100V /JL KOI afJL- 

, 09 



5 ... e]\eelv oi/ro? eV- ....... 

The intent of the inscription is not evident ; it may, however, 
be part of a grave stele. A mark to indicate the elision of 6 
is clearly cut immediately over the A of line 3. 

38. A fragment of bluish mar- 
ble, broken on all sides, except- 
ing the lower: height, 0.235 m.; 
width (at bottom), 0.20 m.; 
thickness, 0.26 m. The inscribed 
band is 0.08 m. in width, and the 
letters are 0.035 m. in height. 

The letters are carelessly cut. 
The inscription began with the 
K, for this letter is 0.055 m. from 
the break at the left. The second 
word may have been 7ro\iTa>v or 
KotV a?r[o rwv 




is a possibility. The fragment formed part of a column or 
round base, and may have represented an offering of common 
spoils from the enemy. 



60 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



39. A fragment of white marble, found in 1901, south of tl 
vaulted chamber before mentioned [cf . no. 4] ; it was but a sho 
distance under the surface of the ground. Height, 0.30 m. 
width, 0.27 m. ; thickness, 0.08 m. Letters, 0.04 m. in heigh 
Only the right edge of the block is preserved intact. 




HCTXfOCAHt 
FHIDH 



. . . inrarov ice ( = /col) apur- 
TOV ] 'H0-i^[r|o5 ave- 

Orj tee . . . K 



This seems to be an honorary tablet set up by a certain Hes; 
chius to some " most high and excellent " personage whose nan 
is lost. It is possible that we are dealing with a proconsul, ar 
av0~\v7raTov should be supplied in the first line. The last woi 
is puzzling, and no explanation of it occurs to me. The lett< 
immediately preceding Y may be K or 4> ; the former seen 
more likely. The H may be a confusion for I. 

40. A large block of white marble, found in 18? 3, on tl 
roadway to Lechaeum at the foot of the marble steps leading 1 
the Propylaea. Length, 0.93 m. ; width, 0.42 m. ; thicknes 




0.22 m. The letters are irregularly cut ; T is 0.065 m. and B 
0.095 m. in height. The stone is broken at the right, and { 
the left the inscribed surface is mutilated. The block sho^ 
an ornament of dentals and spaces underneath, and was probabl 
a cornice block originally. The left end was afterwards trimme 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 61 

and chiselled to fit another block which joined this one diago- 
nally. The stone then formed the base of a tympanum or 
pediment, and, with each end built into the wall, it probably 
formed the lintel over a doorway. 

We know that there was a Jewish synagogue at Corinth, where 
St. Paul preached during his sojourn there (cf. N.T. Acts, xviii. 4, 
SieXeyero Be ev rr) o-vvaycoyf} tcara irav (rdftftaTov, eTreiOev re 'lov- 
Saiovs KOL "EXA^a?). If our restoration be correct, this stone 
was part of that synagogue. The poor cutting displayed in the 
letters and the use of a second-hand block may point to the 
poverty of this foreign cult at Corinth. If we may judge from 
the place where the stone was found (and the size of the block 
favors the supposition that it had not been moved far), we can 
place the Jewish synagogue in the region east of the road to 
Lechaeum, and but a short distance north of the great fountain 
of Pirene. This district was a residence quarter, as many 
house walls (cf. Am. J. Arch. Vol. I, 1897, pp. 465-467) and 
the remains of a Roman house with a central court, a few metres 
north of Pirene, bear witness; we know that the synagogue 
was in a residence quarter, for when Paul went out from it, 
after forsaking the Jews who had opposed him, he entered the 
dwelling of a certain Justus, " whose house joined hard to the 
synagogue " (cf. N T. Acts, xviii. 7, rj ol/cia rjv o-vvofjiopovo-a 
Ty avvajcoyrj') It is not likely that the synagogue was on 
the west side of the road, for this side was flanked by a col- 
onnade and a series of shops or small buildings close under 
the hill where stood the old temple of Apollo. The building 
was probably not more than a hundred metres from the Propy- 
laea which marked the entrance to the market-place (cf. Paus. II, 
3, 2, e/c Se rfjs ayopas e^iovrwv rrjv eirl Ae%aiov TrpOTrvXaid ecrri), 
j and in the market-place was probably situated the " judgment 
j seat," TO fifj/jia, to which Paul was brought by the Jews to be tried 
before the Roman proconsul, Gallic (cf. N. T. Acts, xviii. 12). 

41. A piece of moulding of white marble : length, 0.24 m. ; 
height, 0.115 m. ; thickness, 0.09 m. Letters, 0.035 m. in height. 



62 



BENJAMIN POWELL 




The letters may, however, form the ending of a proper name 

42. A slab of grayish marble, found in 1899 : height, 0.28 
width, 0.36 m. ; thickness, 0.05 in. Letters, from 0.02 m, 
top to 0.01 m. in height at the bottom. The letters are v 
poorly cut, and near the bottom are so worn as to be illegi 
in part. The stone is broken both at the top and at the bottc 




Q ATTT1N AAA O M 

(c p ONE Q A A Ar o N/T ifi? 



HC EKroN^t/NK^nr 
NH^ x l''^HE A I oV<|> A O C E | 
^ OX A XAilHAAXE CT I 




Et 8e>]e [a]\[\ar- 
T]O>OYJ/(?) POV\(O- 
crvv e/iot 

iv a\\ov ve- 
5 /c/Doz^ e(y)6d$ ayovre;, 

fJLTJT KlVCi)V CTTi 76- 

779 eicyova evKarafjiei- 
vrj ^(77)8* r)e\(ov <^>ao? e- 



10 crot T07ro[? aXXo? (?)] JV 
-era) 






GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



63 



It seems safe to supply some subjunctive form in line 1, in 
order to complete a protasis, the main ideas of which are con- 
tained in the participial clauses following the verb. In line 4 
the infinitive ending is misspelled, owing to the confusion 
of El and I in sound. 

The dropping of the liquids M and N in the middle of words 
is to be noticed in line 5, which has e#a' for ev6d&, and in 
line 9, which has \d^rj for XdfjL^rj. 

The H of fir)?? in line 8 was omitted by the stonecutter, but 
was afterwards put in above the line in diminutive form. 

The poetical forms 7079 (line 6) and rjeXtov (line 8) are 
probably stereotyped in these curses ; the inscriptioX does not 
resolve itself into verse. 

A parallel to this inscription is found in an inscf ption from 
Salamis, published in C.I, Gr. 9303. The curse is couched in 
somewhat different terms : Et Be TLS rwv IStov \ [T)] ere/oo? rt? 
TO [X] 1/4770-77 (jw/Lta KaTa\6eo-6di evravBa \ Trapej; ra)v Bvo 
\dyov S(p\r) TW dew /cal a vdOepa rJTco 



43. A large block of white marble, found in 1899, at the 
top of the steps leading to the Propylaea: height, 0.53 m. ; 







64 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



width, 0.805 m. ; depth, 1.33 m. ; height of inscribed fac 
0.37 m. Letters, 0.035 m. to 0.05 m. in height. The block 
left rough below the inscribed face ; at the left side, along tl 
bottom, is a line of egg-and-dart ornament, showing that tl 
block was originally used for another purpose. There a 
marks for clamps and fastenings on the upper surface. 

A small cross is placed at each end of the proper name, and 
Maltese cross in a circle, 0.15 m. in diameter, is engraved 
relief between the two lines. Demetrius was evidently a hig 
official in the Christian church at Corinth, possibly a bisho 
if we may so judge from the title " servant of Christ," whi< 
was commonly applied to such dignitaries. 

The marks at the left of the inscription are later attempts 
duplicating the large cross. 

44. A slab of blue marble, broken in three pieces, foui 
north of the fountain of Pirene, in 1900. It is 0.22 i 
broad by 0.325 m. high, and is 0.03 m. thick. The lette 
are 0.03 m. high. 




NM 

IKNhNH/PUIN 

DA 

YNMJO/ SIN 

<ft A *- 



- 



v6a 

-dprrj ?; TT 

Lav fjLV^firjv [ava- 



. . (name) 



ft 



A Christian inscription set up in Byzantine times to SOE 
woman, . . . -dprij, " of blessed memory." 

45. A fragment of bluish marble, broken from the upp 
right-hand corner of a slab : height, 0.155 m. ; width, 0.10 m 
thickness, c. 0.02 m. Letters, 0.02 m. in height. 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



65 




9 V 



re 



#at] 77 Owyd- 
ai/r] ou 



For the spelling tcarcucair^ cf . C.I. Gr. 9132. 

This tombstone of a Christian, and also the following ones, 
probably all belong to the Byzantine cemetery which was exca- 
vated in 1901, at the eastern end of the church of St. John 
Theologos, and south of the vaulted chamber before mentioned. 

46. A fragment of white marble, broken at the top and on 
the right side: height, 0.17 m. ; width, 0.30 m. ; thickness, 
0.08 m. Letters, 0.03 m. in height. 




TOAGM 
TNAIK 



. . oire [76- 

ve6\ia, a[yaTravcra- 
ro e fJLrjv[l Mato)(?)- 



66 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



This last word (Latin, indictio) is always abbreviated in otl 
inscriptions, to the first three letters, and filled out as lv&[i/c 
ew^o?. In this, the only case where I have found it spelled c 
in inscriptions, is used instead of Q in the penult; this 
probably a mistake in spelling. 

47. A small fragment of white marble, found in 1900, in 1 
loose earth taken from the excavations. Its exact resting-ph 
is therefore unknown. It measures 0.13 m. in length, 0.095 
in breadth, and 0.03 m. in thickness. The letters, in t 
Byzantine style, are 0.025 m. in height. 



Zrjv&vi, [pa/capias 




The UJ in the form ^eva^evw is enclosed in the M, and stan 
upright upon one side, whereas the C of fjLvij/jirjs is normal. 



48. An irregular fragment of blue marble, found in 190 
inside the vaulted chamber before mentioned [cf. no. 4 
Height, 0.20 m. ; width, 0.28 m.; thickness, 0.10 m. Lette 




'A<9a- 
vo&cbpov [KOI/JLTJTIJ- 



c. 0.025 m. in height. The monogram for X/MCTTO? is cut 
the lower left-hand corner. 

49. A fragment of gray marble, broken at the right side ai 
at the lower edge. Height, 0.175 m.; width, 0.32 m.; thic 
ness, 0.04 m. Letters from 0.02 m. to 0.03 m. in height. 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



67 




50. A fragment of slaty marble, gray in color, broken on 
all sides, except at the top. Height, 0.09 m. ; width, 0.11 m.; 




/ooVr[a? /cal .... av- 
TOV e[v@a /card/ceivrat,. 



thickness, 0.015 m. Letters, 0.0275 m. in height. It forms 
part of the top of the tombstone of a Christian. 

51. A fragment of grayish, slaty mar- 
ble, found in 1901, in the cutting at the 
west of the vaulted chamber before men- 
tioned, at a depth of 6.00 m. below the 
surface of the earth. The stone is broken 
into three pieces, and as a whole lacks the 
top and right side. Height, 0.215 m.; 
width, 0.164 m.; thickness, 0.03 m. Let- 
ters, 0.025 m. in height. It forms part 
of the end of an inscription on the gravestone of a Christian. 




68 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



52. A fragment of gray limestone, broken on all sides, ( 
cepting the top. Height, 0.16 m.; width, 0.21 m.; thickne 
0.025 m. Letters, 0.025 m. in height. 



NTAUA 
N*Uf 

/x l^\ V V 




53. A fragment of bluish white marble. Height, 0.17 B 
width, 0.14 m.; thickness, 0.075 m. Letters, 0.03 m. in heig] 




54. A fragment of white marble, of which only the upj 
edge is preserved. Height, 0.08 m. ; width, 0.15 m. ; thi< 




ness, 0.075 m. Letters, 0.04 m. in height. The forms of 1 
letters seem to indicate that the inscription was in Greek a 
not in Latin. 

55. An inscription cut on the side of a block of soft sai 
stone. This block forms part of the foundation of one of fc 
bases for columns, which were set up in later times over 1 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



69 



foundations of an earlier Greek temple of small dimensions. The 
bases are not in alignment with the walls of the temple. These 
foundations are north of the fountain of Pirene, and east of the 
road to Lechaeum. The length of the inscribed face is 0.75 m. ; 
the height, 0.19 m. The inscription is upside down on the block 
and consists of a series of mere scratches in the soft stone ; the let- 
ters are about 0.04 m. in height. They may form a proper name. 




f^v!^!i!k 



56. A series of four fragments of white, coarsely crystalline 
marble, found in 1901, in the same place as no. 11. The pieces 
are irregular chips from a large block whose thickness cannot 







70 



BENJAMIN POWELL 



be determined, and they cannot be fitted together. The lettei 
are poorly cut and are 0.075 m. in height. 

The first piece measures 0.20 m. x 0.06 m.; the secom 
0.13 m. x 0.11 m. ; the third, 0.12 m. x 0.09 m. ; and the fourtl 
0.14 m. x 0.075 m. 

57. A fragment of grayish marble, found in 1900, inside tli 
vaulted chamber before mentioned. Height, 0.19 m.; widtl 
0.18 m.; thickness, 0.05 m. The stone is broken on all side; 
except at the bottom ; it is smooth at the back, and the ir 
scribed surface is ruled off into bands. The letters are mei 
scratches, and are 0.025 m. in height. 



j3ov 



58. A fragment of white marble, found in 1900, near th 
foregoing. It is broken at the top and left side, but is smoot 
at the back and the face is divided into bands. Heigln 
0.145 m.; width, 0.14 m.; thickness, 0.05 m. The letters ar 
0.025 m. in height, but are scratched in a different hand fror 
those of no. 57. They probably formed an adverbial ending. 







. . . -7TtQ)9. 



GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FROM CORINTH 



71 



59. A fragment of white marble, broken on all sides except- 
ing the left ; found in 1900 inside the vaulted chamber which 




is south of the temple of Apollo. Height, 0.055 m.; width, 
0.07 m.; thickness, 0.023 m. Letters, 0.025 m. in height. 

60. A fragment of white marble, broken on all sides ; found 
in 1900 inside the vaulted chamber which is south of the 




temple of Apollo. Height, 0.105 m.; width, 0.10 m.; thick 
ness, 0.03 m. Letters, 0.025 m. in height. 

BENJAMIN POWELL. 



Archaeological 
Institute 
of America 



GENERAL MEETING OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICA 
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

DECEMBER 31, 1902, JANUARY 1-2, 1903 



THE Archaeological Institute of America held its thii 
general meeting for the reading and discussion of papers 
Princeton, N.J., December 31, 1902, and January 1-2, 190 
The meetings, which were held in the parlors of the Princet( 
Inn, were presided over by the President of the Institut 
Professor John Williams White. On Wednesday evenin 
December 31, President and Mrs. Wilson, of Princeton UE 
versity, received the members of the Institute at their horn 
On Thursday evening the Annual Address before the Institu 
was delivered by Professor William Watson Goodwin, on 
Recent Visit to Greek Lands, after which the members we 
entertained by Professor A. L. Frothingham, Jr. 

A resolution was passed thanking the authorities of Princ 
ton University and others for the hospitable reception given 
the Institute. 

There were four sessions at which papers, many of whic 
were illustrated by means of the stereopticon, were presentei 
Brief abstracts of the papers, furnished by the authors, follo\ 

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 31. 2.30 P.M. 

Address of welcome by President Woodrow Wilson, of Princ 
ton University. 

1. Professor Jesse Benedict Carter, of Princeton Universit 
The Portrait of Virgil. 

72 



GENERAL MEETING, DEC EMBER- JANUARY, 1902-03 73 

The chief literary source for our knowledge of Virgil's portrait is 
a passage in Donatus's Vita; Horace's reference (Sat. I, 3, 29) is 
too doubtful to be of use. Virgil's portrait was common in an- 
tiquity; it was used as a frontispiece to his works (Mart. XIV, 
186) and in schools (Juv. I, 225). His bust was in public libraries 
(Suet. Calig. 34) and in private possession (Lamprid. Alex. Sever. 
31). Up to six years ago our oldest portrait was that of the Codex 
Vaticanus, which represents him as a boy. The picture in the 
mosaic of Monnus at Trier can scarcely be called a portrait, though 
it dates next to the Codex Vaticanus. The stories of a statue of 
him at Mantua give us no help. The Mantuan bust is not Virgil, 
and with this fall the Capitoline and other busts of the same type. 
None of the so-called " Virgil-gems " is a portrait of Virgil. Most 
of them do not represent him at all, and those which may are purely 
ideal. 

This dearth of real portraits stands in sharp contrast to the large 
number of portraits in the printed editions of Virgil. These may be 
classed under four rubrics : (A) Sixteenth-century groups, where no 
attempt was made at individuality, but the figures were merely 
labelled for distinction; (B) Portraits which are dependent upon 
the so-called " Virgil-gems " ; (C) Portraits which go back to the 
so-called " Virgil-busts " ; (D) Purely ideal portraits. Over against 
all these pretended portraits stands the mosaic of Sousse, discovered 
in 1896. It is our oldest portrait, and we have every reason to 
believe it to be authentic. It agrees with Donatus's description, and 
with the Vaticanus. With this mosaic the basalt-bust in the Berlin 
Museum (No. 291) agrees so strikingly that it may be a Virgil bust. 

Remarks were made by Professor Allan Marquand, and by 
Professor Carter in reply. 

2. Professor Frank Frost Abbott, of Chicago University, 
The Toledo Manuscript of the Grermania of Tacitus. (Read in 
(abstract by Professor Allan Marquand.) 

Manuscript 49, 2 of the Zelada collection of the cathedral chapter 
library at Toledo comprises 223 folios, the first fifteen of which con- 
tain the Germania, and bear the date 1474. Like the Agricola in 
the same codex it has a great many variants written on the margin, 
land shows corrections in three different kinds of ink, although at 
I least two of these sets of corrections are by the original copyist. It 
I shows the errors common to the other Germania manuscripts, and, 
therefore, is derived from the same archetype from which they 



74 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

come. It stands between MullenhofFs B group (Vaticanus 18C 
and Leidensis) and C group (Vaticanus 1518, and Neapolitanus), b 
is more closely related to the former than to the latter. That 
is independent of both is shown by the variants, and by the occi 
rence of a few readings which point back to a text antecedent to th 
of B and C. It probably belongs to the E group, which is made i 
of Vaticanus 2964, Longolianus, the Nuremberg edition of 1473, ai 
the Roman of 1474. Its value lies mainly in the fact that it cas 
the deciding vote when the readings in B and C differ. 

Remarks were made by Professor A. Gudeman. 

3. Dr. Paul V. C. Baur, of Yale University, Post-Mycenaei 

Influence in Cyprus. 

If we wish to deal successfully with the problem, Who were t 
Mycenaeans ? we must not only study the monuments of the peri 
in question, and those of the period immediately preceding the My< 
naeaii age, but we must also study pos^-Mycenaean influences. 

Traces of the Mycenaeans after their expulsion from continent 
Greece, i.e. after the Dorian migration, can be found in the pottery 
Aeolis, Miletus, and Samos, in the first half of the eighth century B. 
and in the Cypriote ware of the same period. 

In Cyprus, moreover, a few genuinely Mycenaean religious tra< 
tions survived even to Roman times. This can be proved by a ca] 
ful study of certain Cypriote coins, of the period from Vespasian 
Caracalla. As an illustration a Paphian coin type (Roscher's Le, 
kon, I, 1, p. 747) was examined with the following results : 

The sacred cone of the Paphian goddess, Aphrodite Urania, w 
preserved as late as the third century of our era, in a typic 
Mycenaean shrine or reliquary. Similar reliquaries for anicoi 
images of the Mycenaeans are the dove shrines found in the shs 
graves on the acropolis of Mycenae, and the newly discovered fres 
from the palace wall at Cnossos (J.H.S. XXI, 1901, pp. 192 ff.). 

The Roman coin types from Paphos illustrate not only a My< 
naean reliquary, but also show other points of similarity with ger 
ine Mycenaean objects. Such are the aniconic dual pillars in t 
side chapels of the shrine, the doves perched on the roof, the st 
and crescent, the enclosure with the gates thrown open. 

The star and crescent and the sacred dual pillars are symbo' 
of the Heavenly Aphrodite and her consort Aphroditus. A ferns 
goddess and her male counterpart, as Mr. Evans has made cles 
frequently occur in the Mycenaean cult. 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 75 

Thus we see that it is only with the aid of Mycenaean monu- 
ments that we can satisfactorily explain the details of these 
Paphian coin types. No type more appropriate could have been 
devised for the commemoration of the celebration of the district 
festival at Paphos, especially since we have literary evidence that 
Mycenaeans from Arcadia settled there not very long after the 
Dorian migration. 

4. Dr. Edmund von Mach, of Harvard University, The Ori- 
gin of the Slanderous Stories concerning Phidias traced to a 
Corrupt Manuscript. (Read in abstract by Professor William 
K. Prentice.) 

The high esteem in which Phidias is held, and at all times was 
held, is not lessened by the slanderous stories against him. Even 
those who feel bound to believe in them, as a whole or in part, do 
so half-heartedly, and only because they deny one the right to dis- 
credit the cumulative evidence of several ancient writers. 

The discrepancy between one story, according to which Phidias 
was punished in Athens, and a second, which makes him suffer in 
Olympia, and the clumsy attempt, finally, at reconciliation of these 
two stories by the invention of a third relating a double punish- 
ment, has many times been pointed out most clearly perhaps in 
Mr. Gardner's Handbook of Greek Sculpture. If one of the three 
stories is untrue, there is a strong presumption that the other two 
are nothing but inventions of inaccurate historians, more especially 
since Plutarch expressly contradicts one of them. Every one of the 
slanderous stories is based on the assumption that Phidias was 
found guilty of embezzlement. 

A possible explanation of their origin is found in the words of the 
scholiast on Aristophanes (Peace, 605), who, quoting from Philocho- 
rus (ca. 280 B.C.), but in a corrupt text, as is shown by the wrong 
names of the archons, relates the accusation of dishonesty and 
then uses the word <f>vywv. If we may assume that this word orig- 
inally was aircxfrvyuv ("was accused"), then the account not only 
agrees with the version preferred by Plutarch, who says /cAoTrai ptv 
ov/c ^Aey^oi/ro, but offers alsq a suggestion as to how it was possible 
for different and conflicting stories to grow up in later times ; for 
historians finding a corrupted <vywi/ i.e. either he was "exiled" 
or he "fled" would naturally either reinsert a sentence or two, 
presumably lost and containing the name of the place to which 
Phidias was banished and what happened to him there; or reading 
into the <j>vywv the fact of the conviction of Phidias in Athens, and 



76 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

well aware of Athenian ingratitude, would invent the tale of 1 
having been put to death in Athens. 

5. Rev. Walter Lowrie, of Philadelphia, G-raeco-Romt 

Textiles. 

A prodigious quantity of so-called Coptic textiles, supposed 
date from the late Roman period (third to seventh century), ha 
been unearthed in various bury ing-grounds in Upper Egypt with 
the past thirty years and chiefly within the last decade, and are nc 
distributed among most of the museums of the world. The geiiei 
neglect of these treasures is due to the fact that they are suppos< 
to represent merely a provincial (Coptic) art. It can be prove 
however, that they represent the cosmopolitan art and costume 
the Roman Empire throughout this whole period. They have the] 
fore the very greatest interest, whether for the technical study of t 
textile art among the Romans (materials of linen, cotton, wool, ai 
silk are found in the greatest abundance and variety), or for t' 
study of dress both Classical and Byzantine (and incidentally the o 
gin of ecclesiastical vestments), or, finally, for the study of decorati 
art as exhibited in the tapestries and silk embroideries which dec 
rate most of the garments. 

As an example of the importance of these textiles for the stu< 
of decorative art, it was shown that they constituted the pattern f 
the conventional low reliefs which were common from the fifth 
the eleventh century, and which during the greater part of tl 
period were almost the sole exponent of the sculptor's art. 

6. Professor Allan Marquand, of Princeton University, 
Painting by Hieronymus Bosch in the Princeton Art Museum. 

In the Princeton Art Museum there is a Flemish painting repi 
senting Christ before Pilate. It was purchased in London abo 
twelve years ago. The Christ is of the usual Flemish type, b 
the surrounding figures are strangely grotesque. The painting 
attributed to Hieronymus Bosch (1450 ?-1516). Of the many pail 
ings once attributed to this master, some have perished, and othe 
may be assigned to his followers. There are, however, some ni 
paintings which bear his signature. With these the Princeton p 
ture has many analogies. The paintings of Bosch fall chiefly in t 
category of Biblical narratives, although he is better known as 
painter of fanciful subjects. He painted various scenes from t'. 
Passion, and the picture at Princeton completes the series. T 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 77 

technical character of the painting corresponds with the work of 
Bosch, as described by Carel van Mander in 1640. 

After this paper, Professor James R. Wheeler, of Columbia 
University, read a letter from Dr. T. W. Heermance, giving 
an account of the present state of the excavations at Corinth. 

7. Professor A. L. Frothingham, of Princeton University, 
New Light on the Earliest Forms of the Christian Church. 

For the three classes of early Christian places of worship cem- 
terial chapels, private house chapels, and regular city churches 
additional data have recently accrued. The tri-apsidal chapels built 
for memorial services during the third century in the cemeterial 
areas are known from three examples in Rome. A well-preserved 
example (now a Mohammedan chapel) has been noted near Kai'rwan 
(Sidi Mohammed-el- Abioui) by Saladin, who, however, erroneously 
thinks it a Pagan Roman structure. This discovery increases the 
probability that the cella Trichora was the universal pre-Constan- 
tinian form for funerary chapels. 

The only early private chapel known was one discovered in Rome 
in 1876 (now destroyed) in very poor preservation, and from apse 
and frescos evidently post-Constantinian. A rectangular apseless 
chapel recently found near Via Venti Settembre, with vine-patterned 
mosaic pavement enclosing an altar compartment with symbolic cross 
and fishes, now gives the pre-Constantinian type. 

Even more important is any proof of the existence of special 
church buildings before Constantine. It is agreed that during the 
first and second centuries Christians worshipped almost exclusively 
in private houses. The controversy rages about the third century, 
when, according to one school, the independent type of church 
building was evolved, while according to another it did not begin 
until Constantine. Even partisans of third-century churches dis- 
agree as to their form, Lange believing them one-naved ; Holtzinger, 
three-aisled from the forensic basilica; and Dehio, three-aisled from 
the private house (atrium-peristyle). The writer showed that Kraus's 
a priori argument against pre-Constantinian churches that the 
Christian organization, being held illicit by Roman law, could not 
build or hold property was based on the erroneous assumption 
that Roman laws never became a dead letter; that these laws so 
remained up to 250 A.D. ; and that the decree of toleration of Gal- 
jlienus in 261 was held to include the permission to hold property, 
as shown by the decision of Aurelian in 272 regarding the church 



78 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

property at Antioch (in re Paul of Samosata). The wording of 
texts regarding the cathedral churches of Edessa (destroyed in 2' 
of Tyre (destroyed in 303 and rebuilt in 314), of Rome (Titi 
dementis in Trastevere), and of Nicomedia (lofty building, 
stroyed 303), prove that these were not remodelled private hot) 
but churches erected for purposes of worship. 

None of these and other pre-Constantinian churches mentio 
have been found, but their form can be shown to have been c 
narily single-naved, not three-aisled, by the text of the Didasc 
Apostolorum (third century), describing the arrangement of the < 
gregation in church. This type survived during the fourth cent 
in Syria and North Africa. These churches were usually ente 
through two doors in the long south wall, an upper one for the n 
a lower one for the women, with the occasional addition of a c 
in the sanctuary for the clergy. The church at Srir (Syria) sh 
how this type gradually approached the basilical. 

Regarding the common fourth-century, three-aisled church a 
ond liturgical document (ca. 400 A.D.), the Testamentum Doni 
recently discovered, far surpasses in importance the already cla 
text of the Apostolic Constitutions for its detailed description of 
interior of a basilical church and the arrangement of its annexe 
chambers for deacons and widows, refectories, hospitals, arrai 
ments for caring for the poor and sick, etc. A study of this 1 
will be of the greatest help in identifying the details of group* 
early church buildings. 

Remarks were made by Hon. S. E. Baldwin. 

THURSDAY, JANUARY 1. 9.30 A.M. 

1. Professor D. Cady Eaton, of Yale University, The 8t\ 

of Crreek Sculpture. 

The artistic sense is the faculty of apprehending art eleme 
This faculty is universal, and is to be developed as are all ol 
mental faculties. In the Anglo-Saxon races the artistic sense is 
nature weak, and therefore particularly in need of training, 
best method of strengthening and purifying artistic perceptions 
judgment is in the study of Greek sculpture. The Greeks are 
most artistic people of history, and in sculpture is their superio 
preeminent and incontestable. The first essential of study is 
session of the object to be studied. Every city of sufficient pop 
tion and wealth, certainly every university, should possess a mus< 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 79 

of casts from Greek sculpture. Greek sculpture may be approached 
from the point of view of metaphysics or from the point of view of 
abstract and independent contemplation. These two methods are not 
to be commended. The very best method of studying a work of art 
is by drawing with brush or pencil. A second method to be com- 
mended is historical and critical investigation. A third method is 
the use of works of art for purposes of illustration. These methods 
are simple, practical, easily understood, and within the capacity of 
every one. 

2. Professor Charles Burton Gulick, of Harvard University, 
Notes on Greek Lampstands. 

The Greek terms <f>av6<s, Avxvovxos, Avx^etov, Av^vta, and Aa/xTi-r^p, 
which are employed in the handbooks on archaeology and private 
^ife to designate lampstands, are often applied loosely without dis- 
criminating between torch-holders or candelabra, lampstands, and 
lanterns. The words commonly cited for these objects underwent 
changes of meaning after the classical period, causing much confu- 
sion among the lexicographers. Thus <ai/os (also TravoY) means 
" torch" in the fifth century, a bundle of sticks tied together and 
smeared with pitch or resin. Afterwards the word denoted a port- 
able "torch-holder/' recognizable by the cup from which the torch 
projected (Arch. Zeit. XV, pi. xvii), and still later it meant 
"lantern," or hollow receptacle for a lamp. As such it is used to 
define A.a/u,7mjp, which, originally applied to a low lampstand, had 
by the third century come to signify " lantern " ; in this sense it 
was borrowed by the Romans (lanterna). The classical word for 
"lantern," however, is Av^vo^os, which is not to be confused with 
Avxveiov (Rutherford, New Phrynichus, p. 132). That AvxvoC^os meant 
"lantern," and not "lampstand," is clearly proved from Pherecrates, 
ap. Athen. XV, 699 F and other passages. For " lampstand " the 
classical word is A^xmov, which in the fourth century becomes 
Avxn'oi/; we also find the colloquial A.v;(n'Siov. The feminine Avxn'a 
was condemned as non- Attic ; in C.LG. 3071 (ca. 150 B.C.) it seems 
to mean " torchh older " (wrongly called lychnuchus by Boeckh). 

Actual Avxveta of Hellenic manufacture are very rare, if indeed 
they exist. A fragment of Pherecrates (Athen. XV, 700 c) makes it 
appear that they were of Etruscan origin, and in fact most of the 
specimens prove on examination to be either Etruscan or Roman. 
Existing lampstands are relatively low, often not a metre in height, 
whereas those seen in vase-paintings are as high as a man. At first 
lamps were set on shelves or niches in the wall, as at the entrance to 



80 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

one of the houses at Delos. In the soldier's tent a stand was imp 
vised by tying three spears together. A review of the specimens 
European museums shows that the British Museum contains piec 
of three stands that may possibly be Greek (Nos. 193, 247, 28 
Those in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Nos. 1481-1484) are eitl 
Etruscan or Hellenistic. Helbig, in the Fuhrer, 2d edition, noi 
four which he regards as Greek (Mus. Greg. 1 I, Ixxxi, 2 ; Ixxxii, 3 
not 1, as Helbig says ; Ixxxi, 1 ; Ixxxii, 4). Similar to one of the 
is a stand in the Auguste Dutuit collection at Paris. All of th< 
repeat Etruscan motives so constantly as to throw suspicion 
their Greek origin. A systematic review of the vases was i 
attempted in this preliminary study. 

3. Professor Joseph Clark Hoppin, of Bryn Mawr Collej 
The Grreek Colonial Movement as a Commercial Factor. 

According to the contention of Mr. Brooks Adams, advanced 
his last book, The New Empire, it seems fairly certain that t 
prosperity of Mesopotamia depended almost entirely on the fj 
that that country was in the direct line of trade from the I 
East on its way to the Mediterranean. The earliest remains 
Mesopotamia show very conclusively that such trade with the I 
East had existed as early as 6000 or 5000 years B.C. This stj 
of affairs lasted until the eighth century B.C., when a colon 
movement, directed by the Asiatic Greeks under the leadership 
Miletus, opened up the Black Sea and the Caucasus, and secui 
a way to the Far East which did not pass through Mesopotam 
while the western market was assured, owing to the activity of t 
Greeks of Hellas, which resulted in the colonization of Sicily a 
Magna Graecia. As the two systems came into conflict the Me 
potamian system was undersold, owing to the fact that the Gre 
route lay for the greater part of the distance by water, and tli 
made freight rates cheaper, and consequently after another centn 
the cities of Babylon or Nineveh were either destroyed or th 
former prosperity materially lessened. 

The evidence of remains found in Greek and Asiatic soil sho 
very clearly that after the end of the Mycenaean era commerc 
intercourse existed between Greece and Asia Minor (Ionian citie 
but that until the end of the eighth century there is no trace of a: 
connection between the Greek world and Mesopotamia. The i 
called Oriental Influence, which is most marked in the pottei 
makes itself felt first at Miletus, then passes to Greece proper, 
the Argive (proto-Corinthian) styles, and then appears in the we 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 81 

era world. As this does not occur until after the colonial chain 
has been established, we can only conclude that the Oriental Influ- 
ence in Greek Art is entirely due to the increased commercial 
intercourse with the Far East, and thus with Mesopotamia as well. 
Until that colonial policy was established, the two regions did not 
come into contact with each other. 

Remarks were made by Professor G. F. Moore. 

4. Professor Martin L. D'Ooge, of the University of Michi- 
gan, New Points in the History of the Acropolis at Athens. 

The library of the University of Strassburg has lately acquired a 
papyrus fragment from Egypt, the verso side of which has Greek 
writing dating from the second half of the first century of our era. 
The text deals with historical matters, and appears to be of the 
nature of an epitome. 

This papyrus has recently been edited and interpreted by Bruno 
Keil, under the title, Anonymus Argentinensis. His interpretation 
of the first excerpt is in substance as follows : That a general build- 
ing commission to superintend the erection of new temples on the 
Acropolis was appointed, and that ten years after the appointment 
of this commission the Athenians began to build the Parthenon. 
Upon the basis of this statement Keil discusses the history of the 
older Parthenon, of the so-called Cimonian wall of the Acropolis, 
and of the Periclean Parthenon. 

Assuming his interpretation of the papyrus to be correct, he draws 
from the course of events during the period beginning about 478 B.C. 
and closing with 447, the date of the beginning of the Periclean 
temple, the following inferences : 

(1) That the older Parthenon was not begun by Cimon, as is com- 
monly held, but by Themistocles and his associates. 

(2) That the site of the temple extending, as it does, fully one- 
half beyond the edge of the slope of the native rock required an 
artificially constructed basis, and that the building of this basis 
involved tearing down the old Pelasgic wall which guarded the 
Acropolis on the south side. Accordingly that, when this site for 

j the new temple was chosen, the erection of the Cimonian wall was 
also planned. 

(3) That the appointment of the building commission and the 
adoption of new plans is to be regarded as the outcome of the Gen- 

j eral Congress of the Greek States proposed by Pericles. The date of 
this Congress is probably about 457 B.C., which is ten years before 



82 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

the Periclean temple was begun, and tallies with the statement 
the papyrus. This delay of nearly ten years in executing 1 
plans for rebuilding the Acropolis was due to the many expen 
tures of the state in this interim. 

(4) That the recently found inscription which records the dec 
for building the temple of Athena Nike, and which is to be da 
between 457 and 450, confirms the interpretation of the papyi 
according to which a general plan for rebuilding the Acropolis ^ 
adopted as early as 457. 

These views were briefly discussed, and in the main approv 
the assumption being always that the restoration and interpretat 
of the papyrus are correct. 

Remarks were made by Professor S. G. Ashmore and Alf: 
Emerson. 

5. Professor George F. Moore, of Harvard University, E 
tylia and Other Holy Stones. 

The ancient descriptions of baetylia agree in representing then 
small, round stones, usually of dark color, and in ascribing to tl 
peculiar properties. They were believed to have fallen from hea^ 
to be endowed with motion and speech, to give oracular respon 
and to manifest in other ways extraordinary powers. They v 
especially common in the Lebanon Mountains ; but the stone wh 
in the Cretan myth, Rhea gave Kronos to devour instead of Zi 
was also a baitulos. The name is not connected, in our tradit 
with the stone at Delphi of which the same story is told. Mod 
writers often apply the term baetylia to the whole class of li 
stones, pillars, obelisks, cones, and the like an extension for wl 
there is no warrant in either Semitic or Greek antiquity. The i 
use of the word can be traced to scholars of the seventeenth centi 
who derived the widespread custom of anointing holy stones f: 
Jacob's example (Gen. xxviii), and saw in the name baitulos a re 
niscence of Bethel. 

Remarks were made by Professor S. I. Curtiss. 

6. Professor George F. Barton, of Bryn Mawr Colk 
Director of the American School of Oriental Research in Pa 
tine, Some Archeological Notes on Asia Minor and Syria. (I 
sented in abstract by Professor George F. Moore.) 

The notes were based on a trip through Asia Minor during 
autumn, and were intended merely as a report of archeological ne 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 83 

The results of the Austrian excavations at Ephesus, and the German 
at Baalbek, were briefly described. The present condition of Sardis 
and its advantages as a site for excavation were dwelt upon at 
greater length. The paper closed with the mention of a mosaic 
recently discovered at 'Arrub, near Hebron. It seems to have formed 
part of the pavement of an old church, and bears an inscription in 
corrupt Greek. It has been published in the London Graphic, with 
an incorrect interpretation of its significance. 

7. Professor Samuel Ives Curtiss, of the Chicago Theological 
Seminary, The Place of Sacrifice among the Primitive Semites. 

There is but one way of determining the place of sacrifice among 
the primitive Semites, and that is by studying the Semitic type at 
the stage where primitive conditions may be found. Such a type 
may be best observed in Syria and Arabia to-day. It is more primi- 
tive than any which can be discovered in the literature of the Assyr- 
ians or the Hebrews, because this actually exhibits a much later 
stage. The main difficulties in determining the type through ancient 
literature arise because a sufficient number of examples do not exist 
for a satisfactory induction. On the other hand, the investigator 
who moves among representatives of primitive Semitism can gather 
manifold examples of every important usage, so that, instead of 
having a meagre outline of primitive rites, he can draw a complete 
picture. From this source the following conclusions may be drawn: 

(1) The altar for fire offerings did not exist among the primitive 
Semites. 

(2) Sacrifice consisted simply in slaughtering. This is indicated 
in Arabic, Hebrew, and Aramaic. 

(3) The place of sacrifice is simply the spot where the sacrifice 
may be killed or the animal slaughtered. In Arabic, madhbah sig- 
nifies both "altar 7 ' and "slaughter-house." 

(4) There are two primitive places of sacrifice : (i) At the shrine 
of some being who has the value of God to the worshipper, or, at 
least, of some being of whom he stands in fear, (ii) The other 
primitive place of sacrifice is at the dwelling of the one offering it, 
whether that be cave, tent, or permanent building. 

(5) Perhaps another step in the development toward the use of 
an altar as the place of sacrifice is in a custom, especially prevalent 
among the Arabs east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, of slaughter- 
ing their victims either on a ledge or on stones, or on an elevated 
rock or a rude table made by a stone resting on two upright stones. 

Here my discussion of this subject might end, but I cannot well 



84 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

pass by some observations bearing on the further development of tl 
altar of the later Semites made during two visits to Petra, and i 
connection with the study of two high places there. 

At the first high place known among the Arabs as Zulib artu 
" merciful phallus," perhaps the name of God, derived from the tv 
monoliths south of the high place, are two altars side by side, ci 
out of a ledge of rock; one, evidently designed for the immolatic 
of victims, with two concentric pans cut out of the rock, well adapt* 
to catch the sacrificial blood, the other with a cutting in the cent] 
for the sacrificial fire. We seem to have a similar combination in 
passage in Ezekiel, where eight tables are mentioned on which th 
slew the sacrifices, and then four tables for the burnt offerings, of he\v 
stone (Ezek. xl, 39-42), though the meaning is not altogether clear. 

While these observations at Petra may be of interest, among tl 
Syrians and Arabs the only altar found is the place where the victi: 
is immolated. 

Remarks were made by Professor G. F. Moore, and I 
Professor Curtiss in reply. 

8. Professor Arthur Fairbanks, of the State University ( 
Iowa, A Comparison of the Scenes on WJiite Lecythi and on Grra\ 
Stelae. 

A comparison of Attic white lecythi with grave stelae shows thi 
many of the same scenes appear on both. The domestic scenes c 
gravestones of the aediculum type are found on lecythi from tl 
middle of the fifth century B.C., and it may be claimed that tl 
treatment of this scene by the lecythus painter influenced Gree 
thought of the dead, and so indirectly influenced the sculptors ( 
grave stelae. The same motives led both painter and sculptor 1 
represent those fallen in battle as in the thick of the fight. Whi' 
scenes on stelae are generally domestic (or scenes of parting) an 
those on lecythi ordinarily represent worship at the grave, the t\v 
lines touch at many points. In some instances the painter of 
lecythus copied both stele and scene, or repeated the scene withoi 
giving the monument on which it had once stood. 

THURSDAY, JANUARY 1. 2.30 P.M. 

1. Miss Alice C. Fletcher, Thaw Fellow of the Peabod 
Museum, Cambridge, Mass., The Significance of Dress. 

This contribution to the study of the significance of dress WE 
based upon data taken from the religious observances and rituals, tli 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 85 

social usages, and the individual habits of the Omaha Indians and 
their cognates in the United States. The subject was considered 
under the following heads : 

Personal Significance of Dress : (1) As a mark of personality, born 
of the desire of a man to be distinguished from the horde. (2) As 
symbolizing man's dependence upon the supernatural. (3) As a 
means of proclaiming his achievements. 

Social Significance of Dress : (1) As a mark of the clan or the gens. 
(2) As illustrating the interdependence of men. (3) As exemplify- 
ing the growth of personal freedom under the regulating influence 
of tribal society. This point was illustrated by photographs taken 
from life. 

2. Professor J. R. Wheeler, of Columbia University, Hera- 
cles Alexicacus. 

This was a discussion of the Greek votive relief described by 
Mr. Edward Kobinson in the Report of the Trustees, of the Museum 
of Fine Arts in Boston, for 1896, p. 23. 

A youthful Heracles stands before an altar which in its design 
recalls a Doric temple. Upon the altar is a two-handled cup. The 
inscription HPAKAEO^ AAEEIKAKOis cut on the upper step of 
the altar. The letters show apices. The probable date of the in- 
scription is the end of the fourth century B.C., and this is about in 
accord with the style of the relief, which, however, might be held 
to suggest an earlier time. A youthful figure stands behind Hera- 
cles at the left. This is probably Hermes, though some persons 
have thought that lolaus is represented by it. 

The relief is Attic, but the figures are of the heavy type which 
it has been the habit to associate with work of the earlier Argive 
school. This fact might suggest the possibility of a reminiscence 
of the Heracles Alexicacus of Hagelaidas, which was made for the 
temple in Melite. But the figures on the relief do not show strongly 
marked types. They are little more than Attic ephebi, and the sub- 
ject of the scene, in which the wine cup should be especially noted, 
is probably explained by the gloss of Hesychius, s.v. 
which runs, 'AOrjvyo-Lv ol /xe'AAoi/Tes e<r7/?evW, irplv 
,/u.aXXov, eiVe<epov 'HpctKAet /xeVpov oivov, /cat oWo-avres rots 
CTreStSow TTtW, 77 B o-TrovS^ eKaXelro otvtao-r^pta. The god IS about to 
accept the offering. 

Remarks were made by Professor J. H. Wright, and by Pro- 
fessor Wheeler in reply. 



86 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

3. Rev. Dr. William Hayes Ward, of New York City, T> 
Rule of Symmetry in Early Oriental Art. 

The famous Lion Gate of Mycenae has long been considered 
peculiarly important specimen of what we have coine to call Myc 
naean art. Its characteristic is its monumental symmetry, wh 
anatomists of the human figure call bilateral symmetry, in whic 
two opposing parts exactly resemble each other, but reversed. Son 
of the " island gems " show this bilateral symmetry in the arrang 
ment of animals facing each other. But the great enlargement > 
our knowledge of Mycenaean art by the labors of Schliemann, 
Cesnola, Evans, and others, shows us that the spirit of this M 
cenaean art was not conventionally stiff, but was very free. It w; 
represented rather by its flounced women in easy attitudes, its cuttl 
fishes, and its various intricate spirals. Its monumental symmet: 
was evidently not natural, but was borrowed, and belonged to tl 
farther East. 

This symmetry had its origin in the earliest known art of Bab 
Ionia. Whether it was Semitic or Sumerian at first I cannot poi 
tively say ; but we know it best in its Semitic development, whi< 
even controlled literature, as in the parallelism of Hebrew poetry. 

This fondness for bilateral symmetry in art perhaps had its orig 
in the drawing of the human figure en face. It appears on a sto] 
laver of Gudea's time, which is surrounded by female figures 
low relief, with outstretched arms, each hand holding a streamii 
vase which was also grasped by the adjoining figure. The go 
dess Ishtar is often drawn en face, standing on two symmetric 
lions. 

Illustrations of this bilateral symmetry from the earliest Baby] 
nian period are very numerous. Such is the seal of Sargon I, perha 
3800 B.C., with its two admirable figures of Gilgamesh giving drii 
from a vase to a buffalo. We also have Gilgamesh subduing a buffal 
or a lion, or a human-headed bull. In all these cases the thought 
of a single personage repeated, and not of two different ones. Ofti 
two lions cross each other, each attacking a bull, and each attack 
by a human figure. 

This symmetry appears in a multitude of pairs of seated goddess 
facing each other, really the same single goddess Gula ; two lio: 
under the feet or adorning the chair of the goddess Ishtar ; two s< 
pents twined on a column, or held in the hand of a god as a cad 
ceus; two mythological figures with wings, facing each other, 
a human face in profile doubled to give two Janus-like faces. Ev< 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 87 

when a god and his goddess are figured together they sit facing each 
other, dressed alike, and distinguished only by the beard. 

From Babylonia this rule of symmetry, so early hardened into 
conventionalism, was adopted from the first in Assyria. A multi- 
tude of instances show two identical human or divine figures, or two 
animals, facing either a sacred tree or a column, as in the Gate of 
Mycenae, or two figures beneath the winged divine disk. There is 
hardly anything else but such stiff conventionalities in Assyrian 
religious art, although we find much more liberty in the historical 
representations of the campaigns of the Assyrian kings. 

These designs passed farther north, from Assyria into Asia Minor, 
and affected the so-called Hittite art. It was from this source that 
the Mycenaean art occasionally borrowed it. It appears especially 
in lions and sphinxes facing each other, and in representations of 
the winged disk with two human figures. 

In the earlier period the art of Elam did not differ at all, so far as 
we know, from that of Babylonia. Indeed, the two were one country. 
In the time of the Achaemenian kings of Persia the difference is 
plainly distinguishable, but the symmetry is quite as dominating, if 
less varied. We see very little but a crowned god or king, lifting two 
lions. This appears on the tomb of Cyrus, and on numerous seals. 

Remarks were made by Professor S. I. Curtiss and Dr. E. 
Littmann, and by Dr. Ward in reply. 

4. Professor Harold N. Fowler, of Western Reserve Univer- 
sity, The Venus of Milo. 

The inscription of Theodoridas has been shown to belong to one 
of the herms discovered with the Venus. This proves the correct- 
ness of one of Voutier's drawings, thus raising the question whether 
the drawing in which the inscription of Alexandros from Antioch- 
on-the-Maeander is connected with another herm may not also be 
correct. Furtwangler's restoration of the Venus thus becomes less 
probable. Interesting documents relating to the Venus have recently 
been published. The date of the Venus is probably the fourth or 
the third century B.C. The paper was chiefly a review of the follow- 
ing articles : Furtwangler, Sitzb. Miin. Akad. 1897, III, pp. 414 ff. ; 
1900, V, pp. 708 ff. ; Michon, R. t. Gr. 1900, pp. 302 ff. ; 1902, pp. 
11 ff. ; Heron de Villefosse, C. R. Acad. Insc. 1900, pp. 465 ff. ; Hiller 
i v. Gaertringen, Hermes, 1901, pp. 305 ff. ; and S. Reinach, Chron. 
d'Arts, July 9, 1898, December 22, 1900, and May 4, 1901, and R. 
Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 207 ff. 



88 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

5. Professor Thomas B. Lindsay, of Boston University, 1 
Basilica Aemilia. 

The paper contained a brief sketch of the history of the buildi 
from its construction in 179 B.C. At present about one half of 1 
site has been excavated. The remains brought to light belong 
four distinct periods : 

(1) Parts of the foundation of the republican basilica, chie 
blocks of gray-green tufa. 

(2) Eemains of the basilica of the early empire, which show tl 
it consisted, so far as the present excavations go, of a portions 
series of rectangular tabernae, and a large central hall. 

The few fragments of the porticus which have been found coi 
spond with the fifteenth-century drawings and with the bucrani 
which was discovered in 1885. This porticus extended from 1 
Curia to the temple of Antoninus and Faustina and had fifteen lai 
pillars like those of the Basilica Julia. The tabernae, which oj 
upon the porticus and of which only the middle one is conned 
with the main hall, were doubtless used as waiting-rooms, offices, e 

The main hall, divided into three parts by two rows of colum 
was 22 in. wide and probably about 80 m. long ; on the floor, wh 
is composed of fine marble blocks, was found a large number 
pieces of bronze and iron, coins, nail-heads, etc., half melted a 
embedded in the marble. 

(3) The most striking objects brought to light by the excavati( 
are the columns of red granite, which probably date from a rec 
structioii of the fourth century of our era. 

(4) Probably in the seventh or eighth century of ourera a p 
of the site of the tabernae and the porticus was used for a rudi 
constructed two-story building, in which one of the thresholds \ 
formed by a large marble slab taken originally from the Regia a 
containing parts of the Fasti of the years 380 and 330 B.C. 

6. Professor Tracy Peck, of Yale University, The Persoi 
Address in Roman Epitaphs. 

Attention was first called to the exceptionally personal and si 
jective quality of Latin literature. The writers are, in general, 
prone to self-revelation and to identifying themselves sympath< 
cally with their characters and situations that the literature 
largely autobiographic. With this subjective tendency runs a foi 
ness for the conversational or dramatic method of presentati 
Hence the frequent occurrence of personification, apostrophe, soli 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 89 

quy, imaginary colloquies, prayers, imprecations. All this appears 
in the treatment of the dead as well as of the living. It is not sur- 
prising, therefore, to find the same characteristics in Roman epitaphs. 

The paper made some classification of pagan epitaphs according to 
the kind of personal address in them. In very many epitaphs the 
dead is represented as speaking, sometimes to set forth his own 
career and character, sometimes to console surviving relatives and 
friends, sometimes to appeal to strangers for recognition or remem- 
brance, sometimes to moralize on life its chances and its end. In 
other inscriptions the dead is addressed, most frequently in saluta- 
tions and farewells. Often it is the stone itself that seems to urge 
the traveller to linger and peruse the epitaph. And the stone is 
itself entreated to guard its charge tenderly, as the earth is fre- 
quently invoked to rest lightly on the dead. In many cases there 
is a dialogue between the dead and the living, either members of the 
family or friends or chance passers-by. Again, the address 'takes 
the form of good wishes, either from the dead to survivors, or from 
wayfarers to the dead. Many times the epitaphs contain fearful 
and definite curses against any who may desecrate the tombs. Other 
grave-inscriptions express moral reflections on life and mortality. 

In conclusion was suggested the value of such epitaphs for enlarg- 
ing our knowledge of the conjugal and domestic relations of the 
Romans, of some traits in their friendships, and of their feelings in 
regard to death, to a future state of consciousness, and to the grate- 
ful memory of others as a kind of immortality. 

7. Rev. Dr. John P. Peters, of New York City, Two Tombs 
from the Necropolis of Marissa. 

In June of last year, 1902, in company with Dr. Hermann Thiersch 
of Munich, I visited the site of the excavations of Dr. Bliss at Tel 
Sandahannah in the Shephelah near Beit Jibrin. As a result of 
these excavations great impetus has been given to private digging by 
the natives throughout that section of the country. These excava- 
tions they have conducted in quite a systematic and intelligent fash- 
ion, so far as finding the graves is concerned. They have discovered 
the necropolis of the city of Mareshah, which the explorers failed to 
find. For a distance of about two miles north of Beit Jibrin, along 
the wady eastward of Tel Sandahannah, hundreds of graves of vari- 
ous periods have been dug up, rifled, and their contents destroyed or 
sold to antiquity dealers. 

Shortly before our arrival, two tombs of very unusual character 
and interest had been discovered. These it is the purpose of this 



90 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

paper briefly to describe. They were tombs of the Ptolemaic pei 
and of a type somewhat similar to the Ptolemaic tombs in Eg; 
They stood at the foot of the hill opposite Tel Sandahannah and 
entrances had been concealed by the earth arid debris which 
washed down from above. Both of these tombs were ornamer 
within, and also, in one case, at the doorway without, with pa 
ings, and both of them contained inscriptions. In this respect t 
are practically unique among tombs hitherto discovered in Palest 
The plan of the tombs within is in general a square hall or a 
chamber, with three rooms opening out of it, two smaller ones to 
right and left and the main chamber in front. The burials in tl 
tombs were in loculi, with a stone bench in front. There were pli 
for about forty bodies in each tomb. At the end of the main r< 
in both cases were, instead of loculi, larger state chambers, if 
may so call them, for the reception of the chiefs of the family. 

In one tomb there was a most interesting painted frieze over 
loculi in the main chamber, representing more than twenty dift'e] 
animals. The animals represented were, to a considerable ext 
African the elephant, the hippopotamus, the rhinoceros, and 
crocodile. One or two were mythical or semi-mythical and on 
two apparently imaginative. Over the various animals were insc 
tions giving their names. The painting and decoration in general 
a mixture of Greek and Egyptian. Among the names of the o< 
pants of the graves which are inscribed, a number are Edom: 
Marissa, the city to which this necropolis belonged, was in the p 
exilic period not in the territory of Israel, but of the Edomites, 
Marissa itself is called the capital of Idumaea. An inscription ( 
one of the state chambers for the chiefs of the family stated 1 
the occupant of the tomb was the ruler of the Sidonians in Mari 
This gives us positive evidence that the town lying underneath 
Tel of Sandahannah was Marissa, the Mareshah of the Old Te 
ment, the home of the Prophet Micah, and the further interesl 
information that in the post- Alexandrian period a Sidonian col 
had been planted at this place. Outside of the inscriptions rec< 
ing names were one or two of an erotic character of rather cur: 
interest. The symbolism and decorations of the tomb were intei 
ing also from a religious standpoint. 

The second tomb was more artistically decorated especially al 
the grave of the head of the family. The painting of this tomb 
upon plaster, which had been laid on the walls, and not immedia 
upon the stone, as in the first tomb. Two panels on either sid 
the main chamber were really graceful and charming works of 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 91 

representing on the one side musicians descending to the door of 
the tomb and on the other a festival scene in which one of the 
banqueters pours a libation at the doors of the tomb. Both these 
panels were, unfortunately, badly mutilated by the fanatical Arabs 
of Beit Jibrin, because of the human faces and figures which they 
contained. A number of the inscriptions in both tombs were dated, 
but the era of all is not yet clear. The tombs belonged to the 
third or second century B.C. 



THURSDAY, JANUARY 1. 8.30 P.M. 

The Annual Address by Professor William Watson Goodwin, 
of Harvard University, A Recent Visit to Greek Lands. 

By way of introduction, the speaker justified himself, as a clas- 
sical philologist, for addressing an archaeological audience, on the 
ground of the distinguished services which the Archaeological Insti- 
tute has always rendered to classical studies. Its greatest work has 
been the maintenance of the School of Classical Studies at Athens 
for more than twenty years, in addition to its important labors in 
other fields. He alluded to the significant fact that Friedrich 
August Wolf gave a large and important place in his grand scheme 
of Classical Philology at Halle to the Archaeology and History of 
Ancient Art and Architecture. Wolf was the first who ever enrolled 
himself at a German university as a " student of Philology," which 
he did in 1777 at Gottingen, to the great consternation of Heyne 
and the other authorities. 

He then gave a brief account of what had especially interested 
him in a recent visit to Greek lands. He spoke of the rare oppor- 
tunity afforded by the ugly staging, which has entirely covered the 
west front of the Parthenon for several years, for photographing the 
sculptures of the west frieze. These wonderful works of art can 
hardly have been seen with any satisfaction before this, since the 
temple was built ; and this opportunity has been eagerly improved 
by all who could gain admission to the platform beneath the colon- 
nade. The new photographs, some of which are very large, astonish 
and delight all who see them. He then spoke of the beautiful 
bronze Hermes which was rescued from the sea south of Pelopon- 
nesus, and was undergoing restoration last spring in the Museum of 
Athens. This is generally believed in Athens to have been part of 
the precious cargo of antique treasures which Sulla sent off from 
Athens to Rome soon after his capture of Athens in 86 B.C. One of 



92 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

the famous works of art then sent from Athens was the painting 
Zeuxis of the female Centaur with her two infants, described 
Lucian ; and we know that the ship bearing this and Sulla's ot 
plunder was wrecked near Cape Malea. Kabbadias believes t 
this statue will take the place among bronzes which the Herine; 
Praxiteles holds among marbles. 

A short account of Delphi followed, as it now appears after 
excavations made by the French. The whole sacred precinct at 
the temple of Apollo, with the road leading to Arachova, lined 
temples, is now open to view ; and it is easy to identify almost 
the buildings mentioned by Pausanias on both sides of the wind 
Sacred Way, the ancient pavement of which is now complel 
uncovered. The great disappointment in these excavations has b 
the almost complete destruction of the temple itself, of which li 
now remains above the foundations. It is at least some consolal 
to know, what we ought to have known before, that this tempL 
not the famous one built by the Alcmeonidae at great cost after 
burning of an older temple in 548 B.C., but a much later one, erec 
in the fourth century B.C., which was spoken of by Aeschines in 
B.C., in a speech made at Delphi in the spring of that year, as t 
being a " new temple, not yet dedicated." 

In conclusion, attention was called to the great importance wl 
Crete has suddenly assumed as a centre of archaeological inter 
The discovery of the wonderful edifice at Cnossos, called the pal 
of King Minos, by Mr. Arthur Evans, with its labyrinthine maze: 
halls and storerooms, often in two, three, or even four stories, give: 
a view of the splendor and power of the Mycenaean age which was 
tirely unsuspected. The most wonderful discovery, one which pr 
ises to overthrow many of our ideas concerning alphabetic writi 
is that of about 2000 clay tablets covered with inscriptions in 
unknown alphabet, which must be either literal or syllabic. Besi 
the tablets, vases and cups have been found with inscriptions in 
same characters, sometimes running round the inside in sev< 
lines. This discovery of actual writing, of a date hardly later t] 
1200 B.C., in a Greek island, traditionally inhabited by men clog 
connected with the Achaean heroes of the Trojan War, is an ev 
of the first magnitude. We, and perhaps our successors, must 1 
forward most eagerly to the interpretation of these inscripth 
which may throw a flood of light upon the prehistoric age of Gre< 
and upon the history of the art of writing. 






GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 93 
FRIDAY, JANUARY 2. 9.30 A.M. 



1. Professor Kirby Flower Smith, of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, The Influence of Art upon Certain Traditional Passages 
In the Epic Poetry of Statius. 

The influence of art upon Statius, especially the sources of it, was 
thoroughly investigated by Gaymann in 1896. The object of this 
paper, however, was not the source, but the effect and meaning of 
artistic influence in Statius. The investigation, moreover, was con- 
fined to those passages which owe their inspiration to literary remi- 
niscence and, more particularly, to a small but important number of 
passages in which the characteristic feature, the central idea of the 
tradition, had always remained a homely touch of nature, until 
finally destroyed in Statius himself by the intrusion of art and 
mythology. 

One passage only was developed in detail. The tradition of it 
is : Euripides, Troad. 556 ff. ; Apollonius, Arg. IV, 127-138 ; Virgil, 
Am. VII, 511-518 (who substituted the Fury for the Dragon, influ- 
enced, perhaps, by II. XX, 48 f.) ; Valerius Flaccus, Arg. II, 196-203 
(Virgil, with some reversion to Apollonius) ; Statius, Theb. 1, 114-122 
(Virgil). 

The traditional touch of nature (describing the effect of sudden 
and extreme fright) is represented, for example, by Virgil's line : 

Et trepidae matres pressere ad pectora natos. 
In Statius, however, we have : 

Ipsa suum genetrix curuo delphine uagantem 
Abripuit frenis gremioque Palaemona pressit. 

It will be seen that nature, here, has been sacrificed to the gods, 
and, further, that the gods have struck a conventional attitude. The 
little Palaemon is driving his pet dolphin with a pair of toy reins 
|(cf. Theb. IX, 131 ; Apul. Met. IV, 31 ; Claud. X, 156). Near by is 
ttris mother, Leucothea. Here, arrested for one fleeting moment, is a 
picture which reminds us of a Campanian fresco. In that moment 
pomes the cry of the Fury. The traditional act of mother love gives 
she scene life, and the picture dissolves. 

Poetry of this sort has an undeniable beauty of its own. Never- 
theless it is a symptom of that petrifaction which finally spread 
over the whole body of Roman epic after Statius. 

2. Mr. Charles H. Weller, of New Haven, Conn., The Pre- 
Periclean Propylon of the Acropolis at Athens. 



94 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

The principal extant portions of the Pre-Periclean Propylon 
(1) the cuttings in the rock in the great central doorway of 
Propylaea of Mnesicles ; (2) a portion of the side wall, autae, s 
and wing back of the southwest wing of the Propylaea; (3) 
comer of the Propylon wing south of the Propylaea. 

A small excavation made by the writer in the second area i 
tioned revealed two fine marble steps under the one before un 
ered, rock-hewn steps below the familiar tripod base, a slab of 
floor, and the lead-lined socket of an inscription or herm. Meaj 
inents with a levelling instrument showed the outer (southern) 
inner parts of the Propylon wing to be on the same horizontal \ 
This shows an extraordinary difference of level in the case of 
eutliynterion 011 the two adjacent sides of the southwest wing of 
Periclean building. The limits of the Propylon wing can be d 
mined, the end stones being bound by H-shaped clamps, which ai 
value in dating the structure. 

Study of the cutting in the rock in the great doorway of 
Propylaea determines that the northern limit of the Propylon 
at this point. The width of the building being thus determined 
key to the further reconstruction is at hand. The constructio 
the floor and of the triglyphon confirms the theory presented a 
the width. The Propylon fills the angle between the old "P 
gian " wall, and a prolongation of the wall running up from 
Beule gate. It is an interesting fact that the central axis of 
Propylon as thus restored meets the facade of the Nike temp] 
its middle point. 

There are reasons for believing that the Chalcidian chj 
(Herod. V, 77) stood on the cutting visible along the modern s 
up to the Propylaea. 

3. Mr. Edward L. Tilton, of New York City, A Greek 1 

of Stone at the Argive Heraeum. 

At the Argive Heraeum, among the ruins of the so-called " \ 
Building," are fragments of a stone door and a threshold well 
served. The building may have served as a maternity hospital, a 
Hera was the patroness of births and marriages, and in two oi 
rooms are remains of stone couches. The third room may have 1 
a treasury or strong room to receive the money and tokens rece 
from the patients, for it was closed by the stone door under discuss 

The fragment preserves the knob, or pivot, cut from the ston 
the door. This pivot measured 0.10 m., or 4 in., in diameter, 
revolved originally upon bronze plates, now gone, which fit cei 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 95 

cuts in the limestone threshold at the entrance to the room. The 
cuts indicate double or bivalve doors, which were usual in Greece ; 
and according to custom, also, the doors swung into the room. The 
right-hand valve was used more than the left, as indicated by the 
greater abrasion of the threshold on that side. A slot in the thresh- 
old apparently indicates a bolt fastening, and other cuts show plainly 
the position of the door jambs, which may have been either of wood 
or stone. The arrangement of wooden jambs is shown by Dr. Dorp- 
feld at the Heraeum, Olympia, while Heuzey and Daumet found a 
tomb at Palatitza in Macedonia with marble doors and stone jambs. 
These doors are now in the Louvre; they are carved to imitate 
wooden doors bound with riveted iron bands, and they swing on 
bronze pivots and sockets very nicely fitted, and were originally 
supplied with a handle and a latch attached to the marble bosses 
in the panels. We find similar doors represented on Greek red- 
figured vases of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. 

The door at the Argive Heraeum is apparently much older than 
the one from Palatitza or than those shown in the vase paintings, and 
its date may be assigned to the sixth century B.C., the same as the 
West Building, of which it was a part. 

That the West Building belonged to the sixth century is evident 
from various indications, such as dovetail clamps, the columns with 
fourteen and sixteen channels instead of twenty, and the early form 
of the echinus mouldings of the capitals. 

4. Dr. James D. Rogers, of Columbia University, On the 
io-fJiaTa TTVpyiva of Aeschylus, Pers. 859. 

Of the numerous explanations of this enigmatic expression, none 
has been admitted into the Lexicon of Liddell & Scott. A new inter- 
pretation seems therefore to be demanded. Since this expression is 
used by a Persian, and expressly of Persian institutions, one is just- 
ified in looking to Persian soil for an explanation. This theory is 
pased on the supposition that the writer of the Persians knew some- 
thing of the two objects in the Persian dominions which especially 
Attracted the attention of Greek travellers, viz. two types of towers. 
iBoth types were imposing and colossal. One type is suggested by 
the expression, " The Tower of Babel." rferodotus applied to these 
buildings, the temples, the term Trvpyos. Upon or in these tower- 
fern pies were the royal writings. The other type of inscribed towers 
jwere those at the city gates and the palace doors. The bases of 
fchese towers were flanked by colossal winged figures about whose 
podies were long inscriptions which narrated the acts of the kings, 



96 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

and indicated what was custom or precedent. It appears, then, 
the two most conspicuous objects in the region of the Euphr 
were these towers which contained the writings of the supr 
authority. This is quite unlike Greek custom, and this peci 
feature has been, I believe, indicated here by Aeschylus. vo/xiVj 
(or VO/U/AO. TO) TTvpyiva. are simply " the custom-laws of the towe 
(Cf. Aaytvav yeWav, Acjam. 119.) 

5. Dr. George H. Chase, of Harvard University, An Amp) 
with a New /ca\6s-Name, in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 

A red-figured Attic amphora, of severe style, in the Perkins 
lection of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (P 6516), has on 1 
sides a figure of Athena between Ionic columns surmounted by co 
very similar to the scheme of decoration upon the obverse of 1 
athenaic amphorae. The appearance of Athena upon both side 
the vase, the use of the red-figured technique, the absence of 
inscription TWV 'AOyvrjOev a#Awv, the height of the vase (0.436 
and the fact that the goddess carries her helmet in her right li 
and her spear in her left all combine to show that this is 
a true Panathenaic amphora, but an imitation, and it is corre 
called pseudo-Panathenaic in the Trustees' Report for 1895 (p. 
No. 13). 

The shield of Athena is decorated on the obverse with a Peg; 
and the inscription PlIOON KAUE, on the reverse with an ivy-wr< 
and NIKE KAUE. P>oth these inscriptions are, in a way, uni 
The words NIK?; KaX-rj appear upon a red-figured hydria in the Bri 
Museum (E 251), but are there placed over a figure of Victory 
that the parallel is not very close. The use of this inscription \ 
the Boston vase is, perhaps, to be traced to the close associa 
of the idea of victory with the Panathenaic vases which the a 
was copying. The name Pithon has not been noted before i 
KaAos name, although it appears in Attic inscriptions (G.I.A. I, 
and 434 ; II, 966) and, rarely, in literature, being frequently confi 
in manuscripts with the forms HvOw and IIei0an>. The use of 
feminine adjective may be only a careless mistake. More proba 
however, the artist wished to stigmatize Pithon as an effemi 
dandy, just as Aristophanes speaks of KAeoW^ (Birds, 480), 1 
ace of Pediatia (Sat. I, 8, 39), Cicero of Egilia (De Orat. II, 2 
and Tacitus of Gaia Caesar (Ann. VI, 5). 

6. Dr. Enno Littmann, of Princeton University, Archaeol 
col Details from Syriac Inscriptions. 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER- JANUARY, 1902-03 97 

Among the Syriac inscriptions found by the American Archaeo- 
logical Expedition to Syria there are a few which are of particular 
interest from an archaeological point of view. One of them is on 
the lintel of a small country church in the mountains near Antioch : 
" In the year 556 according to the era of Antioch was completed this 
church. And there were spent on it 85 darics and 430 bushels of 
beans, wheat, and lentils, besides the chief expenses." The sums 
given in detail were the contribution of the community of the village, 
the chief expenses were the sums that came from the ecclesiastical 
centre, Antioch or even Constantinople. The two taken together may 
have constituted the general building fund, but it is more likely that 
the darics and the bushels formed the wages of the masons, whereas 
the chief expenses covered the cost of the raw material and the 
remuneration of the architect. Another inscription is on a portico 
used for shops in a town of the same region. It gives the date 
(547-548 A.D.) and tells by whom the edifice was erected : three 
" brothers " purchased the land, and a fourth " brother " put up the 
building. " Brothers " may mean " Christian brethren " ; in that 
case, the establishment was probably a pious gift for the public 
benefit. Or the term may mean " associates," perhaps " members 
of a trade-guild " ; then we would have here an interesting contribu- 
tion toward the knowledge of the commercial life in these Syriac 
ities. 

7. Professor Alfred Emerson, of Ithaca, N.Y., G-reek Sculp- 
tures in California. 

This was a report on the speaker's purchase of antique marbles 
n Italy for the University of California. Italy's annual output of 
:resh material exceeds that of Greece. Export regulations and duties 
are also less prohibitory. 

The series comprises : 

(1) Herma of Dionysos, formerly in the Villa Borghese, a work 
.n sixth-century Athenian style. 

(2) Herma of Dione, truer to the archaic type. The male figure 
of this double herma is lost. 

(3) Double herma of Dionysos and Dione. Both types reflect 
something of the Athenian school whose greatest master was Phidias. 
Headdress is earlier. 

(4, 5) Two plinths of long-robed female statues. Archaistic. 

(6) Female torso. Resembles early figures found on the Acropo- 
lis. Sixth century. 

(7) Bearded portrait. Early fifth century. 



98 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

(8) Helios rising from the sea, and a river-god. Corner slab < 
pediment. 

(9) Head of Hermes. Kesembles the Chinnery marbles in 
British Museum. Late copy of a Greek work of the fourth cent 

(10) Bust of Artemis wearing a crescent. 

(11) Inscribed henna of pseudo-Plato. 

(12) Head of a Greek philosopher. 
(13, 14) Two torsos of Aphrodite. 

(15) Head of a youth. Unfinished. 

(16) Head of a nymph, after a bronze original. Kecalls 
school of Lysippos. 

(17) Head of a Bacchante, after an original of the third cent 

(18) Head of a little boy, after an original of the second cent 

(19) Fountain statue of a small boy. First century. 

8. Mr. Howard C. Butler, of Princeton University, 1 
Unpublished Churches of the First Quarter of the Fifth Centi 
in Northern Central Syria. 

These churches are situated in a group of large ruined and 
serted towns in the mountainous district east of Antioch (Dje 
Bariska and Djebel-Halakah), which was visited in 1899-1900 
an American archaeological expedition, of which the writer wi 
member. 

The three chief points of interest in these buildings are : (1) I 
of them are definitely dated by Greek inscriptions carved upon 
lintels of their portals, which give the year, the month, and, in s< 
cases, the day upon which they were completed ; the fifth chi 
being almost certainly datable within the same first quarter of 
fifth century a period of which very few architectural remi 
have been spared, and falling just a hundred years after the de 
of the Classic style under the Emperor Constantine, and a cent 
before the birth of the Byzantine style under Justinian. (2) T 
illustrate a distinct style, fresh and vigorous, which, though par 
ing of Classic elements, is quite free from decadence, and shows 
Byzantine tendencies. (3) Three of them were, in all probabil 
the work of one architect whose name is given. 

The oldest church (401 A.D.) is one of two at Babiska. The 
ond (414 A.D.) is a few miles to the southeast at Ksedjbeh, wl 
there is also a later church. The third (418 A.D.) is one of tl 
large churches at Dar Kita, and was dedicated, according to an 
scription, to Paul and Moses. The fourth monument is the baj 
tery of this church, completed in 421 A.D. The fifth, at E 






GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER-JANUARY, 1902-03 99 

il-Benat, is the largest of all, and seems to have been the principal 
building of an extensive conventual institution. It is not definitely 
dated, but it corresponds, in all of its details, with the church of 
Babiska, and an inscription shows, almost beyond a doubt, that it is 
the work of the same architect. 

The four churches are of the same plan and proportions, the ratio 
of the interior width to the length from the west wall to the apse 
being that of 3 to 4 in each case. The dimensions of three of them 
are almost identical. All are of the basilical type, with broad cen- 
tral nave and narrow side aisles separated by columns carrying 
semicircular arches. The central nave terminates toward the east 
in a semicircular apse with a half-dome, and the side aisles termi- 
nate in rectangular chambers on either side of the apse. A straight 
east wall joining the two chambers conceals the exterior curve of 
the apse. The baptistery is square, with a semicircular apse pro- 
truding from its eastern wall, and a portal to the west, and one to 
the north, toward the church. The floor of the apse is sunk to a 
depth of over four feet to provide a sort of font in which a single 
candidate for baptism could stand. 

Like all the buildings of northern Syria, these churches are con- 
structed of cut stone, in large blocks, laid dry; the roofs were inva- 
riably of wood, and have perished. The ornament, which is vigorous 
and well executed, is confined to the capitals of the nave arcade, the 
mouldings of the apse arch, and the frame mouldings of the portals, 
which last are interspersed with bands of geometrical and foliate 
carving, blending classic and oriental designs. 

The architect of the church at Babiska, according to an inscription, 
was one Map/aai/o? KOpis. The architect whose name appears at 
Kasr il-Benat is called Kvpts, undoubtedly the same man. The 
name of the re^vcV^s of the church of Paul and Moses at Dar Kita 
is given as Kvpos, which, like Kp<, is probably another form of 
Kvpio?, and refers to the same architect, or builder ; while the 
church at Ksedjbeh is referred to in the inscription as epyov Kv- 
piAAo. 



The following papers had been announced but were not 
read : 

(1) Professor Clifford H. Moore, of Harvard University, The 
Roman Lares. (2) Professor W J McGee, of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Some of America's Contributions to the 
Principles of Archaeology. (3) Dr. Ernst Riess, of New York 



100 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

City, Archaeology in Caesar s Gallic War. (4) Profesi 
Charles C. Torrey, of Yale University, An Old Jewish Weig 
(5) Professor Rufus B. Richardson, of Athens, Greece, 
Group of Dionysiac Sculptures from Corinth. (6) Profess 
William H. Goodyear, of the Museum of the Brooklyn Ing 
tute of Arts and Sciences, Association of the Lotus with the A 
mal Pictures on Early Greek Vases. 



1902 
July December 



AECHAEOLOGICAL NEWS 1 

NOTES ON RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND 
DISCOVERIES; OTHER NEWS 

HAROLD N. FOWLER, Editor 

49, Cornell Street, Cleveland, Ohio 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

ETHNOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY. Beginning with 1902, the 
Arch. Anz. will publish brief notices of the proceedings of the Berlin An- 
thropological Society, so far at least as they deal with Greek and Roman 
matters. The addresses at the February meeting were on discoveries in 
Albania (Gradiki, Kruja, Durazzo), and on the Macedonian tumuli, of 
which the cone-shaped ones are supposed to be tombs, the flat ones, remains 
of habitations. The pottery in both kinds is the same. (Arch. Anz. 1902, 
pp. 108-109.) 

ZEALAND. A Bronze Chariot. An archaeological discovery of 
great interest was made a few days ago in a bog in the northern part of Zea- 
land, Denmark. It consists of a well-preserved bronze chariot for votive 
purposes, with the figure of a horse about 10 inches long in front, and show- 
ing an image of the sun of about the same measurement, and inlaid with 
gold on the one side, placed just behind the bronze horse. The rich spiral 
ornaments, which cover both sides of the sun image, seem to indicate a very 
early date for the find. (A then. October 4, 1902.) 

NECROLOGY. Alexandre Louis Joseph Bertrand. The death 
of the archaeologist A. L. J. Bertrand occurred December 8, 1902. He was 
born in Paris, June 21, 1820, and was educated at the Ecole d'Athenes. In 
1862 he was appointed conservateur of the Museum of Saint-Germain-en - 

1 The departments of Archaeological News and Discussions and of Bibliography of 
Archaeological Books are conducted by Professor FOWLER, Editor-in-charge, assisted 
by Miss MARY H. BUCKINGHAM, Professor HARRY E. BURTON, Professor JAMES C. 
EGBERT, JR., Professor ELMER T. MERRILL, Dr. GEORGE N. OLCOTT, Professor 
JAMES M. PATON, and the Editors, especially Professor MARQUAND. In Professor 
FOWLER'S absence, these departments are conducted by Professor PATON. 

No attempt is made to include in the present number of the JOURNAL material 
published after December 31, 1902. 

For an explanation of the abbreviations, see pp. 145, 146. 

101 



102 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1 

Laye, and filled that office at the time of his death. Since 1882 he has b 
professor of Archaeology at the Ecole du Louvre. His first book, com 
ing of studies in the mythology and archaeology of Greece, was publishec 
1858. He frequently contributed to the Revue Archeoloaique. He 
elected member of the Institute in 1881. (Athen. December 13, 1902.) 
is succeeded as conseroateur of the museum by Solomon Reinach. 

E. L. Diimmler. The death of E. L. IJiimmler took place at Ber 
September 11, 1902, in his seventy-third year. His great reputation was 
chiefly to his editorship of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica and the 1 
tae Latini Aeui Carolini and to his great work, Geschichte des Ostfrankisc 
Reichs. (C.R. A cad. Insc. 1902, p. 495.) 

Auguste Dutuit. The death of Auguste Dutuit, at the age of nir 
years, took place at Rouen, July 11, 1902. He had been a collector of we 
of art since 1832. (Chron. d. Arts, 1902, p. 212; Gaz. B.-A. XXVIII, II 
pp. 441 ft'.) The conditions under which his collection was left to the < 
of Paris and a brief description of the collection are given in Chron. d. A 
p. 215, and an enthusiastic tribute to his taste and patriotism by GEOR 
CAIN is in Gaz. B.-A. pp. 441-448 (2 pis. ; 5 figs.). 

Stanislao Fraschetti. We have to record the death of Stanislao ] 
schetti, on April 9, 1902, at the early age of twenty-seven. Frasche 1 
most notable work was a volume on Bernini. His other writings, chi 
upon Italian sculpture, have been published in L 1 Arte and other Ital 
journals. (' Arte, 1902, pp. 135-136.) 

Felix Hettner. The death of Felix Hettner at a comparatively early ; 
on October 12, 1902, is a heavy blow to the cause of Roman art and arc! 
ology on the Rhine. Hettner was a pupil of Usener and Biicheler at Be 
For more than twenty years he has been director of the Provincial Muse 
at Trier, and though he has written no large book, he has done work of 
more than provincial importance. His museum has grown under his h 
to be one of the best, also one of the best-catalogued, in Germany. 
Westdeutsche Zeitschrift, which he and Lamprecht founded in 1882, 
maintained throughout a leading place among German archaeological j 
odicals, and has contained many excellent articles by himself. Latterly 
has been one of the three directors of the Limes Commission, and has Vj 
active in editing the results of excavations in the handsome quarto se 
devoted to the purpose. (Athen. October 25, 1902; R. Arch. XLI, p. 42: 

Eduard Hula. Eduard Hula, secretary of the Austrian Archaeolog 
Institute, died September 26, 1902, the day after he reached his fort: 
year. He was known as a thorough and able scholar, and was one of Be 
dorf's most efficient assistants in preparing the forthcoming Corpus of Gi 
inscriptions from Asia Minor. (Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, p. 179 ; 
Arch. XLI, p. 423.) 

Eugene Miintz. The death of Eugene Miintz, " Vice-Presjdenl 
1' Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres, Bibliothecaire de 1'Ecole 
Beaux-Arts, Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur," etc., is a serious loss to 
ranks of those who represent in France art-historical studies of the gr< 
sort. The work by which he first became widely known was his Vit 
Raphael, the publication of which was followed up by L'Histoire de I 
pendant la Renaissance, Les Pre'curseurs de la Renaissance, Leonard da V\ 
and various other volumes of almost equal importance, one of the last be 



EGYPT] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 103 

his Petrarque, which he prepared with the aid of the Prince d'Essling. 
His death occurred October 30, 1902, at the age of fifty-seven. (Athen. 
Nov. 8, 1902 ; R. Arch. XLI, p. 422.) 

EGYPT 

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. Archaeological Report. The 

Archaeological Report for 1901-02 of the Egypt Exploration Fund contains, 
as usual, a classified bibliography of all branches of Egyptology, including 
papyri and Coptic antiquities, for the year. Investigations at the temple of 
Sety (Abydos) have been made by A. ST. G. CAULFIELD, illustrated by L. 
CHRISTIE, and published by Quaritch (pp. 16-17). The excavations at 
Pset Khallaf and Reqaqnah are described by J. GARSTANG (pp. 18-20 ; 
reprint from Man, May, 1902). GRENFELL and HUNT (pp. 2-5) record the 
discovery of many papyri in the Fayum and at El Hibeh. In the Nation, 
November 27, 1902, Louis DYER gives a report of the annual meeting of 
the subscribers to the Egypt Exploration Fund, held in London, November 7. 

Professor W. W. Goodwin, of Harvard University, is now Chairman for 
the Fund in the United States. 

ABUSIR. The Temple of Ne-woser-re. The fourteenth number of 
the Mitteilungen of the German Orient Gesellschaft describes (with numerous 
illustrations and five plans) the discoveries at the temple of Ne-woser-re, not 
far from Cairo. At the end of the way approaching the temple was a paved 
court with storerooms at each side. Next came a rectangular open court 
with sixteen monolithic granite columns with clustered shafts (bundles of 
papyrus), the earliest specimens of their kind (about 2500 B.C.). Behind 
this was a passage, in which was a niche, probably to receive the great lion 
found in the court of columns. Many reliefs of excellent workmanship were 
found. About the temple were many graves of the date of the temple, also 
of the Middle Empire (about 2100 B.C.) and of later times. After 700 B.C. 
the Greeks of Abusir buried their dead in the Egyptian manner, but their 
sarcophagi were ornamented in Greek style, and the objects deposited were 
Greek. Near the grave of a Greek who used a second-hand Egyptian sar- 
cophagus was found the manuscript of the Persians by Timotheus. (BerL 
Phil. W. November 22, 1902. Cf. BerL Phil. W. October 4, 1902; Am. J. 
Arch. 1902, p. 346.) 

ABYDOS. A Foundation Deposit Inscription. In J.H.S. XXII, 
1902, p. 377, W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE publishes a Greek dedication to 
Sarapis Osiris by a tax-collector Dioscorus, rudely cut on five sides of a 
rectangular block found at Abydos in the ruins of a building of Ptolemy IV 
Philopator. The stone, originally gilded, is probably a foundation deposit. 

BAOTJIT. Coptic Art. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 95 f., is a brief 
description of a Coptic monastery with much sculpture, friezes, capitals, a 
carved wooden door, many paintings, etc. The ornamentation shows inany 
Arabic motives. Two scenes represented are (1) St. George destroying a 
demon represented as a woman and named Alabasdria, and (2) a stag sur- 
rounded by serpents. The remains were discovered by Mr. Jean Cledat at 
Baouit, and form the most important monument of Coptic art. Ibid. pp. 525- 
546 (4 pis.) is a much more elaborate description by JEAN CLEDAT. Two 
churches and more than thirty chapels have been investigated. The place 
was a monastery and also a cemetery. The buildings date from the fifth to 



104 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, U 

the twelfth century after Christ. The style of the very numerous re 
gious paintings is Byzantine in its chief features. Among the works 
sculpture is, besides the St. George mentioned above, a relief represei 
ing Jonah and the whale. Many more chapels and graves remain to 
investigated. 

BENI HASSAN. Continued Explorations. Concession has be 
granted to a universities and private syndicate to make scientific explorati 
of the site of Beni Hassan, already well known for its rock tombs and ea 
architectural features. The University museums of Oxford, Cambrid: 
and Liverpool are definitely associated with the work, which is further si 
ported by the patrons of the fund which last season examined the Old Kii 
dom sites of Bet Khallaf and Reqaqnah. The Director of the Society 
Antiquaries is again treasurer, and the excavations are being made, 
before, by Mr. John Garstang. The preliminary results point to an extensi 
necropolis of the early Middle Empire. (Athen. December 20, 1902.) 

GHORAN AND NAHAS. Tombs and a Temple. In C. 
Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 346-359, PIERRE JOUQUET gives a report of two yea 
investigations in the cemeteries of Medinet-Ghoran and Medinet-el-Nah 
in the Fayum. At Ghoran many papyri were found. A full report 
these is to appear in B.C.H. XXV, 1901, pp. 379 if. 

The present report is chiefly occupied with discoveries at Medinet-el-Nah; 
In the cemetery for men numerous papyri were found, but none of liters 
importance. In the cemetery for crocodiles one tomb was full of mumm 
of cats. A papyrus containing a list of members of a religious associati 
and some rules for their conduct came to light in this necropolis. A tern] 
was discovered which resembles in many respects other Graeco-Rom 
temples of the Fayum. The propylon, a small chapel, and the pronaos < 
of stone, the rest of crude brick. Two inscriptions fix the date of the pro] 
Ion under Ptolemy Euergetes and give the name of the god, Heron, to whc 
the temple was dedicated. In Roman times the temple was sacred to Sara; 
and associated deities, o-vvmot? #eots. These latter appear to be the Dioscu 
Cabin. Interesting frescoes of Roman date represent these and other deit 
and scenes of worship. 

TEBTUNIS. The First Volume of Papyri. The first volume 
the Tebtunis papyri contains few documents of literary interest. Two 
these, of about 100 B.C., are fragments of an anthology ; one, of the ea: 
first century B.C., contains epigrams, and a fourth, of the late second c< 
tury B.C., is a fragment of the second book of the Iliad. Of these the m< 
interesting is a fragment of verse containing part of a conversation betwe 
Helen and Menelaus. Helen upbraids Menelaus for being about" to des 
her. The time is after the Trojan War. This is a new feature of the my 
The non-literary papyri are rich in information concerning the inten 
history of Egypt under the later Ptolemies. The bulk of the collection fa 
within the period from 120 to 90 B.C. These papyri were found in the win 
of 1899-1900 at Umm el Baragat (the ancient Tebtunis) in the Fayum, wh( 
they were used as wrappings and stuffings for the mummies of crocodil 
Earlier papyri, from human mummies, and later papyri, from the ruins 
the town, will be published in later volumes. [The Tebtunis Papyri, Part 
edited by Bernard P. Grenfell, Arthur S. Hunt, and J. Gilbart Smyly. L< 
don, 1902, Henry Frowde ; New York, the Oxford University Press, x 



BABYLONIA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 105 

674 pp. ; 9 pis. 8vo. University of California Publications, Graeco-Roman 
Archaeology, Vol. I ; also Animal Volume of the Graeco-Roman Branch of 
the Egypt Exploration Fund for 1900-01 and 1901-02.] 

PERSIA 

SUSA. A Greek Votive Offering. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, p. 97, 
a bronze knucklebone found by J. de Morgan at Susa is briefly described. 
It has a Greek dedication in Milesian characters. It is dedicated to Apollo, 
and comes no doubt from the temple at Didyma, which was, according to 
Herodotus, burnt by Darius in 494 B.C. The discovery of this offering at 
Susa shows that Herodotus is right in saying that the temple was destroyed 
by Darius and the plunder carried to Susa. Strabo and Pausanias say Xerxes 
burned the temple in 479 and carried the plunder to Ecbatana. 

De Morgan's Excavations. In Records of the Past, I, 1902, pp. 231- 
245 (2 figs.), is an account by J. DE MORGAN of his work in Persia. 
The article is a good resume of the results achieved, but contains no new 
information. 

BABYLONIA 

BABYLON. The German Excavations. In Berl. Phil W. October 
4, 1902, is a summary of the fourth Jahresbericht and the twelfth Mittei- 
lungen of the German Orient-Gesellschaft. The excavators have studied the 
plan of the city of Babylon. In building his palace Nebuchadnezzar's idea 
was to raise the entire level in connection with the raising of the processional 
street. The palace contained a vast number of rooms arranged about court- 
yards. The main hall, at the south of the main court, had a niche in its 
south wall and three doors in its north front. Here were brick ornaments 
in the wall presenting the appearance of a colonnade with volute capitals. 
In no Babylonian palace yet discovered is there any place for a real colon- 
nade. Columns were, of course, well known to the Babylonians, but they 
did not use them. The temple " Ezida " is being excavated. Its ornamen- 
tation is in great part preserved. A piece of wall has a row of beasts in 
junglazed brick, and upon this is a later wall with rows of ornaments and 
animals in glazed tiles. The temple is surrounded by many connecting 
rooms. Many inscribed tablets have been found. At Borsippa (Birs-Nim- 
Irud) tentative excavations have been made. They promise good results. 

The thirteenth number of the Mitteilungen describes further discoveries 
lof the glazed tile ornamentation of the throne hall of Nebuchadnezzar. It 
lis accompanied by a colored plate and drawings. The latter represent a 
|bull and a fabulous creature compounded of parts of a bird of prey, a pan- 
[ther, a scorpion, a snake, a goat, and other animals. These creatures orna- 
imented the wall by the door of the temple of Nana, near the palace of 
[Nebuchadnezzar. (Berl. Phil. W. November 22, 1902.) 

FAR A. An Early Babylonian Site. At Fara, about three days' 
ijourney southward from Babylon, the German Orient-Gesellschaft began 
excavations in June, 1902. The objects found, stone knives, objects de- 
bosited in graves, and clay tablets with very early Babylonian writing, 
[together with the absence of later objects, seem to show that the settlement 
jwas deserted in early times. (Berl. Phil. W. November 22, 1902, from No. 
jXIII of the Mitteilungen of the Orient-Gesellschaft.) 



106 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 

SYRIA AND PALESTINE 

INSCRIPTIONS FROM EAST OP THE JORDAN. In 

Mittheilungen und Nachrichten des Deulschen Palaestina-Vereins, 1901, 
17-19, CHR. ROHRER publishes eleven inscriptions from the eastern Jor< 
country. Two are short Latin epitaphs, the others Greek, votive or fi 
rary or so fragmentary that their contents is not clear. One, from i 
Dscherasch, mentions a temple of Zeus 7riKap7rios. 

BEERSHEBA. A Byzantine Inscription. At the meeting of 
Academic des Inscriptions, July 4, 1902, CLERMONT-GANNEAU discusset 
inscription found at Beersheba by the Palestine Exploration Fund. It 
longed to an imperial edict relating to the payment of revenues. It cont 
many names of places, and gives important information on the geogra 
and the administration of Palestine. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, p. 414.) 

BEIT-D JEBRIN. Macedo-Sidoiiian Tombs. At Beit-Djebrln, ; 
Tell Sandahannah, the site of the Macedonian town Marisa, two tomb-cl 
bers have been discovered. A complete publication by Peters and Thie 
is to be prepared. The walls of the chambers are painted. In one are n 
real and fabulous animals, in the other a colonnade crowned with garla 
On one side in this chamber a soldier is represented playing the flute 
followed by a female harpist. On the other side are remains of ano 
scene, probably a priest pouring a libation upon the head of a bull. A1 
entrance of the first chamber are two cocks and some much defaced hu: 
figures. Inscriptions give Greek and Sidonian names. One ment 
* A7roX\o<f)a.vr)S 2e<r ^aatov ap^as TOV f.v Mapiicr^i 25ioaWa>i/. The dates 
given apparently by the Seleucid era, and later by a Pompeian era. (Fa 
LAGKANGK, C. R. Acad. In*c. 1902, pp. 497-505. Cf. Am. J. Arch. 
1903, pp. 89-91.) 

GEZER. Excavations by the Palestine Exploration Fund. - 
Atlien. October 4, 1902, R. A. STEWART MACALISTER gives a brief re 
of his first three months' excavations at Tell-ej-Jezari, the ancient Gi 
Four different occupations are revealed, the first neolithic, the other thrc 
the Bronze Age. The walls of the three upper settlements have been i 
tified. Two burial caves have been found. One of these was appare 
excavated by the neolithic inhabitants as a crematorium, and many b 
human bones were found in it. Later it was used by people who did 
practise cremation. The burnt bones are found to have belonged to a 
Semitic race, the others to Semites. In the second cave, which was o 
nally a cistern, were found fifteen bodies, and the finest collection of br 
weapons yet found in Palestine. A large rectangular bath has been fo 
and a magnificent megalithic structure, apparently a temple at which hu 
sacrifices were offered, was in process of excavation when the report was \ 
ten. So far no datable objects have been found except scarabs and jar-har 
impressed with the devices of scarabs. These belong to the Middle Kingc 
about 2000 B.C. An earlier report, but in some respects more detaile 
in the Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exposition Fund, October, 19( 

JERUSALEM. Inscriptions. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1902, p. 15 
a report from Father GERMER-DURAND recording the discovery of new bl 
of the conduit called " canal de Salomon " with the inscriptions (centu 
Pomponi, (centuria) Sever i, (centuria) Vitalis, and (centuria) Antion (?] 



ASIA MINOR] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 107 

KAB ELIAS. Rock Sculptures. In S. S. Times, October 18, 1902, 
Mrs. GHOSN-EL-HOWIE describes a rock-cut relief near Kab Elias, in Syria. 
A bull is clearly represented, and closer examination reveals a cow also. 
The writer believes that these figures are those of the great god and goddess 
of the Hittites. Under the tail of the bull there seems to be a lion or lion- 
ess. At a distance of more than a mile from the bull there is a second relief 
representing a draped and helmeted female figure. This may be Amurru, 
the wife of the god Hadad Rimmon. 

PETRA. A Place of Sacrifice. In the Mittheilungen und Nachrich/en 
des Deutschen Palaestina-Vereins, 1901, pp. 21-32 (13 figs.), GEORGE L. ROB- 
INSON describes a sacred place on the top of a hill at Petra, which he thinks 
was the most important sanctuary of Edom. It is approached by steps cut 
in the rock. Two pyramidal " Masseben " or " Malsteine " are also cut from 
the native rock. The hill is crowned by a tower of Roman or Nabataean 
origin. A court 47 x 20 feet in size is cut smooth, and to the north of this 
is a shallow cutting about 28 x 3 feet in dimensions. Most remarkable is a 
rectangular altar, 9x6 feet in size and 34 inches high, to the top of which 
four steps lead. A smaller round altar, a hollow resembling a grave, and a 
small pond or cistern are the remaining features of this remarkable rock- 
cut sanctuary. (Cf. Am. J. Arch. VII, 1903, p. 84.) 

TAANACH. A Caiiaanite Burg. In the Mittheilungen und Nach- 
richten des Deutschen Palaestina-Vereins, 1902, pp. 13-16, Dr. SELLIN gives 
a brief account of his excavations at Taanach (Ta'annek), a day's journey 
from Joppa. He has found a Canaanite castle which he dates as early as 
about 2000 B.C. It contained various images, altars, etc. Eight or ten 
columns of sacrifice, an Israelite necropolis, and an Israelite place of worship 
are the most important features of the discoveries. Later buildings after- 
ward stood on the site. (Cf. Biblia, October, 1902, pp. 216-217.) 

ASIA MINOR 

THE PLAIN OF THE CAYSTER. Inscriptions. In the Revue 

! des Etudes Anciennes, IY, 1902, pp. 258-266, A. FONTRIER publishes eighteen 
Greek inscriptions from various places in the plain of the Cayster. All are 
of late date, and for the most part sepulchral or votive. Two are in Latin 
as well as in Greek. One of these, from Kutchuk Katefkhes, reads Imp. 
C~]aesar \ \_Augii\stus \ [fines] Dianae \ \resti\tuit. 

COS. The Temple of Asclepius. Rudolf Herzog is proceeding with 
the excavation of the Asklepieum at Cos. The temple itself has been laid 
bare, and enough has been found to make its restoration possible, with the 
exception of the pediments. No traces of pediment-sculptures have come 
to light. No fragments of the colossal statue of the god have been found, 

! but only several fragments of his snake. The much longer and more difficult 
task of excavating the temple precincts is in progress. It will not be pos- 
sible to continue the work for long this year owing to the rains. Indeed, it 

I will require, probably, several campaigns. (W. R. PATON, Athen. Novem- 
ber 29, 1902.) The temple was 30 m. long by 17 m. wide, and at a later 
period was the site of a Christian church. (B. Berl. Phil. W. December 27, 

1 1902.) 

CYZICUS. A Prytany List. In Athen. Mitth. XXVI (1901), pp. 121- 
125, TH. WIEGAND publishes another prytany list from Cyzicus. It is of 



108 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, ] 

the eleventh year of the hipparch Chaireas, who, as is known from list 
his seventh and eighth years, was in office during the reign of Hadrian, 
inscription shows the two later tribes, 2e/3a<TTefc and 'lovActs, which p 
ably contained the cives Romani, holding the prytany in common, and 
know from other inscriptions that it was customary for the six earlier tr 
to serve in pairs. 

EPHESUS. The Austrian Excavations. In Jh. Oesterr. Arcl 
V, 1902, col. 53-66 (7 figs.), a report by R..HEBERDEY is reprinted from 
Anzeiger der phil.-hist. Classe der k. Akademie d. Wissenschaften in II 
March 5, 1902, No. VII. The streets of ancient Ephesus and the the 
have been investigated. A long street with colonnades is shown by 
inscription to have been named from the emperor Arcadius (395-408 A. 
Arrangements were made to light it with lamps. A second street croi 
this, and a third street, also with colonnades, ran parallel to it. An insc 
tion has shown that the real name of the so-called large gymnasium 
Thermae Constantinianae. Between the atrium of the thermae and 
Arcadiane (street of Arcadius) was an open court with colonnades on tl 
sides. From the street it was entered by three doors. Opposite the cen 
door was a semicircular exedra in the street colonnade. The open c< 
was paved with mosaic, and fragments of colossal reliefs were found ii 
The sides extending from the street to the thermae were curved. The ci 
measured 40 in. by 37 m. The theatre was found to have been much alt< 
in Roman times. A detailed publication of its remains is soon to app 
A relief found near the theatre represents the upper part of the Polycl 
Amazon. This, and some fine fragments of Ionic architecture, appea 
have belonged to an altar. Of the inscriptions found, only two are publisl 
one giving a list of names, the other recording a dedication by P. Ruti 
Bassus lunianus, whose father was clerk in 120 A.D. 

The Boy with a Duck. The more important "finds" made by 
Austrian archaeologists in Ephesus are temporarily lodged for exhibi 
in the " Tempel " of the Vienna Volksgarten. The latest of these 
rediscovered masterpiece of Greek sculpture which originally stood in 
splendid market-place of Ephesus. It represents a boy of two or t] 
years old, sitting upon the ground and holding a duck with his left hi 
and is supposed to have been a companion work to the ' Boy with the Go 
by the sculptor Boethus of Chalcedon, which was praised by Cicero 
Pliny, but is only known through later copies. (Athen. October 18, 190! 

ERESUS. Ritual Rules. In Cl. R. 1902, pp. 290 f., W. R. PA 
publishes an inscription from Eresus, not earlier than the second century ; 
containing rules about entering a sacred precinct and a temple. Som 
the rules define the period of impurity after childbirth, others forbid 
wearing of shoes in the temple, the carrying of iron, etc. 

LY C AONIA. Inscriptions. In Part II of ' A First Report of a J 
ney in Pisidia, Lycaonia and Pamphylia,' J.H.S. XXII, 1902, pp. 339- 
H. S. CRONIN publishes 149 grave inscriptions from Iconium and the vicir 
some new, others newly copied, and suggests emendations in a number pi 
ously published by himself, by Sterrett, and others. They are of Roi 
and Byzantine times, and one, of an exiled Moldavian king, as late as 
sixteenth century. A new name, ovavySa/xdr;?, is to be compared with 
previously known ovavy$i(3acr(Tiv. There is evidence of the very early sp] 



ASIA MINOR] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 109 

of Christianity, the first real Greek influence, in this region, and some ques- 
tions of early church usage are raised. The site of Savatra seems to be fixed 
in a now deserted mass of ruins. 

MILETUS. The Excavations. The excavations at Miletus were 
begun again in October by Dr. Wiegand as director, with the assistance of the 
architect, H. Knackfuss, and Dr. W. Kolbe. A market-place of immense 
size has been discovered on the south of the Bouleuterion, the assembly- 
place of the Council. A smaller agora was discovered some time ago on the 
northern side of the same building. The recently found market is bordered 
by a colonnade with double rows of marble columns, 14 m. in width. A 
series of large chambers, presumably sale rooms, has been laid bare. The 
entire length of the newly found market-place is not yet determinable ; the 
breadth is about 120 m. The excavators are at present busy upon the site 
of the theatre. (Aihen. December 20, 1902.) 

P ALANG- AH. Hittite Monuments. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, 
pp. 452-454 (plan), is a report of Mr. GRENARD, French consul at Siwas, in 
Asia Minor, recording the discovery of two Hittite inscriptions and two small 
granite lions at Palangah, near Darendeh. One of the inscriptions is the 
longest Hittite inscription known. The characters are not cut in relief, but 
in intaglio. The inscription has been removed to Constantinople. 

PERGAMON. Excavations in 1900, 1901, and 1902,Athen. 
Mitth. XXVII, 1902, pp. 1-160 (8 pis. ; 15 cuts), contains a report of the 
German excavations at Pergamon during 1900 and 1901. The report is in 
six chapters by different authors. I. ' Introduction ' (pp. 1-6), by A. CONZE. 
The new excavations are conducted by Dorpfeld for the Archaeological Insti- 
tute, instead of the Berlin Museum, with the aid of a special appropriation 
from the government. Work was carried on only in the months of Sep- 
tember, October, and ^ovember each year. Beginning at the great southern 
gate in the wall of Eumenes, the course of the main street up the hill was 
followed, leading to the discovery of a large Agora of the royal period. 
From this point the street was traced to the southeast corner of the lower 
Gymnasium terrace, where was found a fountain and Propylon, through 
which passed the way to the public buildings on the terraces. Further 
study of the city wall led to the uncovering of three new gates, two on the 
northwest and one on the east. Search for fragments of the Great Altar 
lad scanty results. A third edition of the Fiihrer durch die Ruinen von 
Percjamon has been published. II. ' The Geology of the Region' (pp. 7-9), 
by A. PHILIPPSON. The greater part of the region is of volcanic origin, but 
there are also freshwater deposits of the lower Pliocene period, and lime- 
stone and marble belonging in part to the upper Carboniferous period. 

III. ' The Buildings ' (pp. 10-43), by W. DORPFELD. These are described 
under seven heads : (1) The southern gate of the city, already described in 
[part in Abh. Berl. Akad. 1901, pp. 5 ff., has been fully cleared. The road 
(from outside enters the courtyard of the gate by a door in the side wall and 
jleaves it by another door in the same wall but opening inside the city wall. 
Un the opposite side of the court was a colonnade which may have contained 
ji fountain. (2) The main street of the city, which led by easy grades (1 : 9) 
[md many windings to the upper city and the Acropolis, was paved with 
jblocks of trachyte, below which are the drains and earthenware pipes for 
jirinking-water. The numerous cross streets have not yet been traced. 



110 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI] 

(3) The second Agora was a large court surrounded by colonnades 
which opened rooms of varying size. Owing to the slope, the souther 
eastern sides were high above the level of the street and all that remai 
basements opening not on the court, but on the street. On the soutl 
in front of these lower rooms was a colonnade, and it is probable t 
the Agora itself the south side did not contain rooms, but a double i 
columns, thus enabling the frequenters of the market to enjoy the i 
sun and the fine view. Three large chambers on the west side are s 
preserved that they have been roofed in and fitted up as a local museu 
the exhibition of objects not sufficiently valuable to remove. On the 
and west sides of the Agora there are remains of a second tier of 
above the first. The Agora was provided with water from a ro 
cistern by a tunnel hewn rather unskilfully in the rock. Probably i 
fourth century, a Christian church was built in the court of the l 

(4) The buildings in the neighborhood of the Agora are not fully descrit 
they have been only partially excavated. (5) The city fountain lies ; 
upper end of the street, close to the towers of the mediaeval fortific 
It was a basin 21 m. long and 3.15 m. broad, with walls on three sid< 
a stone breasting and columns across the front. A further row of 1 
columns inside was needed to support the roof of stone slabs. At tb 
of the fountain was a quadrant-shaped structure, seemingly a propylon 
which two doors and steps led to upper terraces as yet unexplored. (C 
three new gates are described and illustrated. (7) On the theatre ter 
portion of the great stoa was cleared, leading to the discovery that 
not three stories high, as Bohn supposed, but five. The niodificati< 
the reconstruction are to be published elsewhere. 

IV. ' The Inscriptions ' (pp. 44-151), by H. VON PROTT and W. K 
These are numbered in continuation of the series in Athen. Mitth. 1 
1899, pp. 164-200. The public documents are for the most part fragi 
but two are of great interest. No. 71 is the upper part of a slab conta 
in four columns, a law concerning the Astynomi, which seems to date 
the time of the kings, although the inscription is probably of the ti 
Trajan or Hadrian. Its provisions relate to the removal of unlawful ol 
tions from the streets and public places ; the repair of streets, whic 
the duty of the property owners ; the repair and use of party-walls 
the supervision of the public fountains, at which it was forbidden, 
severe penalties, to water cattle or to wash. No. 72 is an edict, appa 
of Hadrian, in which are regulated the disputes between the tradesme 
the public bank, which alone had the right to change money. The dedic 
(Nos. 73-95) are of little importance. No. 94 is in Latin to Julia D 
the mother of Caracalla. Nos. 96-106 are honorary, and No. 102 co 
mention of the Hao-Trapeirai, who seem to have been worshippers of 
Pasparios, mentioned by Hesychius. Nos. 107-112 are fragments 
buildings. In 133 B.C. the rights of citizenship were extended to a 
number of residents, and their names were inscribed on the walls of a 
ing on one of the terraces above the Agora. Nos. 113-144 are fragme 
these lists, w r hich enable a complete list of the tribes of Pergamon 
drawn up for the first time. Nos. 145-160 are fragments of ephebi< 
and Nos. 161-178 sepulchral. Then follow miscellaneous inscriptions 
179-189), graffiti (190-194), and stamps on utensils. 



SIA MINOR] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 111 

V. 'The Miscellaneous Objects' (pp. 152-159), by H. THIERSCH. The 
est piece of sculpture found is the head of Alexander, Ant. Denk. II, 48, but 
I great merit is a torso wearing a cuirass, which shows distinct connection 
ith the style of the Great Altar. The other sculptures are of little value, 
[any terra-cottas of the usual Hellenistic types were found, as well as lamps, 
oth Hellenistic and Roman, and countless potsherds. The latter seem to 
3 largely of local manufacture, and under systematic treatment should add 
tuch to our knowledge of Hellenistic pottery. 

VI. A brief note (pp. 159-160) by DORPFELD gives an account of the 
isults of the campaign of 1902. The Agora was completely cleared. The 
ropylon was found to lead on the west to a terrace containing part of a g3 7 m- 
asium, probably that of the boys, and on the north by a vaulted staircase, 
> another terrace also belonging to a gymnasium, where was a badly 
am aged Corinthian temple, the walls of which were covered with inscrip- 
ons. On a third terrace lay the great gymnasium of the young men, 
rected in Roman times and already identified by Humann, but which will 
?quire several seasons for its excavation. (Cf. B., Berl. Phil. W. December 
7, 1902.) 

PONTUS. New Inscriptions. In R. EL Gr. XV, 1902, pp. 311-' 
35, FRANZ CUMONT publishes 54 inscriptions from Pontus, copies of which 
r ere sent him by Father GIRARD, professor in the Jesuit college at Tokad. 
'he inscriptions are for the most part Greek epitaphs of late date, both 
agan and Christian. A few are metrical. No. 36 is a small fragment of 
le apocryphal letter of Jesus to King Abgar of Edessa. No. 53 is a mile- 
:one of Gordian III, marking the sixth mile on the road from Neocaesarea 
D Com ana. A few inscriptions are votive. 

SAMOS. The Heraeum. In Berl. Phil. W. November 22, 1902, 

HR. BELGER reports that the Greek excavators at Samos have found 

venty bases of columns which were arranged in two rows along the sides 

the temple of Hera. At the ends there were three rows. At the north- 

est corner of the temple a great altar built up in steps is being excavated. 

i the foundations of the marble temple fragments of an earlier building of 

iros stone are found. The marble temple is then probably not the temple 

ilt by Rhoecus and Theodoras, but a later edifice. The most impor- 

nt result to be hoped from the excavations is the discovery of the remains 

the early buildings. In Athen. December 6, 1902, the Munich Alge- 

line Zeitung is quoted as authority for the statements that Kavvadias 

pected to stop excavations in December and resume them in the spring, 

at the temple was decastyle, and that the east front (54.5 m. long) and 

e north side (109 m.) had been discovered. In Chron. d. Arts, November 

and 29, 1902, S. REINACH gives a brief description and history of Samos 

lid the Heraeum, with an account of the investigations and discoveries 

Itherto made on the island. 

(.TARSUS. The Site and Vicinity. In Athen. December 6, 1902, 
T . M. RAMSAY describes the site and the vicinity of Tarsus. The city 
T at modern Tarsus, some eleven miles up the Cydnus. The harbor 
is the lake about four to six miles south of the city. The course of 
e river was changed by Justinian after a flood. Few ancient monu- 
ents now exist at Tarsus. The sites of Anchiale, Zephyrion, and Kyinda 
^e determined. 



112 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII 

TRALLES. Important Sculptures. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 190 

284-287, S. REINACH describes briefly some works of sculpture found ir 
at Tralles and now in the museum at Constantinople. The first is a n 
half draped, the torso being nude. The head is lacking. In the trea 
of the nude and of the drapery the influence of -a Greek model in 
removed from the Aphrodite of Melos is evident. The second is an a 
intact statue of a youth, evidently an athlete, as his ears are swollen 
blows. He is wrapped in a large mantle and leans against a pillar, n 
after exercise. The head appears to belong to the time of Scopaf 
the statue may be an Attic original of the second half of the fourth ce 
B.C. The third is a canephorus of the archaic Ionic type, but not ex 
before the second century B.C. It is an exact replica of a statue, 
lacks the head, found at Cherchell. From the two copies the entire 
can be reproduced. The archaizing original must have been a famous 
Various other sculptures were found, among them a beautiful female 
of the period before Praxiteles, which betrays imitation of the Amas 
Polyclitus. (See also A. COXZE, Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 103-104; 1 fig.) 

Inscriptions. In Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 237-240, are pub 

.seven fragmentary inscriptions from Tralles. Five are honorary an( 

seem sepulchral. It is added that the inscriptions published by K 

LEON in R. Et. Gr. (1901, pp. 303 ff.) were all known through 

publications. 

SCYTHIA AND THRACE 

CONSTANTINOPLE. Euripides before Dionysus. In ( 

Acad. fnxc. 1902, p. 31!), S. KKINACII describes briefly a relief acquired 1 
museum at Constantinople. It represents Euripides seated in a chs 
ceiving, in the presence of Dionysus, a tragic mask, which is offeree 
by a Muse named Skene. The relief is " Neo-Attic," of a time aboi 
beginning of the Roman Empire. 

The Museum. In Records of the Past, I, 1902, pp. 291-304, is an j 
by ARTHUR E. HENDERSON on the Imperial Ottoman Museum at Coi 
tinople. The article is illustrated by 19 photographic reproductions, ] 
all of which represent monuments in the museum. 

THESSALONICA. A Colony in the Second Century. Ir 
Phil. W. July 26, 1902, P. N. PAPAGEORGIOS publishes a Greek inscr 
on a column now in the marble casing of a wall in the eastern p; 
Salonichi. The inscription, which is dated 145 A.D., mentions the c 
Thessalonica, which proves that the town had the rank of a colony al 
time. 

GREECE 

ARCHAEOLOGY IN GREECE IN 1901-02. At Athens, 
work of strengthening the Parthenon was brought well toward a clos 
the rebuilding of portions of the Erechtheum begun. The cella of th( 
pie at Bassae has been excavated and rebuilt at the same time, and tl 
toration of the Lion of Chaeronea is at least projected. Diving for si 
treasures off Anticythera has been discontinued, but the bronze H 
has been restored and is now on exhibition. The Central Musei 
Athens has come into possession of Mr. Carapanos's valuable collect 
bronzes from Dodona and archaic terra-cottas from Corfu, and also no 
hibits a series of early vases from Phylakopi, Melos. 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 113 

Mr. Evans's "Minoan " excavations at Cnossus are as productive of mar- 
vels as ever, chief among them being, perhaps, the discovery, within the pal- 
ice, of an actual shrine of the Double-axe, of late Mycenaean period, with all 
;he cult objects. A miniature terra-cotta dove-temple was found in the pre- 
Vlycenaean stratum. Among the frescoes are scenes from circus shows or 
mil-fights, with boy and girl performers, and a view of a street showing 
louses of two or three stories with masonry, woodwork, and plaster plainly 
listinguished, and even windows with four or six panes, perhaps of oiled 
parchment. There are some marvellous specimens of the goldsmith's art, 
ind a series of jointed carved ivory figurines of great interest. There are 
nany fresh inscribed tablets, the subjects of which at least are evident, while 
iome linear characters on a Mycenaean vase and inscriptions written inside 
>f cups are wholly new. Underneath the Minoan palace is a whole system 
>f chambers and magazines of an earlier palace, with remains of Kamarais 
tottery of extraordinary delicacy and beauty. Fragments of Liparite ob- 
ddian show there was commercial intercourse between Crete and the Italian 
slands in the third millennium B.C. Even beneath this stratum there are 
;he remains of an earlier, neolithic settlement from which numerous small 
)bjects have been obtained. The area of the Minoan palace has not yet 
^een defined and the search for tombs must be renewed. The work of the 
British School at Palaiokastro, a deserted bay of eastern Crete, has 
wrought to light an important Mycenaean town. The houses have Kama- 
*ais and Cnossian, but not strictly Mycenaean, pottery. Much interest 
ittaches to the clearly seen plans of the houses, which had megara, implu- 
ria, bath-rooms, upper stories, etc. A series of cemeteries gives much infor- 
mation as to local burial customs at various epochs. There was a practice 
Jtill surviving in the region of disinterring the bones after a period of de- 
omposition, and preserving them in coffers, or depositing them in large 
lingled masses. At Phaestus, remains of a palace of the Kamarais period, 
estroyed by fire, are found beneath the present structure, itself pre-Myce- 
aean. In a summer residence a few miles away, the rooms seem to have 
een left undisturbed since the flight of the owner, and they contain many 
linor objects and works of art which will be most instructive. 
The season at Corinth has brought to light a late Hellenic stoa, a Hel- 
nic bouleuterion, a fifth-century Greek stoa, several water conduits, an 
bundance of archaic pottery, and some sixth-century inscriptions. A mu- 
ium has been erected here, and one also at Delphi. At Argos, on the hill 
spis, a member of the French School has excavated pre-Mycenaean, Myce- 
aean, and Greek remains of buildings and pottery. At Leucas, the search 
>r Homer's Ithaca has revealed a considerable prehistoric settlement and an 
icient terra-cotta conduit which may be the TVKTT) -jrrjyr) of the Odyssey. 
i Thessaly, Dr. TSOUNTAS finds further prehistoric remains, including a 
legaron with opisthodomus. Halmyros will be the place of deposit for 
hessalian finds. In a hillside cemetery in Thera a remarkable series'of 
raves shows how the various types of shaft and chamber tombs, tholos- 
mbs, etc., are related, and are developed from a primitive attempt to shel- 
* the burial offerings. (R. C. BOSANQUET, M. N. TOD, J.H.S. XXII, 1902, 
p. 378-394.) 

1 Work of the Greek Archaeological Society. In the H/oaKrtKa for 
POI (Athens, 1902) the work of the Greek Archaeological Society in 1901 



114 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 

is recorded. A general statement is given by P. KAVVADIAS, pp. 
The Society maintained its activity in establishing local museums a: 
protecting and preserving ancient monuments. Excavations were ca 
on at eleven different places : three in Athens, where the peribolus wj 
the Olympieum was examined and restored (G. NIKOLAIDES, pp. 29 
the excavation of the stoa of Attains was almost completed (K. D. MYLC 
pp. 31-32), and the earth near the Propylaea at the western end o: 
Acropolis was cleared away ; at the cave of Pan on Mt. Parnes ; at *\ 
mus ; at Megalopolis ; at Dimini and Sesklo in Thessaly ; at Chalci 
Mycenae ; and at Epidaurus. 

The Society has in view the following works : (1) The restoration c 
temple at Phigalia. (2) The rebuilding of the lion of Chaeronea, fror 
fragments on the ground. (3) The thorough cleaning and largest po.< 
restoration of the Erechtheum. (4) The complete excavation of the C 
pieum at Athens. (5) The completion of the excavations now in proj 
especially at the Heraeum of Samos. (6) The complete removal o 
rubbish heaps from the walls of Mycenae. When these undertaking 
completed, an Archaeological Congress is to convene at Athens. (B. 
Phil. W. December 27, 1902.) 

ARGOS. Excavations. The first season's excavations at Argos 
ducted by Mr. Vollgraff have uncovered the ancient citadel, with wa' 
various epochs. A bouleuterion, a royal palace, five beehive tombs, o 
which is still adorned with paintings, cisterns, a small temple of the clai 
period, inscriptions relating to a sanctuary of Apollo, various terra-c< 
vases, statuettes, architectural fragments, etc., have been found. Tl 
mains of the " Mycenaean " period are the most important. (R. Arch. 
1902. pp. 429 f. from Chron. d. Arts.) 

ATHENS. An Archaic Statue. In 'E<. 'Apx- 19 2 PP- 44-J 
pis.; 1 plan), P. CAVVADIAS publishes an archaic statue found in 190C 
place called BoAo^avSpa, near Kov(3apa-Ka\vf3ta, in Attica, and now i 
National Museum at Athens. The statue represents a nude youth a 
the seventh example of the " Apollo type " in the museum. The pla 
its discovery is an ancient necropolis. This type was an " objective " i 
sentation of a man, and might be used as a funeral monument, a comix 
rative statue, or a votive offering. If so designated by an inscripti< 
might represent a god. Similarly, such female figures as those found o: 
Acropolis at Athens might be used for various purposes, but in thems 
represented merely a woman, not any definite person. Such statues 
offered to a god merely as dyaA/xara, objects of delight. The i 
published statue belongs to about the middle of the sixth century B.C. 
proportions are slender, though the shoulders are broad. It shows sj 
affinity with the statue from Melos and the one from Thera, but is a 
piece of work than even the " Apollo " of Tenea. A peculiar detail i 
treatment of the hair above the forehead. Here the locks do not curl 
are turned up over the band (raina) and end in points like tongu 
flame. 

The Building of the Erechtheum.- In Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901 
223-234, W. KOLBE publishes a new fragment of the inscription relatii 
the building of the Erechtheum, C. LA. I, 324, which though fragmei 
shows that the archon's name was Euctemon, and that consequently K 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 115 

hoff was right in assigning the document to the year 408-407 B.C. This 
leads to a new examination of the whole series of fragments with a view to 
determining their probable order. The result is to confirm the arrangement 
already divined by Kirchhoff. The accounts relate to work on the north 
wall, which was completed early in 407, the east porch, and the ceiling and 
decorations of the interior. In the latter part of the year, the work seems 
to have been pushed with great energy. The original inscription was in 
nine columns, engraved on a large central slab 0.92 m. high, with a smaller 
slab on the top and on the bottom. 

Architectural Decoration of the Erechtheum. In removing some 
walls behind the Erechtheum fragments of the architectural decorations of 
that building have been found. (Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, p. 235.) 

A Fragment of the Tariff of Diocletian. In 'E<. 'Ap^. 1902, pp. 11-16, 
ROBERTO PARIBENI publishes a fragment of Diocletian's edict regulating 
prices (de rebus venalibus). The fragment is in the epigraphical museum 
at Athens (No. 2078), and although the place of its discovery is not recorded, 
it was probably found at Athens. It contains in imperfect condition lines 
IX, f> to X, la in the edition of Bliimner and Mommsen (Berlin, 1893). 
The last five lines are new in the Greek text, but were already known in 
Latin. The peculiarities of the new fragment are carefully noted. 

Discoveries on the Slope of the Acropolis. Further results of the 
German excavations on the west slope of the Acropolis are published by C. 
WATZINGER, A then. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 305-332 (21 cuts). This article 
is devoted to the miscellaneous objects, including sculpture, found outside 
of the precincts of Dionysus and Asclepius. The discovery of much unfin- 
ished sculpture, for the most part of little value, indicates the presence of 
workshops in this quarter of the ancient city. One group, in which only 
the figure of Dionysus has been worked out, is evidently from the same 
original as the statue in Venice (Diitschke, Ant. Bildw. V, 149). Interest- 
ing is a " Hellenistic " relief, representing a peasant at work in the field. 
The remains of household furniture from the Roman period are scanty and 
unimportant. Five tiles with palmette decorations in relief and the names 
of the makers are described. The remaining monuments are classified 
under (1) Sculpture, comprising fourteen pieces, chiefly heads, among which 
are two Roman portraits, probably of Julia, daughter of Augustus, and of the 
elder Agrippina. (2) Reliefs ; five in number, one of which, representing an 
adorant before a youthful mounted hero, is of interest as an addition to the 
small number of certain Attic heroic reliefs of the Greek period. (3) Varia, 
including five numbers. Among these are an alabaster statuette of Tyche (?), 
( a rock-crystal group of Heracles and the lion, and a singular terra-cotta 
I male head of life-size, which was found in a house with a number of terra- 
cotta moulds and fragments of statuettes, and has been interpreted by Wol- 
ters as the guardian daemon of the pottery. 

Gift of the Carapaiios Collection. The important collection of bronzes, 
terra-cottas, and other objects, found by Mr. Constantine Carapanos, has been 
presented by him to the National Museum at Athens. The collection, the 
most important part of which comes from Dodona, is briefly described by 
R. B. RICHARDSON in the Independent, August 28, 1902. 

Meetings of the German Institute. At the open meetings of the Ger- 
man Institute" in Athens during the winter of 1901-02, the following papers 



116 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1 

have been presented: December 9, Winckelmann's Day: W. DORPFE 
' Report of the Work of the Institute during 1900-01 ' ; A. WILHELM, ' r . 
Oldest Greek Letter' ; W. DORPFELD, ' The Excavations at Pergamon dui 
1901.' December 23: G. SOTERIADES, 'Monuments and Inscriptions 
Thermon ' ; W. DORPFELD, ' Excavations in Leucas during the Sunn 
of 1901.' January 2 : H. VON PROTT, ' The Cult of the Attalidae ' ; 
SCHRADER, ' A Statuary Group of the Eleusinian Gods.' January 22 : 
DORPFELD, * The Peloponnesus in the Mycenaean Age ' ; H. THIERSCH, ' ' 
Excavations at the Temple on Aegina.' February 5 : W. DORPFELD, ' 
Channel between Ithaca and Leucas, and the Temple of Aphrodite Aenae< 
W. KOLBE, ' The Astynomi-Inscription from Pergamon/ February 19 : 
vox PROTT, ' Greek Epigrams ' ; H. SCHRADER, * Pediment and Frieze of 
Hekatompedon.' March 5: A. WILHELM, 'Inscriptions from Athens'; 
DORPFELD, ' Troy in Reality and in Homer.' March 19 : E. PFUHL, ' Gn 
reliefs in Alexandria ' ; W. DORPFELD, ' New Excavations in Leucas.' A 
2 : W. DORPFELD, ' Excavations at Leucas ' ; W. KOLBE, ' The Phylae of J 
gamon ' ; II. SCHRADER, 'The Great Altar of Pergamon.' (Athen. M 
XXVI, 1901, p. 42S.) 

CHALCIS. Inscriptions. In 'E<. 'Apx- 1902, pp. 29-42, G. A. PA 
BASILEIOS publishes four inscriptions from Chalcis. The first is afragir 
of a stone inscribed on both sides. On one side are rules prescribing 
kind of sacrifice to be offered to each of the gods and heroes worship 
at Chalcis as well as the proper manner and time for sacrificing. On 
other side the parts of the offerings which are to be taken by the pri 
and officials are mentioned. The inscription is very fragmentary. 
second inscription is also fragmentary. It seems to have been a dedical 
to Isis. The third is a dedication to Artemis Eileithya ; the fourth re 
simply Avtri/xa^os Avo-t/xa^ov ^atpe. 

Excavations in 1901. In the Ilpa/m/cci for 1901, pp. 43-45, G. A. PA 
BASILEIOS reports on excavations at Chalcis in 1901. Many graves v 
opened. In these were numerous vases, some of which had red figures 
a white ground, and a number of leaves of gold. On one grave was a st 
siren of Roman date. In a cave were found various indications of hui 
occupation, among them fragments of pottery of very early (" Cycladi 
times and a rude marble idol. In the church at "Avoo Ba0ex is an inscri 
slab ; but as the slab forms the altar, only three w r ords of the inscripl 
(AHTOI APTEMIAI ATTOAAQNI) could be read. 

CORINTH. The American Excavations in 1902. In the Nat 
July 14, 1902, R. B. RICHARDSON gives the chief results of the excavati 
carried on from the beginning of March to June 14, 1902. A long Gi 
stoa, over 100 m. in length, was found and partially excavated at the so 
side of the temple hill. It had Doric columns at the front and an inte 
row of Ionic columns. Eighteen Roman vaulted chambers were excava 
A second Greek stoa, even larger than the first, but very ill preserved, 
found further east. Behind the Greek stoa was a Roman stoa, stanc 
higher up the slope. Xear the southeast corner of the hill great quanti 
of Corinthian and " Protocorinthian " pottery, terra-cottas, several insc 
tions (some of very early date), and two hundred terra-cotta lamps of d; 
from the sixth century before to the fifth century after Christ, were foi 
A deep trench dug in the theatre from what appeared to be the centre of 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 117 

orchestra to the middle of the stage building laid bare many walls which 
can be understood only after more complete excavation. Here, too, the best 
marble head yet found at Corinth was unearthed. On the whole, this year's 
results have been most encouraging. 

CRETE. CNOSSUS. Excavations in 1902. The fresh campaign 
of excavation was opened on February 12, 1902, and continued till the end 
of June ; as many as 250 workmen being constantly emploved for a large 
part of that time, including over a score of carpenters and masons. Owing 
to the constant need of supports for the upper stories, the unexpected exten- 
sion of the Palace on the eastern side, and the vast masses of earth that had 
to be removed on one part of the site, the work has been arduous and costly 
beyond all expectation, but the discoveries made have not fallen short in 
importance of those of the preceding years. Mr. Evans was assisted as 
before by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie in directing the works, and by Mr. D. T. 
Fyfe on the architectural side. 

The greater part of the Palace, embracing an area of about four and a 
half acres, has now been uncovered. Important new rooms were uncovered 
adjoining the halls and " grand staircase " excavated in 1900, and it has been 
possible to preserve a great part of the upper story throughout the whole 
region. A very interesting feature was the complete system of drainage, 
including latrines with flush-pipes, and a succession of stone shafts descend- 
ing from the upper floors to a network of stone ducts beneath the pavement 
of the lower rooms, large enough for a man to make his way along them. 
Another highly interesting feature of this part of the building was a shrine 
belonging, in its existing state, to the late Mycenaean period, with the cult- 
objects and idols in place. A painted clay figure of a goddess, cylindrical 
below, bore a dove on her head. The central cult-objects seem to have been 
double axes, rising between two pairs of sacral horns wrought in stucco. 
Each of the latter showed the socket for the handles of the cult-object 
between the horns. A small double axe of steatite lay against one pair 
of horns. A miniature Pillar-Shrine of the Dove-Goddess in painted terra- 
cotta was also found, belonging to the pre-Mycenaean period. 

Fresh fresco paintings were discovered, including one of a lady in a very 
modern jacket; dolphins and other fish; and naturalistic foliage and lilies. 
Fragments, previously found and now put together, give exciting scenes 
from the Bull Ring, in which girls as well as male toreadors took part. 
Very beautiful ivory statuettes also seemed to represent similar figures in 
violent action. Further large deposits of tablets inscribed with the linear 
prehistoric script came to light, mostly referring to the royal inventories 
and accounts, and concerning the armory, granary, and other depart- 
mentsmany of them dealing in percentages. Clay cups were also found 
with ink inscriptions, a new departure in the prehistoric script. 

The exquisite ivory figures of youths showed the " art of Daedalus " in its 

highest perfection, displaying naturalistic details not found again in Such 

work till the age of the Italian Renaissance. Another extremely interesting 

find was the remains of a large mosaic of porcelain plaques, many of them 

representing houses, so that a whole street of the "City of Minos" as it 

existed about 1500 B.C. could now be reproduced. Here, too, were strangely 

1 modern features, houses of three stories, some with two doors, and show- 

j ing windows with four or six panes, oiled parchment having perhaps been 



118 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1 

used in place of glass. The whole seems to have formed part of a h 
design showing scenes of peace and war analogous to those of Achi 
shield. 

The palace was found to climb down the eastern slope of the hil 
a point about 80 m. below the northern entrance, the lowermost ten 
having been supported by a quadruple line of wall. On the slope un< 
neath the later Mycenaean Palace were found extensive remains of 
magazines of what seems to have been an earlier royal dwelling going t 
into the third millennium B.C. In these were found beautiful painted va 
many of them of eggshell-like fabric, and some embossed in imitatioi 
metal work. The high civilization of the kings of Cnossus is thus can 
back to about 2500 B.C. 

Below this again, fresh explorations were made of the deep Neoli 
stratum which underlies this whole site. These explorations were pro( 
tive of a fresh harvest of stone implements, pottery, and primitive init 
of clay, marble, and shell. 

The excavation of the southeast corner of the palace has still to be c 
pleted, and certain works of delimitation must be carried out in other di 
tions. The lower strata of the palace have also to be explored at sev 
points, and continued researches into the Neolithic deposit are also desira 
as well as the examination of some neighboring buildings, and a rene^ 
search for tombs. Unfortunately, as already stated, the total amount 1 
the Cretan Exploration Fund including* the grant from the British A 
ciation was able to contribute toward the year's expenses has again fa 
far short of what the explorer has been called on to expend. (Circular 
the Cretan Exploration Fund, December, 1902.) 

CRETE. P ALAEOKASTRO. Excavations in 1902. The p] 
of Palaeokastro lies north of Zakro and northeast of Praesus. There se< 
to have been no large settlement here from Mycenaean times until 
middle of the nineteenth century; but in that early age it was one of 
principal centres, perhaps the capital, of Eastern Crete. The excavati 
were rewarded by the discovery of a Mycenaean town extending over 
area of at least 500 by 800 yards, and of cemeteries which throw new li 
on the burial customs of the earliest inhabitants. 

The largest of the houses which were examined lies inland, in a grouj 
what appear to be spacious upper-class houses ; they are constructed pa 
in the "megalithic " style, characteristic of the Mycenaean homesteads 
common in the limestone districts of Crete, partly in regular ashlar mason 
the upper story, where one existed, was of brick. The plan of this hous 
perfectly intelligible, and in some respects anticipates that of the Gr 
house of classical times. In all, thirty-six rooms were excavated h< 
The house was originally one-storied, but later an upper story was ad> 
in brick, with two staircases leading to it, and some of the ground fl 
rooms were converted into magazines, one of which has a plaster fl 
painted in colors, and a stone bench against the end wall. This and 
adjoining chamber yielded over 500 vases. Among the smaller "fiiu 
are a well-preserved tablet inscribed with characters in a linear script ne* 
related to that of Cnossus, a pair of " sacred horns " in stucco, and jars < 
tain ing wheat and two kinds of pease. 

Still more important results were obtained in the cemeteries. Hitherto 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 119 

were very imperfectly informed as to the method of sepulture practised by 
the Cretans of the Kamarais period ; and graves containing Kamarais pottery 
were practically unknown. Of the "beehive tomb," the typical tomb of 
Mycenaean times on the mainland, only one example was discovered. As 
a rule, the Mycenaean inhabitants seem to have laid their dead in earthen- 
ware lamakes grouped in small family burial-places near their homesteads. 
These had contained not complete corpses, but bones which were removed 
from the earth when time sufficient to decompose the body had elapsed 
after the original interment. A similar custom still prevails in the island. 

A still older form of this practice was illustrated by a very remarkable 
enclosure discovered on the ridge which cuts the town-site in two. It is 
a rectangle measuring twenty-seven feet by thirty- two, enclosed by a wall 
of rude limestone blocks, and subdivided by similar walls into five parallel 
compartments, within which were packed skulls, bones, and vases, princi- 
pally cups. The date of the deposit is given by the vases, many of which 
are good examples of Kamarais ware. The bones were in heaps or bundles, 
not laid in their natural order. Sometimes the principal bones were formed 
into a kind of bed on which several skulls were laid. A second and appar- 
ently similar bone enclosure has been discovered and will be excavated next 
spring. (Circular of the Cretan Exploration Fund, December, 1902. Cf. R. C. 
BOSANQUET, Biblia, 1902, pp. 278-282 ; reprinted from Man.) 

CRETE. PHAESTUS. The Necropolis and a Palace. In Feb- 
ruary and March, 1902, the Italian archaeologists continued their investiga- 
tions in the necropolis of Phaestus. Excavations were conducted at several 
points, resulting in the discovery of several tombs, containing mediocre 
vases of geometric decoration. The native superintendent of antiquities 
excavated twelve tombs, nearly all of the common 06A.os type, containing a 
rich equipment of bronze vases, swords, mirrors, etc., and excellent examples 
of terra-cotta vases representing the transition from the Mycenaean to the 
geometric period. (G. GEROLA, Rend. Ace. Lincei, 1902, pp. 318-333 ; plan ; 
5 figs.) In May and June, 1902, the excavation of the palace on the third 
acropolis was completed, and further exploration of the necropolis brought 
to light another 0oAos tomb. In the suburb of Haghia Triada a small 
Mycenaean palace was partially excavated, showing a plan and methods of 
construction like those of the palace on the acropolis of Phaestus. There 
is a small /xeyapov surrounded by other rooms; also two sanctuaries, contain- 
ing votive offerings. Five tablets were found, inscribed with Mycenaean 
characters, and more than four hundred pieces of clay stamped with a seal 
and with letters that will be valuable for the study of primitive Cretan 
writing. Several stone vases were found, including one of black steatite, 
with figures in relief, a masterpiece of Mycenaean art. (F. HALBHERR, 
/,VW. Ace. Lincei, 1902, pp. 433-447.) 

DELOS. The Last Campaign of Excavation. In the Revue ^des 
Etude* Anciennes, IV, 1902, pp. 303-305, F. DURRBACH gives a very brief 
summary of the excavations at Delos, in which he investigated especially 
the portico or agora which he calls the Tetragon, a space about 40 x 50 m. 
in area, bounded on three sides by colonnades, on the fourth by the wall of 
the "small portico." Among inscriptions discovered one of the most inter-. 
jesting gives a list of the twenty-three Tro/xTrocrroAoi appointed by the priest 
of Zeus Polieus. A more detailed account is to appear in B.C.H. 



120 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 

DIMINI. A Tomb and a Prehistoric Settlement. At Dir 
near Volo, Staes has excavated a Mycenaean beehive tomb, which 
however, been previously plundered, and therefore yielded only a few s 
objects. On a hill above the tomb was a prehistoric settlement in w 
were found flint knives and fragments of vases with geometric decora 
belonging to a local Thessalian species hitherto unknown. Other p 
in the neighborhood were investigated. (B. STAES, Ilpa/mxa, 1901, pp 
40. Cf. Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, p. 237.) 

EPIDAURUS. The Gymnasium. In the IIpaKTiKa, 1901, pp. 4 
(2 pis.), P. KAVVADIAS publishes plans and a reconstruction of the j 
nasiurn at Epidaurus. The upper walls were of crude brick, the 1 
parts of stone. The building was erected in Hellenic times. Lati 
became ruinous and the propylaea was changed into the temple of Hyj 
while an odeum was built in the large court. 

ERETRIA. Tombs and their Contents. In Athen. Mitth. X] 
1901, pp. 383-376 (5 pis.; 12 cuts), K. G. VOLLMOELLER describes in j 
detail two chamber tombs, containing funeral beds, near Eretria. The 
in a tumulus on the road to Chalcis, was opened by peasants in 1897, 
a considerable part of the contents is now in the Boston Museum of 
Arts. At the top of the tumulus later investigation brought to light a 
of crude brick surrounded by a wall, which seems to have been the foi 
tion of a monument. The walls of the chamber were covered with a 
fine stucco, on which were paintings of garlands and small objects, r 
sented as hanging from two rows of bronze nails. Within were twocoi 
and three " thronoi " of rather coarse marble. All were made in two bl 
of which the upper served as a cover to the lower, which was hollow 
contained the funeral urns. The decoration of the furniture show! 
characteristic volutes which appear in the early Ionian art and con 
through four centuries. The inscriptions showed that the tomb was 
for three generations, and that the couches contained the ashes of mer 
" thronoi " of women. Among the objects found in the tomb were 1 
cotta Erotes, clay shields highly colored and bearing decorations in i 
and a number of gold ornaments, among them the ring in Furtwai 
Griech. Gemmen, pi. Ixvi, 4. The other tomb, to the east of Eretria 
Vathia, was also plundered by its discoverers, and no trace of its con 
has yet been found. It contains two couches of poros, in which the f 
of the cushions and coverings are carefully reproduced and highly color 
the same brilliant stripes which are found in the modern Greek blar 
The legs represent turned wood plated with bronze, of a type which is 
mon in Assyrian and Persian monuments, but does not appear in Gree 
before the Macedonian period. For a full discussion of this whole cla 
monuments, the author refers to his dissertation, Griechische Kammerg 
mil Totenbetten, Bonn, 1901. 

MEGALOPOLIS. A Mosaic. In Megalopolis, in a ruined bui 
believed to be a gymnasium, there has been found a large mosaic, ii 
corner of which is a representation of the goddess Megalopolis, wearii 
her head a crown with three turrets and holding a cornucopia filled 
fruit. On the rest of the mosaic are birds and animals. Other ruins 
partially investigated. (M. A. KAVALIERATOS, IIpaKTiKa, 1901, pp. 4( 
cf. Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 236-237.) 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 121 



MYCENAE. A Polychromatic Head. In'E< 'Apx- 1902, pp. 1-10 
(2 pis. ; 1 fig.), CHR. TSOUNTAS publishes a head found at Mycenae in 
189(3. It is somewhat under life size. The material is stucco. Color is 
freely used, the hair, the eyebrows, and outlines of the eyes being black, the 
lips, a band about the forehead, the lines marking the inner part of the ear, 
and four ornaments on the cheeks, forehead, and chin being red, and the 
diadem worn on the head blue with lines of black. A necklace consisted of 
alternate red and blue beads. The diadem and band are identified with 
the Homeric OL/XTTV^ and dvaSeoy/,^ respectively. The ornaments on the face 
show that tattooing or painting the face was or had been in vogue when 
the head was made. That such a custom existed before and after the 
Mycenaean times was already known. The head was originally part of a 
statue, probably of a sphinx. In style it is rude, but fresh, not a product of 
conventional rules. In some respects a small lead image from Ka/ATros is its 
nearest analogy. 

Work in 1901. In 1901 the removal of the earth thrown out in early 
excavations was continued. The discoveries made were of little interest. 
Among the most interesting are an engraved gem and a gold chain. (Cm*. 
TSOUNTAS, Ilpa/aW, 1901, p. 42.) 

MT. PARNES. The Cave of Pan. In the cave of Pan on Mt. 
Parnes a number of vases and other small objects have been found imbedded 
in thick deposits of lime. Worthy of special mention is a gold ring contain- 
ing a stone, on which a bee is engraved. (A. N. SKIAS, II/oaKTiKa, 1901, pp. 
32-33 ; cf. Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, p. 236.) 

SESKLO. A Prehistoric Acropolis. At Sesklo, between Volo and 
Velestino, about one-third of a prehistoric acropolis was excavated in 1901. 
It belongs, like that at Dimini, to a pre-Mycenaean period. Objects found 
were pottery, stone and bone arms and utensils, primitive marble and clay 
dols, two clay seals, a gold ornament, and remains of food. (Cnn. 
TSOUNTAS, IIpa/criKa, 1901, pp. 41-42.) 

TENOS. Temple of Poseidon and Amphitrite. The French 
School has discovered the temple of Poseidon and Amphitrite on the island 
of Tenos. The foundations, about 100 m. from the sea, are 16 m. long by 
12 in. broad. On the east and west ends are many steps leading to the tem- 
ple. The excavations have yielded many fragments of sculptures, chiefly 
sea-monsters, and inscriptions. The sacred enclosure evidently covered a 
large area and contained many buildings, including a bath and rooms for 
the accommodation of visitors. (R.,.Berl. Phil. W. December 27, 1902.) 

THERA. Further Excavations and Discoveries. In June, 1902, 
Killer von Gaertringen returned to Thera to complete the excavations on 
'that island. Some important inscriptions were found, including a fragment 
pf a law of the fourth century B.C., and a decree of the Bacchistae in honor 
[of the Egyptian commander, which gives valuable information as to the 
jorganization of the Egyptian garrison in the second century B.C. Especial 
attention was given to the plans of the private houses, and though but little 
)f architectural value was gained, much light was thrown on the history of 
he city. Many archaic rock inscriptions were found on almost inaccessible 
'lift's, where they seem to have been carved by climbers anxious to leave 
>roofs of their skill. Excavations in the southern necropolis yielded a large 
lumber of well-preserved geometric vases and gold ornaments of the eighth 



122 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 

and seventh centuries B.C. A museum with rooms for the sculptures 
scriptions, and vases has been built, and was formally opened on June 
(F. v. H., Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 422-427.) 

THERMITS. The Greek Excavations. The excavations by 
Greeks at Thermus are briefly described by G. SOTERIADES in Record 
the Past, I, 1902, pp. 173-181 (10 figs.). The article is interesting, but 
tains no new information. In the H/oa/cTi/ca, 1901, pp. 34-37, SOTEHI^ 
reports on his work in 1902. No striking discoveries were made, but 
ground near the temple was cleared. Many coins and tiles were found. 
bronze weight with the inscription 'ATroAAwvos M e/o/niov came to li 
M. indicates that it was a mina. Its weight is 500 grammes. Some dec 
of proxeny were found inserted in a late wall. Two are dated in the 
generalship of Scopas, i.e. 220-219 B.C. or earlier. Another inscripl 
found in excavating before the long stoa, reads AWTITTTTOS eVo^o-e. 1 
Chrysovitsa, in the valley of Valtsa, is an ancient fountain near which rr 
broken terra-cottas and some bronze utensils were found. 

THESS ALY. Votive Reliefs. In Hermes, XXXVII, 1902, pp. i 
630 (3 figs.), OTTO KERN describes a votive relief to Heracles, foun 
Pagasae, and publishes a votive relief to Heracles, a relief dedicate* 
a hero (rjpan) and a relief representing a winged thunderbolt, all i 
Argalasti. Heracles is represented with a club in his right hand ai 
mantle (or hide) on his left shoulder. On the relief dedicated to a he: 
a youth fondling the muzzle of a stag. The youth may be a hero like 
Attic Kvwrjs or the Kvi/rjymu of the Piraeus. 

VARIOUS MINOR DISCOVERIES. On Andros a grave hasl 
discovered in which \vere two small statuettes on bases, and a lead sarco 
gus containing vases and small toilet articles. 

Xear Hysiae (Achladokainpos) a grave has been found covered with 
stone slabs, on one of which is carved in low relief Asclepius, Hygieia 
and Telesphorus (?). 

During the works on the harbor at New Phalerum a number of g 
monuments have been found, some with inscriptions, but none of spi 
importance. They have been placed in the Piraeus museum, along with 
others found in an excavation in a court of a private house. 

At Velestino near Pherae, ancient graves have been found, on on 
which was an inscribed stele. (Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 235-237.; 

ITALY 

AQUAE ALBULAE. Discoveries. In Athen. August 9, 1902 
LANCIANI states that at the ancient Aquae Albulae, seventeen miles on 
the Via Tiburtina, various ancient remains have been found. Among t 
are several herms, one of which represents a young woman (Sapph 
while another, headless, is inscribed cWcs e/xwvo? 'A^vato?. A ma 
bracket found here has a metrical inscription describing how some one 
regained his health at the baths and offered the nymphs a gilt statu 
The ruins at this place have long, in fact always, been known. 
BORSARI, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 111-113.) 

ATRI AND ELSEWHERE. Prehistoric Tombs. In Not. S 
1902, pp. 229-266 (45 rigs.), E. BRIZIO describes objects found in to 
recently opened at Atri and other places in the same region. The acc< 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 123 

of excavations at Atri, in the locality called la Pretara, was begun in Not. 
Scavi, March, 1901, pp. 190 ft'. Three groups of tombs have been found, 
some covered with a stone slab, others uncovered. The ordinary objects 
of bronze and iron were found in great abundance, necklaces, brackets, 
rings, fibulae, chatelaines, spear-heads, arrow-heads, and swords. All are 
minutely described. These vases were of poor quality, except one of fine 
bucchero. A distinguishing characteristic of the vases is the large num- 
ber of handles ; there are ordinarily four, and one has as many as eight. 
No vases of metal were found. Only one long sword was found ; the others 
were daggers rather than swords. There was no defensive armor. The 
necropolis is thought to be as late as the fifth century B.C. In 1900 
another necropolis was partially explored 3 km. south of Atri at Colle della 
Giustizia. Here the most significant discovery was a copper basin. The 
necropolis is thought to be at least as early as the sixth century. At Penne 
several tombs have been discovered, the first about twenty years ago, others 
in 1901. The most noteworthy objects are a female head in high relief, 
in bone ; and a small bronze fibula of the La Tene type ; no example of 
this has been hitherto found so far south. At Bisenti, 6 km. from Bacucco, 
was found a bronze arrow-head of the kind found in the terremare. 
Various objects of all periods have come to light at Castiglione Messer Rai- 
mondo. None are worthy of special note except two terra-cotta antefixes 
representing Artemis. Discoveries at Appignano indicate that there was 
in that place a necropolis dating from the same period as that of the 
necropolis of Petrara near Atri. The accidental discovery of a tomb at S. 
Giovanni on the river Mavone, 7km. from Basciano, led to excavation there 
in 1901, but nothing was found. At S. Maria, 3 km. from the place last 
mentioned, a single large tomb was opened, containing a great number and 
variety of objects. Most noteworthy are the half of an iron wagon-tire, a 
mass of iron like two others found at Atri, which had served as the head of 
a club, a candelabrum, and vases of terra-cotta and of copper. The tomb is 
of the sixth century B.C. 

CAMPOMICCIOLO. An Ancient Aqueduct. In Not. Scavi, 1902, 
p. 131, N. PESHICHETTI reports the discovery of an ancient aqueduct and a 
terra-cotta mask, representing a Triton, at Campomicciolo, in the territory 
1 of Papigno, in Umbria. 

CERTALDO. Arretine Vases. In Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 83-84, E. 
GABRICI gives a list of twenty-one Arretine vases recently found at Certaldo, 
nearly all of which have the maker's mark. 

FERENTO. Intact Tombs. The necropolis of Ferento, north of 

Viterbo, has been recently explored, and among hundreds of tombs opened 

in antiquity or in more recent times, four, hitherto untouched, have been 

'discovered. Of the contents the most noteworthy objects were two large 

| black-figured amphorae, a sacrificial knife, and several bucchero vases, one 

' of which shows traces of a silver coating. In Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 84-94 

(3 figs.), A. PASQUI describes the tombs and their contents, treats briefly 

the early history of Ferento in the Etruscan and Roman periods, and dis- 

j cusses the possible methods of coating bucchero vases with silver. 

FLORENCE. The FranQois Vase. In A tene e Roma, October, 1902, 
[LuiGi A. MILANI writes of the restoration of the Francois vase, which was 
.broken into 638 pieces (not counting some small portions which were actu- 



124 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, ] 

ally pulverized) by one of the attendants in the museum, September 9, l! 
It has been possible to restore the vase so that almost nothing is lost, 
most important gap is caused by the lack of a piece which was picked 
and carried off by a visitor at the time of the disaster. It represents on 
the attendants of Theseus holding a maiden by the wrist, and below 
another row, the head of a Lapith. In the course of the restoration 
pieces were carefully cleaned, and some hitherto unobserved details beci 
evident, among them two lances in the hand of Troilus. On the whole 
condition of the vase is better than before the disaster. Keichhold's re< 
publication of the vase is discussed and praised. (Cf. GEORG KARO, 1 
Phil. W. December 27, 1902.) 

GIOIA TAURO. Various Discoveries. At Gioia Tauro, the anc 
Metaurum, hundreds of iron spear heads have been found, of all shapes 
sizes ; also many archaic architectural fragments of terra-cotta, from 
early temple. Other discoveries made in this region from time to time 
noted by P. ORSI in Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 126-130 (plan ; 3 figs.). 

GROTTAFERRATA. Early Tombs. In Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. ] 
198 (112 figs.), G. A. COLINI and R. MENGARELLI describe in detail sev 
early tombs found at Grottaferrata, near Frascati. The tombs consii 
of shafts, at the bottom of which were large vessels ((lolid) contair 
ossuary urns together with various vases, fibulae, and a few other obje 
Some of the vases were ornamented with linear patterns. Several ossua 
have the shape of huts. These were not contained in dolid. These to; 
confirm what was already known of the early civilization of Latium. 

NAPLES. The Greek Wall and Other Remains. In Not. Si 
1902, pp. 288-311 (4 figs.), E. GABRICI gives a detailed report of the 
covery of ancient remains at Naples in 1898-1899, in the course of the v 
for the general improvement of the city. Many ancient house walls \ 
found and several mosaic floors; also a reservoir of Roman construction 
other remains of Roman baths, and the sculptured front of a Chris 
sarcophagus. But the most important discovery was that of several sect 
of the ancient wall of the Greek city. It is formed of tufa blocks, of var 
dimensions, laid without cement, and marked with Greek letters, 
article concludes with a discussion of the extent of the original towi 
indicated by the line of wall, and the position of subsequent additions. 

NESAZIO. Four Periods of Occupation. Excavations at Nes 
(Istria) have given evidence of four periods, Mycenaean, pre-Ron 
Roman, and late Roman. The exploration of the pre-Roman necropolis 
brought to light vases and bronze objects in great abundance. (L. PIGOE 
B. Paletn. It. 1902, pp. 141-142.) 

POMPEII. Excavations, October, 1901, to July, 1902. In Oct( 
and November, 1901, excavations were carried on in Reg. V, Ins. III. 
houses, opening upon the street between Reg. Ill and Reg. IV, Nos. 9 
10, were investigated. No. 10 is the larger and richer of the two, but 
objects of great interest were found. (R. PARIBENI, Not. Scavi, 1902, 
201-204 ; 1 pi.) In Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 204-206, G. GATTI publish 
number of graffiti, for the most part illegible, from the house No. 10. 
December, 1901, excavations in Reg. V, Ins. Ill, were continued. (E. GABF 
ibid. pp. 206-207.) Further excavations in the same insula, carried 01 
January, February, and March, 1902, are described by R. PARIBENI, i 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 125 

pp. 207-213. Several houses were investigated, but there were no striking 
discoveries. Twenty-four graffiti are published, among them several with 
the name of Modestus. In March the excavations extended into Reg. V, 
Ins. IV. Here a statuette of a bearded and crowned Hercules was found. 

In April, 1902, the excavation of Reg. V, Ins. Ill, ^ T o. 11, was almost com- 
pleted. The house is small and offered nothing of importance. On the 
sidewalk before No. 10 an inscription has been brought to light, H A V ET I S 
INTRO. (R. PARIBENI, ibid. pp. 274-276.) 

In July, 1902, excavations were carried on at two points, in tho small 
street between Ins. Ill and Ins. IV of Reg. V, and near the Barbatelli estate. 
On the external walls of the houses in the former locality, many painted 
inscriptions and graffiti were found. (R. PARIBENI, ibid. pp. 399-401.) 

POZZUOLI. A Sepulchral Chamber and a Statue. In Not. Scavi, 
1902, fasc. 2, pp. 57-64 (5 figs.), P. P. FARINELLI reports the discovery at 
Pozzuoli of a sepulchral chamber, containing a marble statue of a woman, 
1.8 m. in height. The chamber is nearly square, with a semi-circular pro- 
jection on one side ; near the centre and below the floor are two tombs, both 
of which contained skeletons, and one a variety of small objects, of which 
the most notable is one of tortoise shell, which is either a fan or a mirror. 
The statue is of the first half of the second century, and represents a woman 
well along in years. Ibid. pp. 64-66 (fig.), E. GABRICI discusses the restora- 
tion of this statue, which is, however, in an almost complete condition, and 
decides that it represents a woman in the act of offering sacrifice on an altar 
in the form of a candelabrum. (See Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 364.) 

A Sarcophagus and Inscriptions. A sculptured sarcophagus of the 
third century B.C., bearing a sepulchral inscription, has been found at Poz- 
zuoli. Two other sepulchral inscriptions have been recently found in the 
same locality. (G. PELLEGRINI, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 398-399.) 

ROME. The Prehistoric Tomb in the Forum. In Not. Scavi, 1902, 
pp. 96-111 (18 figs.), G. BONI describes the prehistoric tomb in the Roman 
Forum at the south corner of the temple of Antoninus and Faustina. The 
dolium rested in a trench or w r ell, which was covered with a slab of tufa. 
Inside the dolium were an olla nearly full of cremated bones, and eight other 
vases. The cover of the olla is like that of a hut, showing the rafters. All 
of the vases are of coarse, reddish terra-cotta, and are made by hand. The 
tomb probably belonged to a necropolis, of which no other traces have been 
yet discovered. (See also LANCIANI, Athen. August 9, 1902.) 

The Domus Valeriorum. The site of the palace of the Valerii Popli- 
colae, where remarkable discoveries were made in 1554, 1561, and 1711, has 
been bought by the executors of the late Count Cerasi for the site of a con- 
valescents' home. In digging for the foundations, the atrium of the ancient 
palace was rediscovered. A column nine feet high, found near its base, 
shows that the columns of the peristyle were Ionic. Three herms were 
found in the court surrounded by the peristyle. A pedestal bears an in- 
scription stating that the statue it once supported was dedicated by the 
[Corporation of Marruvium in the Marsican district (Ordo Marsorun Marr. 
ihonorem statuarum decrevit). A fragment of the Fasti Consulares Minores 
gives the names of the Consules Ordinarii and Suffecti for the years 3-6 
[A.D. (R. LANCIANI, Athen. October 24, 1902 ; cf. G. PINZA, Not. Scavi, 



1902, pp. 284 ff.) 



126 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1 

A Greek Relief. The Museum of the Vatican has been enriched 
the addition of a Greek bas-relief of the fifth century B.C. representing 
athlete with his servant who offers him a strigil and oil. The lower part 
the relief and almost the entire figure of the servant are wanting. The 
lief was discovered in the work of restoration at the church of San Lorei 
de Piscibus. Until the sixteenth century it was intact, as is seen in 
drawing of Pierre Jacques. It was then in the collection of Cardinal C< 
{Citron, d. Arts. 1902, p. 231 ; cf. Berl. Phil W. June 21, 1902.) 

Various Discoveries. The following discoveries are reported f r 
Rome. In the Via della Consulta, architectural fragments and vases, 
the Via della Lungara, a travertine slab containing a sepulchral insci 
tion. On the Via Appia, near the church of Saint Sebastian, four tore 
one above another. On the Via Salaria, near the new church of the C 
melitani Scalzi, two tomb chambers belonging to the ancient necropo 
Many sepulchral inscriptions were found here. (G. GATTI. Not. Scavi, 18 
pp. 52-56; R. LANCIANI, At/ten. September 6, 190*2.) Near the Via di Sa 
Stefano Rotondo, ancient pavement, brick walls, and architectural fr 
ments. At the corner of the Via Veneto and the Via Aemilia, lead p 
marked with inscriptions containing the name of Vespasian. At the cor 
of the Via Boncompagni and the Via Quintino Sella, a gallery, with w; 
of opus reticulatum. In the Piazza dei Cerchi, a cryptoporticus. (G. GAI 
Not. Scan, 1902, pp. 94-96.) On the Via Labicana, a marble cippw, wit 
votive inscription, now placed in the Museo delle Terme. (L. BORSA 
ibid. pp. 111-113; rig. This article contains also a report from Aqi 
Albulae.) Minor discoveries made in the various parts of the city 
remains of walls and houses, some fragments of marble sculptures 
architecture, and some fragmentary inscriptions. (G. GATTI, ibid. 1902, 
132-134.) Between Saint Stefano Rotondo and the ancient Villa Fonse 
walls and pavements of various periods have been found, belonging to 
Casa Celimontana dei Valerii. There were also fragments of ancient sci 
ture and of architectural decoration, four inscriptions, and brick stamps 
the second half of the second century. Between Via delle Muratte and "* 
Marco Minghetti have been found brick walls of various periods, anci 
pavement, and a torso of the young Hercules. Other sections of wa 
pipes inscribed with the name of Vespasian have come to light in 1 
Veneto. (G. GATTI, ibid. pp. 267-270.) In the Villa Brancaccio, betw< 
Via Merulana and Via delle Sette Sale, remains of the very ancient nee 
polis of the Esquiline have come to light. Two tombs have been opem 
one, a round hole containing a large vase in which were the bones o 
child; the other, a rectangular opening, the shape of which was ascertaii 
with difficulty, showing only traces of the skeleton. In the latter to 
were several vases, hand-made, badly baked, and of a dark color; als 
bronze fibula. (GIOVANNI PINZA, ibid. pp. 284-287.) Near Via Ve 
Settembre No. 53 a fine marble statue of a woman has been found, (ibi 
In Athen. October 25, 1902, R. LANCIANI describes two prehistoric gra 
found near the Forum, belonging to the Palatine necropolis, and also 
graves in the Villa Brancaccio, comparing them with the other gra 
found near Colonna, Grotta Ferrata, and Frascati. 

The step of the altar in the church of Saint Prassede has been found 
be the front of a sarcophagus. The stone was used in the fifth or sixth c 



TALY] . ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 127 

ury for the sepulchral inscription of an officer of the imperial -guard, 
he scutarii. Sepulchral inscriptions have been found on Via Flaminia in the 
rounds of the Farnesina; a votive inscription in honor of Apollo, in 
he grounds of the Policlinico ; and a new brick stamp between Via del 
Mtone and Via della Scrofa. (G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 395-397 ; 

*) 
SARDINIA. Excavations at Nora. In Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 71-82 

12 figs.), G. PATRONI describes the excavations at Nora in July, 1901, of 
rhich a preliminary report was published in Not. Scavi, August 1902, p. 
81 (see Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 80). Of the vase fragments, the most ancient 
epresent the Phoenician settlement which was succeeded by the Carthagin- 
a,n colony. The commerce which was carried on with Campania during 
he Carthaginian period is indicated by numerous fragments of Campanian 
ases, all black and without decoration. The foundation of a smelting fur- 
Lace of the Carthaginian period was found ; also an interesting Phoenician 
apital with the decoration in stucco. Evidences of a pre-Phoenician popu- 
ation were discovered. The most notable discovery was that of a founda- 
ion hitherto regarded as belonging to the megalithic period, but now 
ientified as the temple of the first Phoenician colony. A pyramidal stone, 
he form in which the goddess Tanit was worshipped, gives reason for the 
elief that the temple was dedicated to that divinity. 

SEGNI. A Bronze Statuette. In Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 198-200 
2 figs.), A. PASQUI publishes a rude bronze statuette in the Museo Nazionale 
,t Rome, said to have been found at Segni. It represents a nude youth wear- 
ng a conical cap. The hair falls in a thick mass down the back, and two 
ocks fall forward over the shoulders. The arms hang straight downward. 
Fhe feet, are missing. The similarity of this rude figure to Etruscan work 
hows that Etruscan civilization extended to this region. 

SICILY. FERLA. Christian Catacomb. At Ferla, in eastern 
icily, JOSEPH FUHRER has investigated a striking burial-place of the fifth 
r sixth century after Christ, the most interesting element of which consists 
i a group of " canopied " tombs, one of which has the inscription, Aioi/txrio? 
Teptvoras (sic) KK\r)<rta rfj 'Epymtv>7 Irry AS' rov eoiwov (sic} VTTVOV 
Kot/xare (sic). The phraseology points, so FUHRER thinks, to a 
eveloped church organization and a settled pastorate. The entire coin- 
lex of tombs at Ferla is described, and the author promises the publication 
E a large amount of material from his extensive Sicilian studies, if means 
re forthcoming. (Rom. Mitth. XVII, 1902, pp. 110-121 ; 1 plan ; 1 cut.) 
i SICILY. GRAMMICHELE. A Cave Sacred to Demeter. - 
p Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 223-228 (5 figs.), P. ORSI describes a cave found 
bar Grammichele in the mountainous region between Licodia, Mineo, and 
laltagirone, in Sicily. Here were found many fragmentary terra-cotta 
'guriues and reliefs representing a female deity with a polos on her head, 
(his is doubtless Demeter. The style'of the terra-cottas belongs to the fifth 
jid fourth centuries B.C. 

i SICILY. LICODIA EUBEA. Sepulchres of the Latest Period. 
j- In Not.. Scavi, 1902, pp. 219-223 (4 figs.), P. ORSI describes four rock-cut 
jmbs at Licodia Eubea belonging to the last (fourth) period of Siculan 
jvilization. In one of these was a slab of stone with a rude relief repre- 
inting an urn, with spirals shaped like the letter S beside it. The forms 



128 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1902 

are Greek, and an illegible retrograde inscription is in Greek letters. Othei 
objects found show that at this period (sixth and fifth centuries) Siculan 
civilization was strongly influenced by Greek culture. 

SICILY. MOLINELLO. Sicel and Christian Tombs. In Not, 
Scavi, 1902, pp. 411-434 (plan ; 23 figs.), P. ORSI describes the Sicel tombs 
and Christian catacombs of Molinello near Augusta in Sicily. The site wag 
evidently inhabited from the eleventh or tenth century B.C. to the beginning 
of the fifth century after Christ ; and there are traces of later Byzantine 
occupation. In January, 1902, several Sicel tombs were opened, containing 
many vases. Most interesting is a small Mycenaean amphora of the style 
of the eleventh or tenth century B.C. The poverty of the Christian cata- 
combs illustrates the condition of the early religious communities in Sicily. 
There were here originally two independent cemeteries, dating from the 
end of the third century ; these after the time of Constantine were connected 
and enlarged. The catacombs were abandoned about the beginning of the 
fifth century. The centre of the whole cemetery is a large chamber, having 
in the centre a tef/urium : this was evidently the tomb of a martyr or of some 
other person distinguished for virtues or rank. The catacombs offered no 
remains of painting or sculpture and only a few inscriptions. 

SICILY. RAGUS A. Aes Grave. At Ragusa, in Sicily, two 
specimens of aes (jrare have been found. They are of the same type, 
Obv. head of Hercules with the lion's skin to left; Rev. prow of a ship to left, 
but of different weights (41. G and 27.6 gr.). These, with the one from 
Vizzini, are the first specimens of Roman aes grave found in Sicily. They 
may have been brought by Roman soldiers in the Second Punic War. (P. 
ORSI, Not. Scavi, 1002, pp. 21S-219.) 

SICILY. TERMINI IMERESE. Walls and Tombs. At Ter- 
mini Imerese, in Sicily, outside of the Porta Palermo, walls of opus reticfr 
latum have been found belonging to tombs of Roman date. Other tombs 
were covered with sloping slabs. A skeleton, a large glass vase, and a few 
small glass vases were found in the tombs. (S. CIOFALO, Not. Scavi, 1902, 
p. 228.) 

SICILY. VIZZINI. Tombs and their Contents. In and near 
Vizzini, Sicily, tombs have been discovered. Among the objects found ill 
them the most noteworthy are a mirror handle, upon which is a relief of a 
seated woman resembling the so-called Penelope, and a specimen of ae* ymce. 
The mirror-handle belongs to the close of the fourth or the beginning of the 
third century B.C. The specimen of aes grave may have been brought from 
Italy about the same time. (P. ORSI, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 213-218 ; 1 fig.) 

SICILY. Various Discoveries. In Syracuse, on the southern slope 
of Achradina, a Roman house of the beginning of the empire has been dis- 
covered. Two rooms connected by a cryptoporticus have been excavatedj 
one completely, the other only in part. The latter belonged to the inhab- 
ited portion of the house ; its walls are plastered, and painted in the Pom- 
peian style ; the floor is of opus signinum. The walls of this room and of 
the cryptoporticus are of stone. The other room was excavated from the 
natural rock, and, though modestly decorated, probably served as a store- 
room. Further excavations in the necropolis of the Grotticelli prove that 
it was in-use from the fourth century B.C. to the eighth century after Christ, 
Recent explorations in the necropolis of Gela have brought to light many 



ALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 129 

nibs containing a large number of vases. The mosaic floor and decorated 
alls of a room belonging to a fine Roman dwelling-house have been dis- 
vered at Ceiituripe. (P. ORSI, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 402-411 ; 3 figs.) 
The necropolis of Cava Cana Barbara, near Syracuse, was excavated 
May, 1899. It is of the transition between the first and second periods, 
he contents of the tombs are described by P. ORSI in B. Paletn. It. 1902, 
>. 184-190 (1 pi. ; 5 figs.). At Valsavoja (Leontini) a necropolis was 
trtially excavated in April, 1899. The objects found were chiefly of the 
st period, but the second and third periods were also represented. (P. ORSI, 
id. pp. 103-119 ; 2 pis. ; 5 figs.) 

TARANTO. Ancient Vases. In the museum at Taranto is a group 
vases from three tombs discovered at Pisticci in 1898. They include red- 
jured vases of Greek manufacture of the fourth century B.C., and geometric 
,ses of local manufacture, which must be assigned to the same period. The 
ost interesting of the Greek vases is a KeAe/?^, with a picture of Dionysus 
[ a mule, accompanied by a Silenus and a Maenad ; there are two craterae 
Lth Bacchic scenes, and a hydria, with a picture of Peleus pursuing Thetis. 
i. QUAGLIATI, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 312-319 ; 8 figs.) 
TORRB-ANNUNZIATA. A Bronze Heracles. A bronze statue 
presenting Heracles in repose, seated on a stone, with a shield resting on 
s shoulder, has been found at Torre-Annunziata, near Pompeii. It is 
cribed to the period of Lysippus and recalls the Farnese Hercules. 
'Ihron. d. Arts, 1902, p. 215.) 

TURIN. The Ancient City. At Turin, in the course of the work 
i the drainage system, remains of the ancient Augusta Taurinorum have 
>peared at many points. The east side of the town wall was encountered 
Via Finanze, near the Teatro Carignano; the south side in Piazza S. 
lo, near the end of Via Roma ; the north side in Piazza Milano. The 
ndation of many of the towers has been found. Well-paved ancient 
;ets have come to light at all points ; they are from 10 to 12 m. wide, and 
e a raised sidewalk. The ancient drainage system was a remarkable 
3e of work, and is well preserved. Sides and vault of the channel were 
stone ; in most cases the alluvial sand served as a bottom ; in some there 
an artificial bottom of large bricks, sometimes resting on a stone foun- 
ion. (A. D'ANDRADE, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 277-280.) 
VARIOUS MINOR DISCOVERIES. In Not. Scavi, 1902, various 
overies are reported by different writers. At Piobesi, near Turin, va- 
is small objects of Roman period, including a new brick stamp and a 
^mentof a milestone, have been found (pp. 49-52). At Cava dei Tir- 
i four tombs of the second century have been discovered, containing 
e fragments, lamps, etc. (pp. 66-67). Three sepulchral inscriptions 
e been found at Larino. Several early vases have recently been found 
Grottaferrata and Colonna ; also a flint arrow-head, colored red ; the 
y other example of such coloring is from the tomb of Sgurgola, of the 
olithic period. (L. SAVIGNONI, pp. 114-117 ; 6 figs.) Discoveries that 
e been made from time to time at Fossa include tombs, walls, street 
r ement, and an inscription of the ancient Aveia (pp. 67-68). 
At Tivoli the room has been cleared in which were found in 1883 the 
les published in C.I.L. XIV, 3687. 3688. Two rectangular inscribed 
es have been found, which held statues of M. Lartidius and Varena 



130 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1 

Maior, patrons of Diphilus, the freedman who set up the tables. Tl 
were found also architectural fragments of the sanctuary of Hercules Vic 
among them an elaborately carved pilaster, with a figure of Hercules in 
relief, clothed in a long tunic. No other representation shows the god c< 
pletely covered. This is probably the type of the Hercules Tiburtinus. 
Palestrina three large fragments of an epistyle have been found, cont; 
ing a dedicatory inscription of the end of the republican period. At Tei 
cina a dedicatory inscription on a large block of limestone has come 
light. (L. BORSARI, pp. 117-121 ; fig.) At S. Vittorino have been foi 
lead water pipes of the ancient Arniternum, one of them inscribed. 
Civitatomassa, on the site of the ancient Foruli, Roman tombs and sej 
chral inscriptions have come to light (pp. 122-123). At Castelvecc 
Subequo, in the country of the Paeligni, a long inscription has been fou 
containing the name, offices, and military service of Q. Octavius Sagi 
duumvir quinquennaUs . At Vittorito several tombs have been opei 
containing various small objects (pp. 123-125). A room full of Ror 
amphorae has been excavated near Reggio Emilia. The vessels are 
various shapes and dimensions, and were used for the storage of -w 
(p. 281). Remains of a Roman fountain have been discovered on the r 
from Terni to Rieti. Noteworthy is a large terra-cotta mask, from wl 
the water flowed (pp. 281-283). A terra-cotta antefix, found north of C 
neto in the place called Ortaccio, has led to an investigation and the 
covery of remains of a temple, blocks of limestone, tiles, and broken ai 
fixes (pp. 393-395; fig.). 

In B. Paletn. It. 1902, pp. 59-05 (3 figs.), G. CHECCHIA describes vari 
objects of the neolithic period, axes, knives, scrapers, found in the pi 
ince of Capitanata. Ibid. pp. 190-194. L. PIGORINI records with sli 
comment the following recent discoveries : a necropolis of the bronze ag< 
Scarnozzina, near Milan ; a pre-Roman necropolis at Aiicoiia ; two ot 
archaic tombs in the Roman Forum, near the first one, at the corner of 
temple of Antoninus ; a pre-Roman necropolis at Scandale, in the provi 
of Catanzaro. 

SPAIN 

CABEZA DEL GRIEGO. A Columbarium and Other Mo 
meiits. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, IV, 1902, pp. 245-255 (1 
8 figs.), PELAYO QUINTRRO describes recently excavated remains at Cal 
del Griego in the district of Tarancon. A columbarium consisting of ei 
chambers contained mosaics, an urn, reliefs with funeral scenes, terra-c( 
masks, and various other objects. Near the ancient circus various archi 
tural fragments with ornaments in Visigothic style were found. Insc 
tions mention the name Segobriga. In an appendix (pp. 255-257; cut) 
P(aris) adds remarks, and states that one of the masks has been presen 
to the Louvre. 

FRANCE 

ARGENTON. A Hoard of Hallstatt Objects. In R. Arch. X 
1902, pp. 22-38 (13 figs.), the Abbe H. BREUIL describes a hoard of obj< 
found in 1899 at a place called La Font-des-Cordeliers, near Argen 
(Indre). The objects are chiefly metal ornaments, fibulae, etc., with sc 
tools and a few vases. The hoard was apparently the treasure of a me 



FRANCE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 131 

worker or jeweller. The date is between the Bronze Age properly so- 
called and the well-developed Hallstatt civilization. 

ARPAJON. A Stele with a Relief representing Mars. In B. M. 
Soc. Ant. Fr. 1902, pp. 187-192 (1 pi.), ROGER GRAND describes the Gallo- 
Roman station at Arpajon (Cantal) and the discoveries of various kinds 
made there since 1836. Most of the objects found were in deep walled pits, 
the purpose of which may have been sepulchral. A trachyte stele, now at 
Maussac, was found there some thirty-five years ago. It represents the god 
Mars, nude, with helmet, shield, and lance, standing in an aedicula. 

BOIS-DES-BOUCHAUDS. Various Discoveries. In B. M. Soc. 
Ant. Fr. 1902, pp. 192-193 (1 fig.), C. CHAUVET gives a brief summary of dis- 
coveries at Bois-des-Bouchauds, probably the Sermanicomagus of the Ta- 
bula Peutingeriana. The discoveries include the theatre (one of the largest 
known), a pit partly filled with the treasure of a pagan temple, the bottom of 
a basin covered with a layer of oysters, coins, and fibulae of the first three 
centuries after Christ, various capitals, statues, columns, and sculptures, 
among the latter a fragment representing a vessel with an inclined plane for 
embarkation. No coins later than 270 A.D. have been found here. 

BOURG. Inscriptions. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1902, pp. 139-143, 
1'Abbe MARCHAND publishes two epitaphs found in the territory of the 
Ambarri, one at Briord (Ain), the other at the chateau de Machuraz (Ain), 
and a potter's stamp, G(aius) Atisius Sabinus, from Bourg. 

CABRIES. Inscriptions. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, IV, 
1902, pp. 234-237, H. DE GERIN-RICARD publishes some fragments of a 
monumental inscription found in 1897 at Cabries (Bouches-du-Rhone). It 
seems to have been a dedication. A fragmentary epitaph from near the 
hamlet of Patelles is published. The inscription C.I.L. XII, 182, from a 
copy by Peiresc, is republished and ascribed to this region. 

CHAMP VERT. A Villa with Mosaics. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 
1902, pp. 183-186, is a report by GASTON GAUTHIER on a Roman villa dis- 
covered at Champvert, not far from Decize (Nievre), where a mosaic, in the 
form of a cross, had previously been found. Fragments of another mosaic, 
I representing fish and other marine subjects, have been discovered. This 
mosaic appears to have decorated a wall. The walls were further decorated 
with painted stucco. 

MARSOULAS. Prehistoric Drawings. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, 

pp. 478-483, is a description of the prehistoric paintings and drawings in 

the grotto at Marsoulas, near Salies (Haute-Garonne). The writer, Mr. 

CARTAILHAC, visited the grotto in 1902. The engraved drawings resemble 

those which ornament prehistoric objects of bone and ivory. The animals 

represented are bisons, horned cattle, horses, a wild goat, and perhaps a 

deer; but no reindeer and no mammoth. Numerous signs are also painted 

_ on the walls. These seem to be of the same date as the painted figures, but 

; both seem to be. in part at least, later than the engraved figures. There 

I are now seven or eight grottoes known to contain paintings or drawings of 

I this kind. Those of the grotto at Marsoulas are to be published in I'Anthro- 

pologie. 

MONS. A Seated Mercury. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, p. 317 (1 fig.), 
S. REINACH gives a cut of a statuette of Mercury, found some years ago 
near Mons, and published by EM. HUBLARD in the Annales du cercle arcJieo- 



132 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, ] 

logique de Mons, XXX, 1901. Its affinity to the seated bronze Hermes 
Naples is evident. 

PARIS. Acquisitions of the Louvre in 1901. Department 

Greek and Roman Antiquities : The marbles, seventy-seven numbers, u 
of exceptional artistic merit, include parts of statues, heads, religious 
funerary reliefs, sarcophagi and inscriptions, which are very largely f: 
Asia Minor, and chiefly the gift of M. Paul Gaudin. A few pieces c< 
from Cyprus, Egypt, Carthage, and elsewhere. The bronzes, thirty n 
bers, are statuettes, vases, handles, etc., from Delphi, Corinth, and 01 
parts of Greece, and from Epirus, an archaic bucranium from Thasos 
infant Harpocrates and a pair of wrestlers from Egypt, a jug and li 
from the Lake of Nemi, and a fifth-century head and an ephebus statu 
from the Bourguignon collection at Naples. In glass, there are a dc 
bottles and vases from Syria, and a Christian medallion from Italy. Am 
the miscellaneous articles are a child's mirror of glass, set in lead, f 
Trebizond, and three Christian mosaics from Africa. (A. HERON DE Vu 
FOSSE, E. MICHOX, Arch. Am. 1902, pp. 122-127.) 

PUY-DE-DOME. Excavations in 1901. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1 
pp. 299-316 (plan), AUGUSTE ANDOLLENT describes excavations condu< 
in 1901 (July 26-August 22) at Puy-de-Dome on the site of the sancti 
of Mercurias Dumias. Remains of walls, fragments of marble, and 01 
hewn stones, terra-cottas, pottery, objects of lead, copper, and bronze, a { 
pin, a silver fibula, and many coins were found. Of the coins a few 
Gallic and a few modern, but Roman coins, from Augustus to the Va 
tinians, predominate. The temple is said, by Gregory of Tours, to Y 
been destroyed under Valerian and Gallienus, but it must have been rebi 
Signatures found on fragments of pottery are: Offic(ind) Acuti, Of(fic\ 
Calvi, L. C(lo<lii?) Cehi Of(ficina), Of(ficina) M. 7u(/n7), L. Occ., Macrinv 
Mar.... and Vir thus fecit. Further excavations are briefly mentioned, : 
pp. 471-472. Walls, architectural fragments, coins, fibulae, some potter 
few fragmentary inscriptions, and fragments of mosaics were found. 

REIMS. Gallo-Roman Vases. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1902, pp. 1 
183 (pi.), Mr. PILLOY publishes two vases found in 1901 at Reims. T 
are of red clay, and are adorned with vines stamped in relief. One b 
the inscription vinu(m) misce, the other merum da escipe vita. 

S AINT-HILAIRE-SUR-GARONNE. A Draped Female St! 
ette. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1902, pp. 198-201 (pi.), a draped female st 
ette, lacking the head, both hands, and both feet, is published. It was fo 
at Saint-Hilaire-sur-Garonne, near Agen, and is described by Mr. LAUZ 
who calls attention to the number of ancient statues found in this region, 
suggests that there may have been a school of sculptors there. The he 
of the statuette in its present condition is 0.56 m. The material is w 
marble of the Pyrenees. The work appears to be good. The left shou 
and breast are bare ; the left hand held the drapery at the hip ; the r 
forearm extends forward. 

VENE JE AN (DROME) . Inscriptions. In B. M. Soc. A nt. Fr. 1 
pp. 131-132, G. LAFAYE records the discovery at Venejean, northeast f 
Mont Ventoux, of various remains of a Roman settlement. A clay h 
has the inscription CN ATI LI, and a limestone altar is inscribed L 
Volkano | sacrum | Valeria \ Sextia et \ Iccius Cra- \ tion ex \ iussu. 



GERMANY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 133 

VIENNE. Mosaics. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1902, pp. 133-136 (2 pis.), 
is a communication from Mr. BIZOT reporting the discovery of further 
mosaics at Sainte-Colombe (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 370). The most im- 
portant represents Hylas seized by two nymphs. It resembles closely the 
mosaic found at Baneza (see Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 368), and less closely the 
mosaic in the palazzo Albani, at Rome. Evidently the Roman mosaicists 
reproduced stock patterns. Ibid. pp. 154-155, Captain ESPERANDIEU men- 
tions that one of the mosaics at Sainte-Colombe represents a female head, 
and a third, two parroquets perched on a vase. He also describes a curious 
wall made of large amphorae with the mouth downward. Forty-one am- 
phorae have been exhumed, and about twenty of these have stamps, nearly 
all different. 

BELGIUM 

BRUSSELS. A Thracian Relief. The Musee du Cinquantenaire 
at Brussels has just received from the Belgian traveller, Cuypers, a remark- 
able Greek-Thracian memorial bas-relief from Thessalonica. The marble 
slab contains two distinct subjects, divided from each other by a horizontal 
beam. In the upper half is exhibited a Thracian hunter on horseback, 
holding a spear in his right hand, and followed by a hound. Opposite to 
the equestrian figure sits a richly dressed woman. Between these two 
figures stands an altar, on which a coiled snake is erecting its head, and 
behind the altar is a tree ; the altar, snake, and tree indicate the cultus of 
the dead. On the lower half of the stone there are three male figures and 
a young girl. The inscription (which is partly on the upper edge and partly 
on the lower edge of the reliefs) states that the stone was dedicated by a 
widow to her deceased husband, and to her father-in-law, Pyros, in the 
ninety-ninth year of the era of Actium (that is, sixty-fourth after Christ). 
Pyros is a Thracian name, and Thessalonica contained a large Thracian 
population until late in the age of the Caesars. The horseman and the 
sitting female doubtless represent the married couple, but the portion of 
the inscription, which probably contained their names, has not been pre- 
served. (Athen. December 27, 1902.) 

GERMANY 

DRESDEN. Acquisitions of the Museum. Additions to the collec- 
tion of antiquities in 1899-1901 include four marbles, a helmeted head of 
Athena, which is an excellent copy of a bronze of severe style ; a child's 
gravestone from Attica; a life-size head of Menander; and a remarkable 
girl's head, an original of the time and school of Praxiteles, closely resem- 
bling the head of one of the muses on the Mantinean basis ; an Etruscan 
'[bronze statuette of a praying libation-pourer ; sixteen terra-cottas, chiefly 
(from Greece, rude seated goddesses with the head cast in a mould, female 
[figures in Doric peplus and with enormous coiffures, a girl holding a swan, 
perhaps Leda or Nemesis, with drapery of the not uncommon type of the 
Barberini Hera, and a painted calathus. probably a votive offering, of a type 
of which several have recently become known; an amphora, a cup and 
'several jugs of geometric style ; a bowl pressed when soft in a willow basket; 
ja Samian statuette-vase; an archaic black-figured amphora; a pair of black- 
figured Attic hydriae with a unique treatment of the neck, a chalk-white 



134 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 

coating on which standing figures are painted in black glaze; a b 
figured white lecythus with the figure of a god ; other small lecythi, 
etc. (G. TREU, P. HERRMANN, Arch. Am. 1902, pp. 109-117 ; 12 cuts.; 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 

NORICUM. Inscriptions. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, Bel 1 
coll. 169-180, E. NOWOTNY publishes, with facsimiles, six Norican im 
tions. Two from Virunum are dedications to Fortuna Augusta, aiic 
of these contains three Celtic names. One inscription, in Cilli, mentior 
third Spanish auxiliary cohort. Another, in Gonohitz, gives the stag 
the career of a decurion in an auxiliary cohort. 

TRANSYLVANIA. Ancient Monuments. In Jh. Oesterr. j 
/. V, 1902, Beiblatt, coll. 93-136 (10 figs.), R. MUNSTERBERG and J. OEI 
describe and publish Roman monuments from various places in Transyl 1 
(Siebenbiirgen). The monuments are chiefly grave relief sand inscripi 
Several of the latter seem to be of interest to those who are studyin 
history of the Roman legions. An interesting though much injured n 
merit at Maros-Xemeti represents a boatman carved in the round. 

SOUTHERN ISTRIA. Roman Remains. InJh. Oesterr. Arch 
1902, Beiblatt, coll. 159-160 (2 figs.), A. GXIRS mentions that remai 
Roman occupation are visible at seven places on the island of Brione Gi 
and at Porto St. Nicolo on Brione Minore. At Val Catena, on Brione Gr 
the remains of the ancient port are extensive and clearly defined. 1 
are described and illustrated. Remarks on the topography of Pola 
descriptions of Roman lamps, fragmentary reliefs, mosaics, and ini 
tions complete the article. One relief represents an ithyphallic mule, 
the inscription, Felix. 

ARCHAEOLOGY IN CROATIA. The Vjesnik of the Croatian t 
aeological Society of Agram (Zagreb), Vol. VI, 1902 (259 pp. ; 109 
4to), contains numerous illustrated articles in the Croatian language 
BRUNSMID describes ' the Antiquities of Colonia Aurelia Cibalae (Vinko 
' Discoveries of the Bronze Age in Croatia and Slavonia and the Neighb 
Lands,' ' Some Discoveries of Coins in Croatia and Slavonia,' and * Pi 
toric Objects from the County of Srijem'; V. CELESTIN publishes 
'Epigraphic Notes from Mursa ' ; J. FLORSCHUTZ contributes an artic 
' Stridon and Zrin ' with an appendix; F. GUNDRUM describes and pub] 
in part a Latin manuscript of a Dalmatian monk of the fifteenth cen 
V. HOFFILLER discusses the ' Thracian Horseman ' and his affinities 
various deities, but comes to no positive results ; L. IVANCAN writes o 
'Church of All Saints at Stenjevec '; L. JELIC describes 'the Antiquit: 
the City of Nin (Nona),' continuing his previous articles; V. KLAIC 
tributes ' Materials for the Mediaeval Topography of the County of ! 
Krbava'; E. LASZOWSKI discusses ' Trg near Ozalj,' and offers 'Some 
marks upon the Church of the Holy Virgin Mary at Zakan je' ; and J. P 
describes ' Prehistoric Settlements in the Environs of Erdut.' These ar 
are mainly of local interest, though some of the fibulae and prehistoric 
plements published possess an importance not confined to the place o 
covery. A bronze statuette of Fortuna, found at Vinkovci, is attra< 
though not a great work. No important inscriptions are published. 



GREAT BRITAIN] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 135 



GREAT BRITAIN 

DISCOVERIES IN GREAT BRITAIN IN 1901. A type of house 
with small enclosed court, more like the African than the British villa, has 
been found at Caerwent, Monmouthshire. In the Roman camp at Gelli- 
gaer, the praetorium is found to be quite normal in plan. In Hadrian's 
Wall, the earthen dike which runs behind and parallel to the stone wall 
appears to deviate from its course in several places in order to take in the 
site of a castellurn. An earth-fortified camp at Inchtuthill, north of Perth, 
is a Roman camp, possibly of Agricola's time, with bathhouse of stone. 
(F. HAVERFIELD, Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 105-106; 3 cuts.) 

BATH. Roman Sculpture. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 315-316 
(1 fig.), F. HAVERFIELD publishes and describes some fragments of a Roman 
relief at Bath. The most striking part is a Gorgon's head with thick hair 
and a beard from which snakes grow out. This is framed in two concentric 
wreaths, and the whole was held up by two flying Victories. Just outside of 
the wreaths are a small owl and a helmet of peculiar shape. The Gorgon's 
head is the most vigorous piece of ancient sculpture found in England. Its 
inspiration may be Gaulish or Pergamene. The best previous publication 
is by Lysons, Reliquiae Britannic o-Romanae, London, 1813. 

CASTLECARY. An Engraved Crystal. The excavations at Castle- 
cary on the line of the Scottish wall of Antoninus, which have been going 
on under the auspices of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, are now 
concluded. A report will be presented to the Society shortly, with plans of 
the station. The latest find is a stone, oval in form, three-quarters of an 
inch long, by half an inch in breadth, and half an inch in thickness. It is a 
rock crystal in which is cut a female figure, full length, the upper part of the 
person nude, with a light drapery passed over one of the arms. In the right 
hand is a salver containing five apples; in the left an amphora. The head 
is slightly inclined forward, the eyes being fixed on the apples. One foot is 
planted on the ground, the other only touches it with the toes, the heel 
being elevated, indicating motion. (AtJien. December 13, 1902.) 

LONDON. Pliny in Germany. An interesting inscription has come 
to light in the British Museum in the course of cleaning a set of silver- 
plated phalerae, or trappings from a Roman cuirass, which were found in 
1854 on the site of the great Roman camp at Xanten on the Lower Rhine 
with which the name of Drusus is associated. On one of the medallions is 
a bust of Drusus ; on another, under a hard incrustation, the inscription : 
PLINIO PKAEFEc(to). It is known that the elder Pliny had been a mili- 
tary prefect, and had served much in Germany in the Roman cavalry ; but 
as he was only fifty -six years of age at his death, during the eruption of 
Vesuvius, 79 A.D., he could not have been connected with Drusus, who fell 
in Germany 12 B.C. It appears, however, from a letter of the younger 
Pliny (iii. 5) that among his uncle's literary works was a history of the Ger- 
man wars, " for which he collected the materials while serving in Germany, 
admonished thereto by a dream in which the ghost (effigies) of Drusus, who 
had perished victoriously in Germany, appeared to him and implored him 
[to preserve his memory from oblivion." It seems reasonable to suppose that 
the elder Pliny had not only written his history of the German wars, now 
ilost, in obedience to the dream, but had also set up or taken part in erecting 



136 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 

some monument to Drusus in the camp at Xanten. (A then. Novemb 
1902.) 

LONDON. Acquisitions of the British Museum in 1901. E 

tian : The large number of purchases, to a great extent from Upper E 
includes collections of stone vases, of flint and obsidian implements, an 
pottery, from the neolithic and early archaic periods, 4000 B.C. and ear 
tomb-doors, etc., from the fourth dynasty, before 3600 B.C. ; wooden cc 
and funeral boats of the twelfth dynasty; a stele, the most impot 
monument known of the thirteenth dynasty; and another, the only m 
ment from the reign of a king of Upper Egypt contemporary with 
Hyksos kings; objects from the eighteenth dynasty; blue and green gl 
porcelain from the nineteenth dynasty ; and so on down through 
Ptolemaic, Roman, Gnostic, and Coptic periods to 500 A.D. The gifts 
some paleolithic implements, copper vessels and tools, miscellaneous s 
objects of the first and second dynasties, important for the developmei 
civilization, and some vases with gold covers wired down. 

Assyrian : There are over two thousand clay tablets in Sumerian and 
Babylonian, of the second dynasty of Ur and the first of Babylon, 2 
2000 B.C.; inscribed clay cones from southern Babylonia, 2500 B.C. 
Assyrian inscribed bowl of 800 B.C. ; clay models and cylinders of 700 
miscellaneous objects of 650 B.C. ; Babylonian commercial tablets of 
reign of Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius the Great; a marble vase 
quadrilingual inscription made for Xerxes, 485-465 B.C. ; other objed 
the Persian period, 400 B.C. 

Greek and Roman : A large number of minor objects, gold, silver 
graved gems, bronze statuettes, etc., one marble, an Athenian stele, t 
cottas, pottery, etc. A collection of small objects of bronze and pot 
fibulae, etc., is from tombs in the Ticino valley, belonging to a prim 
stage of civilization there, contemporary with republican Rome. 

British and prehistoric : Besides a celt of jade-like stone, a dug-out C 
and several specimens of Romano-British pottery and bronze found in '. 
don and other parts of England, the most important addition, importan 
comparison with British finds, is the Morel collection of objects illustra 
the civilization of northeastern France from the paleolithic to the 
lovingian period, that is, both before and after the separation of G 
Britain from the continent, among them some rare ornamented brc 
of 400-250 B.C., dated by Greek pottery found in the graves with tl 
Other objects come from southern Russia, Upper Egypt, the valley oi 
Ticino, etc. (E. WALLIS BUDGE, A. S. MURRAY, C. H. READ, Arch. 
1902, pp. 117-122 ; cf. Athen. September 6, 1902.) 

OXFORD. Acquisitions of the Ashmolean Museum in 190 
A number of extremely interesting objects from the graves of the kinj 
the first dynasty, fifth millennium B.C., include inscriptions of the nam 
the kings and queens, textile patterns carved in stone, and a type of pai 
pottery of well-developed forms resembling pottery of Nagada and thj 
second dynasty graves. Among later articles from Abydos are some 
figures contemporary with the Hyksos kings, made in Egypt, but by ^ 
men from Greek lands. There are prehistoric remains from graves 
Abydos, clay models, vessels, etc., and cylindrical seals with charai 
resembling those of dynastic times. From a pre-dynastic cemetery norl 



AFRICA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 137 

Abydos are sickle-shaped flints, and a type of pottery which at Nagada im- 
mediately succeeds the neolithic age. There are also objects from the little- 
known third dynasty, with new forms of red pottery. Somewhat later are 
specimens of the bud-seals which preceded the scarabs. They resemble cer- 
tain primitive Cretan seals, and one in particular has characters more like 
bhe Cretan than the Egyptian hieroglyphic signs. A pot from the Taurus 
resembles a bronze-age Cyprian type, but is more primitive. A Hittite gold 
seal-ring, by far the most important yet discovered, has an elaborate 
religious scene and a decorative motive related to an Egyptian ornament 
of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries B.C. The only new classic Greek 
possession is the red-figured " armorer " cylix from the Bourguignon collec- 
tion, a fine Attic work of about 480 B.C. (A. J. EVANS, Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 
127-129.) 

AFRICA 

TUNISIA. Recent Excavations. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 369- 
108 (6 pis. ; 3 figs.), P. GAUCKLER describes the recent excavations in 
Tunisia conducted by the Direction des Antiquites et Arts. At Carthage 
bhe "proto-Punic " necropolis of Dermech has furnished much information 
3oncerning the early Carthaginian burial customs and the growth of the 
3ity ; an interesting series of ancient potter's kilns (one of which is almost 
entirely preserved) has been discovered; the Punic necropolis near the 
odeum has furnished many interesting objects and has shed light upon the 
burial customs from the third century B.C to the fall of Carthage ; and the 
odeum itself has been excavated and made known as an immense structure 
with semicircular cavea and rectangular stage. Many more or less frag- 
mentary statues have been found. Some of these are works of great merit. 
Dougga (Thugga) the excavations have laid bare a great part of the 
ncient town and brought to light many inscriptions, a statue of Cara- 
alla(?), and some mosaics. One of these represents a charioteer (Eros) in 
is chariot, another four horses with but one head in common. The forum of 
'hugga is found to have been neither before the capitol nor before the Dar- 
l-Acheb. At Bou-grara (Gigthi) the forum has furnished many interesting 
nscriptions and architectural remains. At Ksar-Tarcine (Centenarius 
ibubuci) a Roman fort has been investigated. In the island of Djerba 
ncient waterworks and Christian monuments have been found. At El- 
}jem (Thysdrus) two reservoirs belonging to the thermae have been 
leared, some statues and many inscriptions have been discovered. At 
Sousse (Hadrumetum) a black marble statuette and several mosaics, in- 
luding a rape of Ganymede, have been found. A Roman villa has been 
iscovered at Mokenine, Christian mosaics and epitaphs have come to light 
t Henchir Msadine (Furni). Isolated discoveries made at various places 
Ire recorded. 

j CARTHAGE. Marble Sarcophagi. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 
(89-295 (1 fig.), Father DELATTRE describes a marble sarcophagus found in 
I tomb near St. Monica, at Carthage, May 15, 1902. This is the fourth 
parble sarcophagus found at Carthage. The lid is decorated with well- 
brmed antifixes, with painted patterns in red and blue, painted garlands, 
Jnd representations of animals and human beings. The last are indistinct, 
fhe drawing is fine and pure. In one pediment the painting represents 
teylla. On the top of the lid are marks of what appear to have been baskets 



! 



138 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII 

once placed upon it. Similar marks have been found on other sarcoj 
Ibid. pp. 443-450 (3 figs.), is a further report by Father DELATTRE o 
excavations at the necropolis of St. Monica. A fifth marble sarcopl 
adorned with paintings like those already found, has been disco 
The colors used are red, blue, yellow, and black. The cornices c 
gables are adorned with ovules, and the tympana with winged griffins i 
each other. On the cover are marks of round objects, probably wr 
placed there at the time of the burial. A long epitaph of a woma 
descendant of several rabs, was found in the same excavations. Ibi 
484-491 (i fig.), a sixth similar sarcophagus is described. It was 
mented with colored decoration. This sarcophagus was full of res 
which the corpse was preserved. The chamber in which this sarcop 
was found had been full of wooden coffins, which had decayed. The 
was true of an adjacent chamber. 

KS AR-TARCINE. The Centenarius of Tibubuci. In C. R. 
Insc. 1902, pp. 321-340 (plan), PAUL GAUCKLER describes a fortress ( 
Limes Tripolitanus at Ksar-Tarcine, in southern Tunisia. It consists 
building 15 m. square, surrounded by a wall of irregular heptagonal 
It was not intended to stand a siege, as the only cistern or resen 
outside of the fortification. It was built in the first years of the fourth 
tury after Christ, when the fort at Tisavar was abandoned, and was i 
tarily abandoned about the time of the revolt of Gildo (396 A.D.). 
inscription gives its name : Centenarium Tibubuci, quod Valerius Vib 
y(<V) p(erfectissimus), initiari, Aurelius Quintianus, v(ir) p(erfectiss 
praeses provinciae Tripolitanae, perjici curavit. The Limes Tripolitanu, 
probably the province, was apparently constituted by Gallienus aboi: 
A.D., for the inscription published in C. R. Acad. Insc. 1894, p. 472, ] 
has been found by Renault to bear the name of Gallienus and to be 
between December 10, 263, and March 1, 264 A.D. 

MED JEZ-BL-B AB. An Inscription. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 
pp. 161-164, P. GAUCKLER publishes the following inscription discove 
the walls of the Byzantine fort at Medjez-el-Bab : Victoriis Au[gu 
Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) M(arci) Claudi Taciti pii felicis Aug(usti) pc 
c/.s-) max\imi..J\ \ Q,(uintus) Numisius Primus aedilic(ius) duumvirali 

[aedem? quam or arcum queni] | ex sestertium XVI mil(ibus) n(uit\ 

facer e promiserat, multi[plicata pecunia...~\ \ Numisiis Praetextato et 1 
fili(i)s, et Noniae... \ et certamina pugilum edidit quam et.... Thee 
that of the emperor Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), who seems to have had 
special connection with the place. 

BYZANTINE, MEDIAEVAL, AND RENAISSANCE A 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

DUSSELDORF. Retrospective Exposition. The expositi* 
religious art at Diisseldorf brought together a large number of works 
goldsmith's art, also wood and ivory carvings and textiles of the Ri 
esque and Gothic period. An illustrated account of this exposition is 
by GASTON MIGEON in the Gaz. B.-A. 1902, pp. 208-222. 

TRENT. Renaissance Portraits. The private collections at 
contain a number of fine portraits which are noticed by LODOVICO ' 



CHRISTIAN ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 139 

ZINER in Rassegna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 87-90. Here are published a portrait 
af a Cardinal by Sebastiano del Piombo, a portrait of Lodovico Madruzzo 
by G. B. Moroni, a portrait of an Old Man by Hans Baldung Grim, and 
portraits of a Gentleman and Lady by Van Dyck. 

ST. PETERSBURG. Discovery of a Painting by Pieter Latsman. 
-Mr. BREDIUS, the learned director of the Museum of The Hague, has 
recently discovered in a private collection of the Count Stetsky at St. Peters- 
burg a painting by Pieter Latsman, the master of Rembrandt. It repre- 
sents St. Paul and St. Barnabus at Lystra, and was celebrated in its time as 
i masterpiece. (Chron. d. Arts, 1902, p. 238.) 

TIMGAD. Discovery of a Baptistery. A baptistery, adjoining the 

ttle Byzantine church discovered in 1901 at Timgad, has been brought to 

.ight. It is reached from the basilica by a passageway with three steps, is 

circular in form, and contained a basin surrounded by a peristyle (Chron 

1. Arts, 1902, p. 238.) 

ITALY 

AREZZO. Facade of the Cathedral. The Cathedral at Arezzo 
intil the present day was left without a facade, although a design had been 
nade for it by Margaritone, well known as a painter, sculptor, and architect, 
vho died in 1313 A.D. The fa9ade for this Cathedral, in the style of the 
'ourteenth century, is now being erected under the direction of a competent 
irchitect from Arezzo, Dante Viviani. (Rassegna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 75-76.) 

ASCOLL Loss of a Thirteenth-century Pluvial. On the 6th of 
August, 1902, there seems to have been stolen from the chapter house of 
ihe Cathedral at Ascoli, a magnificent pluvial, presented by Pope Nicholas 
V, on July 28, 1288. Pope Nicholas was born in the vicinity of Ascoli and 
nade many gifts to churches of the neighborhood. The pluvial was elabo- 
'ately decorated with miniature-like compositions, representing the crucifix- 
on and other subjects. It is reproduced and described in L' Arte, 1902, 
>p. 266-268. 

BOLOGNA. The Restoration of the Cappella di San Sebastiano. 
-The well-known Chapel of San Sebastiano in the Church of St. Petro- 
lius at Bologna, which contains important paintings, charming woodwork, 
,nd a very interesting pavement, has been recently thoroughly restored, 
bi account of it is published in Rassegna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 72-74. 

CASTELLAZZO. Sculptures from the Tomb of Gaston de Foix. 
- In the Villa dei Conti Sormani at Castellazzo are many interesting works 
rf sculpture, among which are several important reliefs from the well- 
piown monument of Gaston de Foix. Other remains from the same monu- 
ent are in the Castle and the Ambrosiari Library of Milan, in the Museum 
t Turin, in the South Kensington Museum, London, and elsewhere. Those 
it Castellazzo were transported thither in 1674. A notice of these sculp- 
tures is published by LUCA BELTRAMI in Rassegna d' Arte, 1904, pp. 132-134. 
: COMO. Paintings by Tiepolo at the Villa Girola. The paintings 
|y Tiepolo are not known as a whole, but only in part. The article by 
PEINRICH MODERN in the Gaz. B.-A. XXVII, 1902, pp. 476-488, and 
\XVIII, pp. 239-241, is a contribution to our knowledge of Tiepolo's work. 
In this article are published three paintings from the Villa Girola at Lake 
|>omo. They represent the Triumph of Amphitrite, Hera and Selene, and 
Bacchus and Ariadne or, personifications of water, air, and earth. A fourth 



140 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1008 

painting, the personification of fire, was probably painted to complete the 
series. This cycle of paintings is assigned to the period 1738-1740. 

FAENZA. Tomb of Sansovino. The Tomb of Sansovino in the 
Cathedral at Faenza is being rearranged by Tomaso Dal Pozzo. This tomb 
originally was placed in a side chapel and was afterwards transferred to a 
chapel at the left of the principal altar. The new arrangement, especially 
of the pilasters which enclose the six reliefs, will certainly produce a more 
pleasing result. Both the old and new arrangement of this monument are 
published in Rassegna d" Arle, 1902, pp. 129-131. 

MASS A. A Madonna by Finturicchio. Cardinal Lorenzo Cibo, I 
1489-1492, commissioned Pinturicchio to paint a fresco of the Madonna, 
Saint Lawrence, and other figures for his chapel in S. Maria del Popolo in 
Rome. This fresco has disappeared from view. A portion of it, that which! 
represents the Madonna, is now to be found in the Cathedral at Massa. It 
has been recently published by L. STAFFETTI in the Giornale storico e lettera-\ 
rio delta Liguna. (Rep. f. K. 1902, pp. 233-234.) 

MILAN. Eight Frescoes by Bramante. Eight frescoes by Bra- 
mante, formerly in the Casa dei Panigarola, have been acquired for the Breraf 
Museum. These frescoes are portraits, three of which were determined byij 
Lomaz/o to represent Pietro Suola, Giorgio Moro da Ficino, and Beltramo.i 
(U Arte, 1902, p. 124.) 

Sforza Portraits by Luini. Fourteen portraits in fresco, representing?? 
various members of the Sforza family, have been recently acquired for the* 
Municipal Museum of Milan. These portraits are judged to be by Luini. 
(L' Arte, 1902, p. 124.) 

Frescoes at San Pietro in Gessate. Through the assistance of funds 
supplied by Dr. Guido Cagnola, the whitewash has been removed from the 
vault of the Cap pell a Grifo, in the Church of San Pietro in Gessate. The 1 : 
decorations of this chapel were by Bernardino Zenale and Bernardino Buti- 
none. The frescoes of the vault are found to have been four large figures- J 
of angels. (' Arte, 1902, p. 123.) 

MONTERUBBIANO. A Painting by Pietro Alamanni. In the! 
Franciscan church at Monterubbiano, the predella of the altarpiece con-^j 
tains an inscription in Gothic characters and the signature Petrus Aim' d&" 
Choetbei. The inscription shows that the painting was made in the time <rf 
Sixtus IV, 1471-1484, a period when Pietro Alamanni was a young mar 
and strongly influenced by his master, Carlo Crivelli. The signature i& . 
interesting as containing for the first time the name of the town from whicl 
he came. (L' Arte, 1902, pp. 178-180.) 

PIACENZ A. A Virgin by Botticelli. A few years ago a pictur< 
by an old master was discovered concealed behind a gun-rack in the Castell< 
di Bardi, and removed to the Municipal Library of Piacenza. The picture, 
recently examined by Professor Adolfo Venturi, has been identified by hii* 
as one of the lost masterpieces of Sandro Botticelli. It is painted on wood 
oval in shape, enclosed in an exquisitely carved frame, and represents th 
Virgin Mary kneeling before the Infant Jesus, reclining among flowers i:' 
company with St. John the Baptist. (R. LANCIANI, Athen. September f 
1902.) 

REGGIO DELL 1 EMILIA. Illustrated Fragments of the Divin 
Comedy. In the Rassegna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 138-139, ANDREA BALM 



CHRISTIAN ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 141 

publishes three miniatures from a fragment of the Divine Comedy now in 
the archives at Reggio dell' Emilia. They are illustrations of the twenty- 
second canto of the Purgatorio. The text appears to be carefully inscribed 
and with the miniatures is assigned to the second half of the fourteenth 
century. 

ROME. The Magistri Aedificiorum Urbis. In the Arch. Soc. Rom. 
1902, pp. 5-60, L. SCHIAPARELLI publishes a series of thirteen documents 
relating to the Magistri and Sub-Magistri Aedificiorum Urbis. The docu- 
ments date from 1233 to 1390, and from them he tabulates the names of those 
who held this office during that period. 

Saiit 1 Agnese. In the course of excavations made to ascertain what 
connection existed between the church of Sant' Agnese and the adjacent 
catacombs, the foundations of the original apse were brought to light. The 
magnificent urn cast under Paul V (1615), of solid silver, to hold the relics 
of the saint \vas discovered. An inscription was found proving the early 
foundation of a monastic establishment. It reads : " Here lies in peace 
Serena, abbess, virgin sacred to God, aged eighty-five. She was laid to rest 
on May 9 (514 A.D.) in the consulship of (Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassio- 
dorus), Senator." (R. LANCIANI, Athen. September 6, 1902.) 

St. Saba. In the restoration of St. Saba on the Aventine, under 
the arches which separate the oratory from the left aisle, primitive pictures 
have come to light. The mosaic pavement of the central nave has been 
removed, and the whole area has been excavated. Old walls covered with 
paintings have been found, tombs, a sarcophagus, sculptured and inscribed 
fragments, and hanging lamps. (M. E. CANNIZZARO and I. C. GAVINI, Not. 
Scavi, 1902, pp. 270-273 ; plan, 3 figs.) 

A Portico of the Thirteenth Century. At the corner of the Via de' 
San Marco and the Via della Pedacchia, Count Sacconi has discovered 
extensive remains of a portico built in the thirteenth century with columns, 
bases, and capitals removed from older buildings. The portico has been 
attributed to the church of St. Lorenzo in Pensilis (or de Paracera or ad 
Balneas Palacinas), which was built in the eighth century and was appar- 
ently destroyed before 1400 A.D. More probably it belonged to a mediaeval 
louse. (R. LANCIANI, Athen. September 6, 1902.) 

Sale of the Barberini Collections. The library and the collections of 
the Barberini not including, however, the picture gallery have been 
Bought by the Vatican for half a million lire. The library contains many 
interesting and important manuscripts, documents, and autograph letters. 
(The collection of antiquities contains some remarkable inscriptions and a 
unique collection of bronze cists found at Palestrina (Praeneste) on the 
Lstates of the Barberini. (Athen. October 4 and October 25, 1902.) 

A Fresco by Benozzo Gozzoli. In a crude tabernacle on the walls 
>f a house in the Tribuna di Campitelli in Rome, there is a weather-worn 
'resco exposed to view. This is published in L' Arte, 1902, pp. 252-254, .by 
A.TTILIO Rossi, who describes it as an early work of Benozzo Gozzoli when 
ie was still under the influence of Fra Angelico. 

VENICE. Acquisitions of the Gallery. Among the recent acqui- 
itions of the Gallery of Venice may be mentioned an excellent portrait, 
Probably by Jacopo Bassano, and a signed triptych by Catarino. (L' Arte, 
!'<)-J, pp. 125-126.) 



144 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 19 

subjects painted apparently in the fifteenth century. (Chron. d. Arts, 19( 
p. 246.) 

COLOGNE. Two Portraits by Sebastiano del Piombo. Ti 
portraits by Sebastiano del Piombo, one of which represents Vittoi 
Colonna, have been acquired by the museum at Cologne. (L' Arte, 19( 

p. 132.) 

ENGLAND 

ITALIAN ART IN ENGLAND. In the Gaz. B.-A. 1902, pp.44 
454, HERBERT COOK continues his article on the * Treasures of Italian A 
in England.' This article considers the Wallace collection and publisl 
illustrations of the central portion of an altarpiece by Cima da Conegliai 
' A Perseus and Andromeda ' by Titian, and ' Madonnas ' by Andrea c 
Sarto and by Luini. 

LONDON. Italian Paintings exhibited at the National Aca 
emy. In U Arte, 1902, pp. 114-122, HERBERT COOK publishes a numl 
of Italian paintings recently exhibited at the National Academy. Th< 
are : ' An Adoration of the Shepherds,' by Vincenzo Catena ; * A Madonr 
by Crivelli ; two panels of ' The History of David,' by Pesellino ; * A Portr; 
of Veronica Gambara,' by Bartolomeo Veneto ; ' A Portrait of a Man,' 
an artist of the Venetian school ; ' A Holy Family,' by Fra Bartolome 
' An Altai-piece,' by Lanini ; ' Simonetta,' by Botticelli; * A Madonna,' ; 
tributed to Raphael ; and part of the predella of the painting by Raphi 
recently purchased by Mr. J. P. Morgan. 

LONDON. St. Paul's Cathedral. The incrustation which \ 
gathered on the stone of St. Paul's Cathedral has been subjected to che 
ical analysis. A paper was recently read on this subject by Mr. E. G. CL^ 
TOX before the London Chemical Society. In the American Architect, 19< 
p. 95, JOHN HUGHES presents also an analysis of this incrustation. ] 
concludes that " it is evidently composed chiefly of hydrated sulphate 
lime associated with some silicious matter and minute particles of carb 
in the form of soot. The solvent action exerted by rain charged with s 
phurous and sulphuric acid derived from the gases and smoke of innum 
able chimneys of the surrounding buildings, has, after the lapse of t' 
centuries, transformed the original carbonate of lime of the Portland sto 
into sulphate of lime, which, in a more or less soluble condition, has be 
carried by water action and gradually deposited as calcareous tufa or stah 
mite on the under side of the coping stone. 

u The practical conclusion to be drawn from this research is very obvioi 
namely, that buildings in large cities, and especially in manufacturing tow: 
should not be constructed of limestone, which is readily decomposed by t 
acids existing in the smoke due to the use of coal largely impregnated wi 
sulphur." 

LONDON. A Neo-Byzantine Cathedral. The revival of inter* 
in Byzantine architecture finds expression in the new cathedral at We 
minster, London, as well as in the new cathedral of St. John, New Yoi 
The new cathedral at Westminster, designed by John Francis Bentley, 
published in a well-illustrated article in the Arch. Rec. for August, 19( 
pp. 316-337. The general plan of this cathedral, as well as its decorati 
details, are of more than ordinary interest. 



ABBREVIATIONS 

Abh. : Abhandlungen. Acad. : Academy (of London). Am. Ant. : Ameri- 
can Antiquarian. Am. J. Arch. : American Journal of Archaeology. Ami d. 
Mon. : Ami des Monuments. Ann. d. 1st. : Annali dell' Istituto. Anz. Schw. 
Alt. : Anzeiger fur Schweizerische Altertumskunde. Arch. Ael. : Archaeologia 
Aeliana. Arch.-Ep. Mitth. : Archaol.-epigraph. Mittheil. (Vienna). Arch. 
Anz. : Archaologischer Anzeiger. Arch. Portug. : Archeologo Portugues. 
Arch. Eec. : Architectural Eecord. Arch. Hess. Ges. : Archiv fiir Hessische 
Geschichte und Altertumskunde. Arch. Eel. : Archiv fur Religionswissenschaft. 
Arch. d. Miss. : Archives de Missions Scientifiques et Litte"raires. Arch. Stor. 
d. Art. : Archivio Storico dell' Arte. Arch. Stor. Lomb. : Archivio storico lorn- 
bardo. Arch. Stor. Nap. : Archivio Storico Provincie Napolitane. Arch. Stor. 
Patr. : Archivio della r. societa romana di storia patria. Athen. : Athenaeum 
(of London). 

Beitr. Ass. : Beitrage zur Assyriologie. Berl. Akad. : Preussische Akademie 
der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Berl. Phil. W. : Berliner Philologische Wochen- 
schrift. Berl. Stud. : Berliner Studien. Bibl. fie. Chartes Bibliotheque de 
I'Ecole des Chartes. B. Ac. Hist. : Boletin de la real Academia de la Historia. 
B. Arch. d. M. : Bulletin Arche'ol. du Ministere. B. Arch. C. T. : Bulletin 
Arche"ologique du Comite" des Travaux hist, et scient. B.C.H.: Bulletin de 
Correspondance Helle"nique. B. List. Eg. : Bulletin de 1'Institut Egyptien 
(Cairo). B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. : Bulletin et Me"inoires de la Socie'te' des An- 
tiquaires de France. B. Soc. Anth. : Bulletin de la Socie'te' d'Anthropologie de 
Paris. B. Soc. Yonne : Bulletin de la Socie'te' des Sciences historiques et natu- 
relles de 1' Yonne. B. Mon.: Bulletin Monumental. B. Arch. Stor. Dal.: 
JBullettino di Archeologia e Storia Dalmata. B. Com. Boma: Bullettino d. 
jCominissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma. Bull. d. 1st. . Bullettino dell' 
llstituto. B. Arch. Crist. : Bullettino di Archeologia Cristiana. B. Paletn. It. : 
SBullettino di Paletnologia Italiana. Byz. Z. : Byzantinische Zeitschrift. 

Chron. d. Arts : Chronique des Arts. Cl. It. : Classical Review. C. It. 
lAcad. Insc. : Comptes Rendus de 1' Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 
v.I.A.: Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum. C.I.G.: Corpus Inscriptionum 
praecarum. C.I.G.S.: Corpus Inscriptionum Graeciae Septentrionalis. C.I.L.: 
borpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. C.LS. : Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. 
AeXr. 'Apx-: AeXTfov 'Apxa.<.o\oyiic6v. D. & S. Diet. Ant. : Bictionnaire des 
Kntiquite"s grecques et romaines par Ch. Daremberg et Edm. Saglio, avec le con- 
jours de E. Pettier. 

i Echos d'Or.: Les Echos d'Orient (Constantinople). 'E0. 'Ap%.: 'E<pijfj.epls 
'PXa.Lo\oyiK'/i. Eph. Epig. : Ephemeris Epigraphica. 

j Fundb. Schwab. : Fundberichte aus Schwaben, herausgegeben vom wiirttem- 
'ergischen anthropologischen Verein. 
! Gaz. B.-A. : Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 

! I.G.A.: Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae, ed. Roehl. I. G. Ins.: In- 
friptiones Graecarum Insularum. /. G. Sic. It. : Inscriptiones Graecae Siciliae 
i: Italiae. Intermediate : Interme'diaire de chercheurs et des curieux. 
! Jb. Alt. Ges. L. P. : Neue Jahrbiicher f iir das klassische Altertum, Geschichte 
hd deutsche Litteratur und fiir Padagogik. Jb. Arch. I. : Jahrbuch d. k. d. 
Srchaol. Instituts. Jb. Phil. Pad. : Neue Jahrbiicher fiir Philologie und Pada- 
jgik (Fleckeisen's Jahrbucher). Jb. Preuss. Kunsts.: Jahrbuch d. k. Preuss. 

145 



Kunstsammlungen. Jb. V. Alt. Eh. : Jahrbiicher des Vereins von Alterthi 
freunden im Rheinlande. Jb. Ver. Dill. : Jahrbuch des Vereins Dillin 
Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. : Jahreshefte des oesterreichisclien archaologischen Ii 
tutes. J. Asiat. : Journal Asiatique. J. Am. Or. 8. : Journal of Amer 
Oriental Society. J. Anth. Inst. : Journal of the Anthropological Institut 
Great Britain and Ireland. J. Br. Arch. Ass. : .Journal of the British Arc 
ological Association. J.H.S.: Journal of Hellenic Studies. J. Int. A 
Num. : Aitdvrjs 'E(pr)fj.epls TT}S j'o/uovwiTtKTjs dpx aio ^7^ a s Journal internati 
d'arche'ologie numismatique (Athens). 

Kb. Gesammtver : Korrespondenzblatt des Gesammtvereins der deuts( 
Geschichts- und Altertumsvereine. Kb. Wd. Z. Ges. K. : Korrespondenzl 
der Westdeutschen Zeitschrift fur Geschichte und Kunst. Kunstchron. : Ku 
chronik. 

Lex. Myth. : Ausfiihrliches Lexikon der griechischen und romischen My 
logic, herausgegeben von W. H. Roscher (Leipsic, Teubner). 

Mel. Arch. Hist. . Melanges d'Arche'ologie et d'Histoire (of French Scho< 
Rome). Athen. Mitth. : Mittheilungen d. k. d. Archaol. Institute, Athen. A 
Rom. Mitth. : Mittheilungen d. k. d. Archaol. Instituts, Rom. Abth. M 
Anth. Ges. : Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wieu. M 
C.-Comm. . Mittheilungen der koniglich-kaiserlichen Central-Commission 
Erforschung und Erhaltung der Kunst- und historischen Denkmale. M 
Nassau : Mittheilungen des Vereins fur nassauische Altertumskunde und 
scliichtsforschung. Mitth. Vorderas. Ges. : Mittheilungen der vorderasiatisc 
Gesellschaft. Man. Antichi : Monumenti Antichi (of Accad. d. Lincei). 2 
Mem. Acad. Insc. : Monuments et Me"moires pub. par 1'Acad. des Inscripti 
etc. Miin. Akad. : Koniglich Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, A 
chen. Mus. Ital. : Museo Italiano di Antichita Classiche. 

JV". D. Alt. : Nachrichten iiber deutsche Altertumsfunde. Not. Scavi: No 
degli Scavi di Antichita. Num. Chron. : Numismatic Chronicle. N. A 
Ven. : Nuovo Archivio Veneto. N. Bull. Arch. Crist. : Nuova Bullettin 
Archeologia cristiana. 

Pal. Ex. Fund: Palestine Exploration Fund. Ilpajcrucd : IIpaKTiKd ry 
A6-/IVO.IS dpxa-ioXoyiKrjs eratpeias. 

R. Tr. Lg. Ass. : Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie et a I'arch^ol 
6gyptiennes et assyriennes. Reliq. : Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeolo 
Rend. Ace. Lincei : Rendiconti d. r. Accademia dei Lincei. Hep. f. K. : 
pcrtorium fur Kunstwissenschaft. R. Assoc. Bare. : Revista da la Associai 
artistico-arqueologico Barcelonesa. R. Arch. Bibl. Mus. : Revista di Archi 
Bibliotecas, y Museos. R. Arch. : Revue Arche'ologique. R. Art Anc. M^ 
Revue de 1'Art ancien et moderne. R. Beige Num. : Revue Beige de Numis 
tique. R. Bibl. : Revue Biblique Internationale. R. Grit. : Revue Criti< 
R. Art Chret. : Revue de 1'Art Chretien. R. Hist. d. Rel. : Revue de 1'Hist 
des Religions. R. Or. Lat. : Revue de 1'Orient Latin. R. Ep. M. Fr. : Re 
Epigraphique du Midi de la France. R. fit. Gr. : Revue des Etudes Grecq 
R. fit. J. : Revue des Etudes Juives. R. Num. : Revue Numismatique. 
Sem. : Revue Se"mitique. Rhein. Mus. : Rheinisches Museum fiir Philolo 
Neue Folge. R. Abruzz. : Rivista Abruzzese di Scienze, Lettere ed Arte. 
Ital. Num. : Rivista Italiana Numismatica. R. Star. Calabr. : Rivista Sto 
Calabrese. R. Star. Ital. : Rivista Storica Italiana. Rom. Quart. : Roinis 
Quartalschrift fur christliche Altertumskunde und fur Kirchengeschichte. 

iSachs. Ges.: Sachsische Gesellschaft (Leipsic). S. G.D.I.: Sammlung 
Griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften. Sitzb. : Sitzungsberichte. S. Rom. d. S 
Pat. : Societa Romana di Storia Patria. Soc. Ant. Fr. : Soci6te" des Antiqua 
de France. Soc. Ant. : Society of Antiquaries. S. Bibl. Arch. : Society 
Biblical Archaeology, Proceedings. 

Qpg.K. 'E?r. : QpyniKT) 'Eirer-i/ipls, ir-fiffiov drjfjLOffievfM T^S iv 'A^KUt 6pq.K 



Wiener Z. Morgenl. : Wiener Zeitschrift fiir die Kunde des Morgenlande 
Z. D. Pal. V. : Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palestina Vereins. Z. Aeg. 
Alt. : Zeitschrift fur Aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. Z. Assi 
Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie. Z. Bild. K. : Zeitschrift fur Bildende Ku 
Z. Ethn. : Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic. Z. M'un. Alt. : Zeitschrift des M 
chener Alterthumsvereins. Z. Num. : Zeitschrift fiir Numismatik. 

146 





FIGURE 1. ARCHAIC INSCRIPTION FROM CLEONAE : FACE A. 





10 



MANS 




FIGURE 2. ARCHAIC INSCRIPTION FROM CLEONAK : FACE B. 








FIGURE 3. ARCHAIC INSCRIPTION FROM CLEONAE : FACE C. 



American School 
of Classical Studies 
at 



ARCHAIC INSCRIPTIONS FROM CLEONAE AND 

CORINTH i 



THE inscription reproduced in Figs. 1-3 was found in the 
house of a peasant of Hagios Vasilios, a village some twelve 
miles south of Old Corinth. Professor Alfred Emerson and 
Dr. C. N. Brown saw the stone on a visit to the place in 
April of 1898, but were unable to examine it on account of the 
jealousy of the owner. Some weeks later, at the suggestion of 
Dr. Brown, I stopped at the village and succeeded in obtaining 
squeezes of the inscription, and the following winter purchased 
it and brought it to Athens, where it is at present in the 
National Museum. 

The stone is poros of a light brown color. It is but a frag- 
ment, one corner of a quadrangular block whose height and 
breadth are unknown. The original thickness, however, is pre- 
served, 0.124 m. The present height is 0.381 m. to 0.385 m. ; 
the present breadth 0.188 m. to 0.266 m. Parts of four orig- 
inal surfaces remain, of which three are inscribed. Photo- 
graphs of these are given, as well as drawings which I made 
from the stone. In the latter only those lines are represented 
which seemed a part of the original inscription, except where 
broken places in the surface have been indicated. The 
arrangement of the faces is exactly like that of the archaic 
Latin inscription unearthed in the Roman Forum in 1898. 2 

1 These inscriptions have already appeared in the Corpus Inscriptionum Grae- 
carum Peloponnesi et Insularum Vicinarum as numbers 1607 and 1597. My 
thanks are due to the editor, Dr. Max Frankel, for some valuable suggestions. , 

2 Not. Scam, May, 1899 ; D. Comparetti, Insc. arc. del Foro Romano. 

American Journal of A rchaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 147 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VII (1903), No. 2. 



148 SHERWOOD OWEN DHJKERMAN 

Apparently the stone from Hagios Vasilios also is the lowei 
part of a pillar whose sides were covered with vertical rows ol 
letters, following the boustrophedon order, the faces succeeding 
each other from right to left. The same vertical arrangement 
of the letters occurs in the Salamis psephisma (C.I. A. IV, 
p. 57, p. 164, 1, a). 1 

Two of the inscribed faces are in a state of excellent preser 
ration. Face A, however, is much worn and its original sur 
face is quite rubbed away, so that the outlines of the letter* 
are very faint. Moreover, it is seamed in all directions b} 
scratches, hardly to be distinguished in some cases from th< 
letters. Near the bottom a deep hole has been mauled 
Traces of mortar on the broken edges of the stone indicat< 
that in its later history it was built into a wall. 

At the base of the pillar is a margin, 0.101 m. broad, whicl 
on face C is marked off by a faint line. The rows of letter! 
are separated by lines cut rather less deeply than the charac 
ters themselves. On face B these lines extend across tin 
margin to the edge of the stone ; on C they stop at the bound 
ing line just mentioned, while on A they are altogether won 
away. The space between these lines on is 0.038 m. Th< 
height of the letters in general is 0.034m.; the diameter o 
o and 0, 0.02 m. On A the letters are of the same size, but 01 
B they are smaller. Here the space between the lines is onlj 
0.03 in. ; the general height of the letters, 0.027 m. ; the diam 
eter of o and 0, 0.019 m. These circular letters were outlinec 
with a compass. Their center is a hole, bored in the stone 
deeper than any other mark. In some cases on the first fac< 
the outline of the letter is quite obliterated, but the hole is stil 
prominent. A row of three dots is used as a mark of punctua 
tion for separating phrases, but they are larger than these cen 
tral points and not bored deep like them. The cross bar of c 
slants down to the left or right with perfect regularity according 
as the line reads in the retrograde or left-to-right direction. Tin 
whole workmanship shows the greatest care and skill. 

1 B. Graf, Mitth. Athen. 1890, p. 24 ; A. Wilhelm, Mitth. Athen. 1898, p. 466. 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM CLEONAE AND CORINTH 149 

The archaic character of the inscription is immediately evi- 
dent from the boustrophedon order. Other indications are the 
presence of p in line 5, the closed sign for the rough breathing 
in lines 7 and 13, the expression of the sibilant by the sign san 
in line 13, and the old forms of a, z>, and e. 

The connection of the alphabet with that of Corinth is 
apparent from the peculiar form of (B in line 3, and the expres- 
sion of an e sound by the character &. It is, however, dis- 
tinguished from the Corinthian alphabet by certain important 
features. 

(1) The two alphabets differ in the use of the characters for 
e sounds. There are two of these, the ox-yoke e, l, and the 
comb-shaped e, |^. At Corinth & represented both e and ?;, 
while |^ was used for the diphthong et, both genuine and spu- 
rious. This is not the usage of the stone from Hagios Vasilios. 
In line 4 occurs the infinitive el/ie^. Here clearly e is repre- 
sented by |$ and spurious et by ^ | ; so also in ppe^avra of line 5, 
firjBev of lines 8 and 10, and Be of line 13. Again in line 8 is 
the word xpfjfjLa. Here represents ?;, as also in the negatives 
fiij of line 6 and pr)0ev of lines 8 and 10. 

(2) The sign for i is a straight line, while the older Corin- 
thian inscriptions have a broken line of four or three strokes. 
It is true that straight i appears at Corinth, but only on monu- 
ments bearing the marks of a later date than the one in question. 

(3) In line 16 we read tapo Sdpo. This can be nothing 
else than the genitive singular with the final vowel sound ex- 
pressed by a single sign. But one distinguishing mark of the 
Corinthian alphabet was that it represented this spurious ov by 
two characters. 

What was the community which used this alphabet, kindred 
to the Corinthian, yet separated from it by such peculiarities? 
The village of Hagios Vasilios is less than two miles from the 
site of old Cleonae, a hill now known as Volimote. The owner 
of the stone told me merely that he found it in his field, but 
another villager stated definitely that it came from Volimote. 
And so it is clear that the little state, cramped between Corinth 



150 SHERWOOD OWEN DICKERMAN 

and Argos, had an alphabet of its own. There are present on 
the stone nineteen different letters. appears in lines 3 and 
and x m li ne 8- v, <, i/r, and 7 do not occur. Neither are 
there any indications as to the use of ?. I believe the upright 
stroke in the middle of line 2 to be the remains of X of the 
Corinthian form, T; in that case probably 7 also had the Corin- 
thian form, <. 

From the situation of Cleonae, Argive as well as Corinthian 
influence would be expected on its alphabet. This is, in fact 
the case. The table shows the letters in which Corinth and 
Argos differ arranged in parallel columns with the correspond- 
ing forms from Cleonae between them. 

CORINTH CLEONAE AROOS 



A 

r? 
[(]? 



I I 

O O 

It will be seen that Cleonae agrees with Corinth in using the 
peculiar sign for /3, in the triangular 8, probably in the form oi 
X, possibly, too, in that of 7, and in expressing rj by &. Cleonae 
agrees with Argos in the use of |^ as e, in the straight t, and ir 
expressing spurious ov by simple O. 

These resemblances to Argive usage are, however, of a genera' 
sort such as are common to other alphabets, but the peculiar f. 
and the ox-yoke e point to a more intimate relation. This 
is interesting, because the few historical references which w< 
possess link Cleonae with Argos, not with Corinth. In 468 B.C 
the town assisted Argos in the destruction of Mycenae. 1 Som( 
time before the middle of the fifth century the control of the 
Nemean games passed from the Cleonaeans to the Argives. 1 



8 . . 


LJI 


8 


... A 


X ... 


. . . h 








. . . & 


V 






. . . Sand* 


Spurious ov . 


... OK 



Strabo, p. 377. 2 Busolt, Griech. Gesch. I, 2 p. 669, n. 3. 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM CLEONAE AND CORINTH 151 

In 457 B.C. they fought among the Argive forces at Tanagra, 1 
and again in 418 B.C. at Mantinea. 2 The stone from Hagios 
Vasilios, however, belongs to an earlier time before the Argive 
influence became predominant. The testimony of the alphabet, 
if inferences so important may be drawn from evidence so slight, 
would be that in this period of independence, the state was 
more closely connected with Corinth. 

But although in certain peculiarities the Cleonaean alphabet 
shows the influence of one or the other of the great states 
between which it lay, its most distinctive feature is strange to 
both alike. It is truly remarkable that a small inland city, 
whose whole importance grew out of the fact that it lay on 
the high road between Argos and Corinth should be alone in 
expressing e and rj by different signs, at a time when all the 
other alphabets of the Hellenic peninsula, so far as we know, 
made use of but one symbol for both. 

Another monument of this little state has come down to 
us, the fragments of a marble stele? found at Athens, which 
Bockh identified 4 with the memorial of the Cleonaeans who 
fell at Tanagra, seen by Pausanias 1 in the Cerameicus. The 
last four letters of the name Tanagra, on one of the more 
recently discovered fragments, prove how correct his judg- 
ment was. This inscription shows not a trace of the peculiari- 
ties noted on the stone from Hagios Vasilios, but is written 
in ordinary Argive letters. Either by 45T B.C. the Argive 
domination had quite crushed out the native alphabet, or more 
probably the epitaph is the work not of a Cleonaean but an 
Argive hand. An indication in favor of the latter view may 
be drawn from the fact that the peculiar position of f, which 
is here turned on its side, in the epitaph, occurs also on an 
inscribed tripod base, uncovered by the American excavators 
at the Argive Heraeum. 5 This position of f would seem to 
[be an Argive fashion. 

1 Paus. I, xxix, 7. 3 C.I.A. I, 441, IV,i p. 107, p. 132. 

2 Thuc. V, 67. * C.L G. I, 166. 

5 Am. J. Arch. 1896, p. 58 ; Waldstein, Argive Heraeum, p. 205, vi. 



152 SHERWOOD OWEN DICKERMAN 

The transcription of the inscription from Hagios Vasilios is as 

2 ..... - [r]a [r]o[X]aT^[p t ]o 

v a7ro/3a/jLa f [e] ...... 

...... 09 et/^e^ alvr] [r] 

5 oz> ppe^avra \ a ...... 



[v~] al d[y9p^\07rov 7i[a] 
...... avra ^pijfjLa /J,r)0 

tv \ jjLtapo 
10 ...... arov 

a ...... 

fJLLapOL \ KCi 

6apa-iv Be elfMev h ...... 

...... a^TToOdvoi Kadapd 

15 fjievov \ /cara VO/JL[OV ...... 



[W- 

That the document deals with defilement and purification is 
clear from the words tuapov of line 9 and icdBapviv of line 12 Jl 
The broken word at the turn of lines 10 and 11 throws further 
light on its significance. The last two letters are ov. The 
two points remaining from the preceding letter can belong 
only to /x, or TT. As the letter was broader than any TT on th< 
inscription, it must have been /i. The part of the first lettei 
still left suggests a rough breathing. There is room at th< 
end of line 10 for i\a and at the beginning of line 11 for cr. 
Every indication points to 7u\a<r/jLov. The one polluted 
bloodshed, outcast from country, holy places, and the life of 
society, was restored, when restoration was possible, by two 
ceremonies. It was Karl Ottfried Miiller who first distin- 
guished and explained these rites, the purification, KaOapo-is 
or /caOapfjios, which cleansed the blood-stain from the criminal, 
and the propitiation, t\a<7/-to9, which appeased the outraged 
spirit of the murdered dead. 1 Plutarch mentions the two 

1 K. O. Miiller, Eumenides, p. 138. 




INSCRIPTIONS FROM CLEONAE AND CORINTH 153 

together in describing the purification of Athens by Epi- 
menides, after the slaughter of Cylon's men : tXacr/xot? TUTL 
KOI /caOap/JiOiS Kal l&pva-eo-i /caropyida-as KOI /caOoo-icacras rrjv 
TTO\LV (Sol. 12). 

Of the first line of the inscription nothing certain can be 
determined. 

Line 2. That the first upright stroke (reading the lines in 
a horizontal position) is the remains of r is indicated by its 
distance from the succeeding a. ra seems to be the ending 
of a masculine participle in the accusative case. The spacing 
suggests that the third letter was also r. Of the fifth letter a 
single upright stroke remains. Its closeness to the o which 
precedes and its distance from the a which follows shows that 
the rest of the letter was to the right of this stroke. It was 
probably X of the Corinthian form, P. Slight traces on the 
edge of. the break, to the left of a, are, perhaps, relics of the 
hook, although they may be mere scratches. The O represents 
the spurious diphthong, resulting here from crasis in TO e\arrj- 
piov. The word eXavvco is frequently used of the driving out 
of pollution. Cf. Thuc. I, 126 and 127; Aesch. Hum. 283; 
Soph. O.R. 98. eXaTijpiov itself appears in Aesch. Choeph. 965. 
The passage is corrupt, but the associated words are significant. 

orav a/iJL(f) y ecrrtia? 

TTCLV \d(7l 

ajrav ekarrjpiov. 



Schlitz emended the word to eXarypiois and connected it with 



a7ro73a/-i(/u)a is clearly the noun from a7ro/3aVTa>, the double p 
being expressed by a single character as frequently in archaic 
inscriptions. 1 Apollonius of Rhodes, in describing the purifi- 
cation of Jason and Medea after the murder of Absyrtus, tells 
how Circe killed a suckling pig and sprinkled their hands with 
the blood. These symbolic stains were then washed away and 
the water borne out of the house by the attendants. 2 The 

1 G. Meyer, Griech. Gram. 287. 2 Apoll. Rhod. Arg. IV, 708. 



154 SHERWOOD OWEN DICKERMAN 

Attic word for this lustral water was a^ovi^a. Athenaeus 
(IX, 78, p. 410) says: 

Hape'Qero ravra /cal Aft>/oo#eo?, <f)d(r/ca)v /cal ev rofc TO>Z> 
Trarpiois rdBe yeypd^Oai Trepl r?}? T&V i/cerwv / 
aTrovitydfjievos auro? /cal ol d\\oi ol <77r\ay^vvovr<; v 
\a/3cov /cdOaipe, aTroVtfe TO alpa TOV tcadaipopevov /cal pera TO 
aTTOVL/JL/JLa avaK.ivr)<Ta<s et? ravro ey^ee.' 

Evidently a7ro'/3a/ii(/-i)a has the same meaning TO eXarijpiov 
a7ro/3afjL(fjL)a, the lustral water that drives out the guilty stain. 

Line 4. The upright stroke faintly visible to the left of e, 
the third letter, cannot be the back of e, as it is joined to the 
preceding letter. This letter is therefore a- and the back of e 
is obliterated. 

Line 5. Like ppe^avra is the aorist efpega of a Cypriote 
inscription (S.Gr.D.I. 71). The Gortyna code (x, 30) .has the 
optative pep%ai. The commendatory expression, alvrjrbv ppe- 
gavra, may refer to the person who is declared in the next line 
fir) /jiiapov elfJLev. 

Lines 6 and 7. The restorations are certain from the remains 
on the stone, v, at the beginning of line 7, is almost com- 
pletely lost by a break, but the point of the elbow is still left. 

Line 8. The form /-iTjflet?, as well as ovQefc, becomes common 
during the fourth century B.C., 1 but this is the first instance of 
its appearing previous to that date. 

Line 16. A straight line is plainly to be seen at the top of 
the first letter, which was probably the rough breathing. 

II 

The inscription in Fig. 4 was turned up during the exca- 
vation at Corinth in April of 1898, on the terrace of the temple 
of Apollo, about twenty-five meters southeast of its southeast 
corner, at a depth of something over a meter and a half. The 
workman's pick broke off the lower corner, mutilating some of 
the letters. Careful search was made for other fragments, but 

1 G. Meyer, Griech. Gram. 212. 



I 




FIGURE 4. ARCHAIC INSCRIPTION FROM CORINTH. 



INSCRIPTIONS FROM CLEONAE AND CORINTH 155 

though in the course of the excavation all the earth from the 
surrounding area was removed, no additional pieces appeared. 

The stone is pale brown poros. One corner only of the 
original block remains. The present height is 0.25 m. ; the 
breadth, 0.19 m. ; the thickness, 0.1 m. The top is uninscribed. 
The two faces, A and B, are adjacent, the edge between them 
being beveled. The upper letters of face A form the connect- 
ing loop of boustrophedon lines, probably of considerable length. 
Very likely the other two faces of the pillar were also inscribed. 
Above the first row of letters and between the other rows are 
still to be seen the faintly incised lines with which the stone- 
cutter divided his field into strips and guided himself in his 
work. They continue from one face to the other without a 
break. The characters are cut deeply and accurately. Their 
height varies from that of o, 0.033 m., to that of cr, 0.063 m. 
The circular letters were made with a compass which has left 
its mark in the center of o in lines 2 and 3. Traces of brilliant 
red color are still to be seen on </>, o, and i of line 1. 

The ox -yoke e in the second line of both faces marks the 
alphabet as Corinthian, and the crooked t, as well as the boustro- 
phedon order, points to the early period of its development. 
Yet this three-stroke character is not the oldest form of the 
letter at Corinth. The monument of Deinias (/. Gr.A. 15) 
and the terra-cotta tablets from Pente Skouphia (I.Gr.A. 20) 
show a four-stroke variety. The three-stroke form is the one 
used in the old inscriptions of Corcyra, however (/. Gr.A. 342- 
344). The position of the letters also is less primitive than on 
the Deinias monument ;* for though the two inscriptions are 
alike in their boustrophedon direction and their manner of effect- 
ing the turn between lines by a loop of gradually inclined 
letters, the Deinias inscription inverts the characters in the 
line reading from left to right. 



The transcription is as follows : 



A 

" ai/ce - 
...h 



156 



SHERWOOD OWEN DICKERMAN 
B 



The first letter on face A, of which a single upright stroke 
remains, was undoubtedly either cr or T. Frankel here pro- 
poses : r]at Ke\[aival (or r]at /ceX[atmt). At the bottom of the 
stone, 0.08 m. below h, the tip of a letter is left. The broken 
letter beginning the third line of face B was probably p. \ 
Beyond the broken o, on the edge of the stone, is the square 
end of a stroke which slanted to the right. The letter was 
evidently L. 

With regard to the contents of the inscription Frankel says 
(C.LGr.P. 1597), "continuisse credendus est titulus praecepta 
de sacrificiis." 

SHERWOOD OWEN DICKERMAN. 



[mertcan Sdjool 
f Classical Stiunes 
t Eome 



CERTAIN SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN 
MANUSCRIPTS : 

STUDY BASED UPON TWO MANUSCRIPTS OF LIVY : CODEX 
PUTEANUS (FIFTH CENTURY), AND ITS COPY CODEX REGI- 
NENSIS 762 (NINTH CENTURY) 1 



V. ERRORS OF OMISSION 

THE work of the eight scribes is full of omissions. These are 

>r the most part of a trifling nature. The loss is confined 

hiefly to individual letters, syllables, and small unimportant 

r ords. It is rarely that a word of more than one syllable or 

group of words has dropped out of the text. These omis- 

ions are occasionally the result of intentional emendation, but 

le majority of them are due to an oversight on the part of the 

[jribe which resulted naturally from the lack of word-division 

;i P. Thus the cause of errors of omission is practically the 

ne as that of the errors illustrated in the two preceding 

apters. In the confusion to the eye arising from the un- 

Dken array of letters, it was easy enough for the omission of 

ters, syllables, and even words to pass unnoticed. The scribes 

R never more than half grasped the meaning of the sentence 

ich they were copying by reason of a far from perfect knowl- 

ge of Latin combined with the added difficulty caused by 

3 lack of word-division in the uncial model. Consequently the 

lure of the eye to catch a letter was rarely checked by any 

;ling for the demands of the sense of the passage. 

(1) Haplography . We have seen, in the last chapter, that 

ere was an unconscious tendency on the part of the scribes of 

1 Continued from p. 25. 
157 



158 F. W. SHIPLEY 

R to regard a letter which stands at the end of a word, or at 
the beginning of the next, as going with both (Dittography). 
The opposite tendency is that of Haplography, the omission of 
one of two like letters, syllables, or words standing side by side. 
Omissions of this nature are, in the main, unconscious. Some- 
times, however, they are the result of conscious emendation. 
The scribe imagines the repetition to be due to an error of dit- 
tography in the original, and omits one of the pair of letters, i 
syllables, or words which he finds written twice. 

(a) Examples of the omission of one of two identical letters i 
standing side by side : XXIII, 37, 2 quia muros 'satis per sej 
altos P, muro satis per se altos R. Muros is here incorrect in P. 1 
The ablative is required. But, that there was no intelligence in* 
the change of muros to muro in R, is shown by the fact thatl 
altos is left unchanged. XXVI, 49, 10 eis praesentibus sum 
restituit P, praesentibus uos R. XXIII, 48, 3 praetorem . . .1 
misit tuerique . . . iussit P, misit uerique R. XXVII, 41J 
9 quos ubi . . . consul uidet tribuno militum . . . imperat P, c'2toH 
uide tr. mil. R. XXVI, 38, 9 quo audacior res erat P, quo! 
audatiores e|rat 11. XXIIII, 38, 8 ceteri superi infernim 
di P, ceteri super infernique di R. A double example olj| 
this form of error is to be found in the following: XXIIII 
34, 5 ex ceteris nauibus sagittari (= sagittarii) funditoresqiu 
P, ex ceteris nauibus agit ari funditoresque R. Examples oj 
haplography such as praerant (= praeerant), uium (= uiuum)| 
demisi (= demissi), clasis (= classis), nolent (= nollent), adfe 
rent (= adferrent), misise (= misisse), pasim (= passim), 
quite common in R. But it is difficult to say in any giv< 
case whether the omission of one of the double letters within 
word is an oversight, or the result of a peculiarity of spelling 
on the part of a particular scribe. 

(5) The same principle operates in the case of the repetitioj 
of a syllable, or where two syllables, made up in part of 
same letters, stand side by side. The scribe is likely to 
one of them, either through oversight, or intentionally, in 
belief that the repetition in P is the result of a dittograpbj 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 159 

for which the pen of some previous scribe had been respon- 
sible. Examples are : XXVIII, 33, 9 acies esset P, aciesset R. 
-XXVIII, 25, 2 gererent P, gerent R. XXVI, 25, 3 in pela- 

goniam eadem celeritate uertit iter P, uertiter R. XXVI 28 2 

legionem inde deduci posse P, inde duci R. XXVI, 6, 2 transi- 
tum hostibus dedit. ibi, etc., . ... P, detibi R. XXVI, 33, 12 
qui se dediderunt P, qui se dederunt R. 

Repetitions of a word such as are to be found in Plautus and 
Terence are rare in Livy ; consequently there are no examples 
>f the omission of a word through haplography. 

(2) The recurrence of the same letter or series of letters in 
he same line was frequently the cause of the omission of all 
hat was written between them. On glancing back to his 
mcial original after copying the text as far as the first of the 
wo letters or combination of letters, the scribe's eye often 
aught sight of the second letter or syllable, and, imagining 
hat this was what he had just written, he went on with his 
opy from that point, omitting all between. The name usually 
pplied to this variety of omission is Corruptio ex Homoeoteleuto. 
Tyrrell (Correspondence of Cicero, vol. II, p. 54) suggests Para- 
lepsy as a more convenient name. 

) Omission of one of two adjacent syllables containing the 

me vowel; e.g. XXIII, 43, 13 potiturwm P, potitum R. The 
pribe wrote potitu and upon glancing back to the page of P his 
ye caught sight of the second u, which he imagined was the 
ie he had just written. [N.B. In the examples the part 
nitted in R is given in italics in citing the reading of P]. 

XXIIII, 10, 6 reli^osi P, reliosi R. XXV, 18, 4 creue- 

t consuetude quod aeger romae . . . P, creuerat consuetude 
jiger romae R. Here the scribe has omitted the o of quod, and 
ie letters between it and the last o of consuetude. XXVI, 

s 6 scire se /requentes P, scire sequentis R. XXVI, 39, 
j> nat^li P, nali R. XXVI, 40, 14 ad quadmginta P, ad 



inta R.-- XX VIII, 30, 7 sequeretur P, sequetur R. 
III, 31, 3 reflellione P, rellione R. XXVIIII, 1, 24 car- 
tjagimenses P, carthagienses P. In the two following exam- 



160 F. W. SHIPLEY- 

pies it is the first syllable which is omitted instead of the 
second, XXIII, 48, 4 sei'pionibus P, spionibus R. XXVIII, 
35, 4 masmissam P, manissam R. 

(5) Sometimes the omission of a whole word in R is caused 
by the fact that it ended with the same letter or syllable as the 
preceding one. 

XXIII, 48, 2 claudiana castra super sessulam P 2 ; castra is 
omitted in R. XXVI, 27, 8 comprehensi ipsi familiaequeW 
eorum P, compraehensi familiae quae eoruin R. Here the omis-'l 
sion of ipsi is due to the passing of the scribe's eye from the siA 
of eomprehensi to that of ipsi. XXVIIII, 7, 2 cum primum 
aestu fraetum inclinatum est P 2 , cum primum aestu fraetumjl 
est R, the omission being due to the similar ending turn. - 
XXVIII, 32, 8 rerum suarum gestarum P, rerum suarum 
gestarum being omitted. 

(c) In the two examples which follow, this same tendency 
responsible for the omission of several words. In XXVIII, 
7 itaque quod ad uniuersos uos attinet, si erroris paenitet, sa 
superque poenarum habeo P. The similarity of ending 
attinet and paenitet has caused the omission of si er 
paenitet altogether. Also in XXVIIII, 21, 5 si quis miles 
in urbe restitisset aut secum extulisset P, the words aut se 
extulisset have been omitted from the same cause. 

(3) The largest class of omissions in R is made up of s: 
unimportant words, such as prepositions, conjunctions, ; 
nouns, and the various forms of the verb esse. Lindsay in 
Introduction to Latin Textual Emendation has pointed out 
importance of recognizing the tendency to omit these mom 
syllabic words in emending the texts of the Latin poets, whei 
it is often necessary, in order to reduce a line to metrical reg^ 
larity, to insert some small word, such as those describe 
above. The reasons for the omission of these small words ad 
various. Sometimes the scribes have, perhaps purposely, la 
them out in the belief that they were unnecessary, sometiioj 
because they did not understand the context ; but in tl 
majority of cases these little words, most of which consist I 






SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 161 

but two letters, must have been entirely overlooked by reason 
of the lack of word-division in P. 

[For brevity, in citing examples of this variety of omissions 
I shall give simply the reading of P, printing in italics the 
words omitted in R.] 

(a) Prepositions. The omission of ab (a) and in is 
especially common. XXII , 30, 9 fainam a patribus accepis- 
sent. XXIIII, 39, 2 productus ad populum a magistra- 
tibus. XXVIIII, 1, 20 ceteris ab hannibale interfectis. - 
XXVI, 39, 8 ut ad componenda armamenta . . . satis temporis 
esset. XXII, 41, 5, duas prope partes tironum militum in 
exercitu esse. XXIIII, 5, 9 coniuratio in tyranni caput 
facta. XXV, 19, 15 ut in nulla pari re. XXVI, 1, 10 ne in 
oppidis hibernarent. XXVI, 27, 4 qui in publicum redempta 
ac inanu missi sunt. XXVI, 28, 4 urbanae duae superioris 
anni in etruriam . . . mitterentur. XXVI, 44, 5 trepidatio 
uero non in proelio maior quam tota urbe fuit. Here the 
cause for the omission seems to have been that in was not 
written with tota urbe. XXVIII, 26, 14 qualem ne in acie 
quidem aiebant meminisse. XXVIIII, 34, 12 sustinere ultra 
nequiere, the scribe apparently not understanding the adverbial 
use of the preposition. 

(b) The conjunctions et, ac, aut, and the enclitic que are 
often omitted, especially when they go in pairs, the scribes 
regarding one of them as superfluous. XXIII, 46, 9 muni- 
mentisquae firmatis et praesidio. The et is probably omitted 
on account of the presence of que. XXIIII, 20, 5 blanda et 
apulorum aece (= Aecae) oppugnatae. XXVI, 50, 9 pu- 
clore et gaudeo. XXVIII, 24, 6 motae . . . eorum mentes 
sunt non tum primum . . . sed iam ante licentia ex diutino, ut 
fit, otio conlecta et non nihil quod in hostico laxius rapto suetis 
uiuere artiores in pace res erant. XXVIIII, 5, 9 exercitum 
bolonum (= uolonum) ex efruria in galliam traducit, is an 
interesting example of the same tendency. Here the scribe of 
R supposed the et of Etruria to be the conjunction, and has left 
it out, writing bolonum ex ruria. An example like the preced- 



162 F. W. SHIPLEY 

ing is to be seen in XXVI, 50, 2. Here P has inter cetera 
ac|cepit, and the scribe of R, supposing ac to be the con- 
junction, and not seeing any possibility of its being used as 
such, has left it out and written inter cetera cepit. XXIIII, 
36, 5 legionern romanam quae exposita panormi est. Hera 
the quae is omitted probably because it was taken for que. - 
XXIII, 48, 5 nee aliter aut exercitum aut prouinciam atteneri 
(P 2 ) posse. 

(c) Examples of the omission of pronouns : XX VI II I, 6, 
5 qui . . . regium se contulerant P, qui . . . regium contulerat 
R. The scribe seems to have regarded regium as subject of 
contulerat, and has altered the number in addition to the omis* 
sion of se. XXIIII, 9, 9 praesenti fabio atque ipso comitia 
habente consulatus continuatus. The word ipso is here omitted! 
apparently because the scribe did not understand its mean- 
ing. XXIIII, 14, 8 liberatis auctorem eis non se fore solum.j 

-XXII, 25, 19 seruili eius artis. XXIIII, 16, 19 quam pater 
eius in aventino . . . curauit. 

(d) Omissions of the parts of the verb esse, especially of 
the form est, are very common. Examples would probably 
be superfluous here. 

(4) Another cause of omissions was the tendency of the 
scribes to leave out elements which they did not understand^ 
Where a passage was corrupt in P, not knowing what to d 
with the corrupt word or words, they sometimes left them ou 
altogether. E.g. XXIIII, 18, 2 quae uelut diutinis morbis 
aegra corpora ex sese gignunt, aea nata bello erant. Here the 
scribe of R has omitted the corrupt aea. XXIIII, 22, 14 set 
strictis simul (corruption of semel) gladis (= gladiis) P. 
XXVIII, 27, 10 nee me uita iuuaret is the reading of Lucks; 
P has nee multa iuuaret ; R has omitted the corrupt multa alto* 
gether. XXII, 13, 6 ab suo itinere Lucks; ad sue itinere P 
a itinere R. 

Sometimes the scribes of R, coming upon an unusual Of 
unfamiliar word, or upon something which in their opinion 
interfered with the construction of the sentence, left out ;i 



SOURCES OF COEEUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 163 

syllable or a word so as to reduce the unknown element to the 
known. E.g. XXIII, 16, 2 primo antesignam' poenorum, dein 
signa perturbata P ; the scribe of R, not being familiar with 
the word antesignani, omitted the ra, writing primo ante signa 
poenorum, etc. XXIIII, 3T, 9 praesidio decedere aput ro- 
manos capital esse P ; the same scribe (Fredeg) in R has left off 
the I, and written apud romanos capita esse. XXVI, 36, 3 
pro uirifo' parte P, pro uiri parte R ; the scribe in dividing the 
words first saw uiri and parte and not knowing what to do 
with the two additional letters left them out. XXVIIII, 
4, 1 animos rursus terror instans revocauit P, animos rursus 
terror instare uocauit R ; this error seems to be due in the first 
place to a mental word-division of instansre uocauit, and the 
scribe, supposing instansre was meant for the infinitive, omitted 
the ns and wrote instare. XXV, 15, 6 itaque metapontini P, 
itaque etapontini R ; the omission of the m was apparently due 
to a wrong mental word-division ; itaquem not being intelli- 
gible, it was amended to itaque. 

Two varieties of errors of omission are treated in other chap- 
ters to which they more properly belong : Substitutions such 
as aetatis for aestatis, temporum for templorum, etc., are given in 
Chapter VII, and the omission of abbreviations in Chapter IX. 
It is impossible, of course, to account for* all of the omissions 
which occur in R ; most of them admit of being grouped under 
the heads given above, but there still remain omissions which 
had no apparent reasons or starting-point, and which must be 
set down as accidents pure and simple. 

R exhibits no omissions of any great length. The longest 
consist, at the most, of not more than three words. 

VI. CONFUSION OF LETTERS (IN UNCIAL WRITING). 

Another source of error was the tendency on the part of the 
scribes of R to confuse some of the letters of P, and to write 
lone in the place of another. This species of error is not entirely 
! due to similarity of the letters, but is encouraged to a consider- 



164 F. W. SHIPLEY 

able extent by the lack of word-division in P, which, as in the 
preceding chapters, is again partly responsible for scribal errors. 
Certain uncial letters possess in common an element of like-J 
ness sufficient to make it possible for the form of one letter to 
suggest the other ; and the illusion, since it is not checked by 
any grouping of the letters into words, often finds corroborationj 
in possible word-divisions other than those intended by Livy. i 
The letters liable to confusion in uncial writing of the fifth 
century may be arranged in groups, on the basis of some com-l 
mon element of similarity among them; and in classifying the 
examples it has seemed best to make this the basis, rather than 
to follow the alphabetical order. These groups are (1) the 
letters ] \ \ (ILT), (2) C C Q O U (C E & Um 

(3) fcj^f TK (BllPFK), and (4) a few individuJ 

letters outside of these groups. 1 

The errors in each group are not evenly distributed ovea 
the work of all the eight scribes of R. Aldo, for instance, is 
prone to the confusion of ^ | ^ (/ L T) to a much greater 
extent than the rest of the scribes, and the majority of the 
confusions of the curved letters C C ^ V^ (C E G- 0) are/ 
made by the scribes Fredeg and Nauto. I have therefore 
indicated in parentheses, after each error, the name of the 
scribe by whom it was made, as follows: (G.) = Gislarius, 
( Aid.) = Aldo, (F.) - Fredeg, (N.) = Nauto, (Theog.) J 
Theogrimnus, (Theod.) = Theodegrimiius, (Ans.) = Ansoal- 
dus, (L.) = Landemarus. During a visit to Paris, in 1896, 
I made a study of the Puteanus, with regard to the form of 
the letters confused by the scribes of R in the greater number 
of the examples given in the following lists. It was thus pos- 
sible to see in each case exactly how the error was made ; and 

1 1 haye here attempted to reproduce the normal forms of the uncial letters 
which were confused by the scribes of R. Confusion is, however, often encour- 
aged, not so much by the normal form of a letter, as by some variation in it. 
It is also sometimes caused by the illusion which a given letter creates when 
taken in conjunction with certain other letters. In such cases the possibili 
of confusion will be seen to better advantage by consulting the facsimile of 
Puteanus on p. 165 (Fig. I). 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 165 




'/' 



- 






r C 



< x, f- p? p Q'r 

" - X -i 'ij ^ 

r - *> ^ 2 '' ^ M T u 

<~ *y . . ** i*v < J X *i/ T 

^ ^ w> X v ^*K ^ H- v' J-t W : 

^ ^-Z? J63 5 C'?'^"i 

7 Z v- c fi ^ fi ^ ^ ^ 
i j /i JS Xj X ** ^ ^ 

'X P V 7. r ^^ ^ ^ X 

^L. v* PL jx *J r* Vi C r V 



q J - fe ? . A /E J E |-.te-..f-.;^l 

*-j ^ JL ti *r * fj *1 *L *r> ~1 C -<* ] 

*~"^ $JL : ' -i fj ' ti *7 U **^ - V^ <^i : 

li:;l;ljl||f'|l-l 

C -7 i n '3 'I 3 3 ^ 3 ' ^. 

'****>'.*' .'T X'''?^ Z'-' -^' *~ ^ ^ !/ 

^ . ' <*- "3 X 4 ^ 7 r v ^ 7 

r^ ~ -L ' U ^' O-- *i- ''*.' ci C H _C .u 



- 
-O' 



X 

u 



G 



II 

*u ' r* i-"- y 

VO 3 Z ?<. *7 

e r- ' ( U N t 

3 O 'ft e-5 

o w ^c.s 








166 F. W. SHIPLEY 

iii consequence I have omitted a few cases of apparent con- 
fusion of letters which might be attributed to peculiarities of 
spelling on the part of the individual scribe. In the lists 
of examples I have given only the original error of the scribe, 
omitting the corrections afterwards made by the scribe himself 
or correctors. 

(1) Confusion of the Letters ] \ \ (ILT).-In each of 
the letters of this group the characteristic element is the ver- 
tical stroke. The horizontal strokes at the top of \ and at 
the bottom of \ are short, and not very marked; conse- 
quently there is little to distinguish the letters. Confusions 
in this group form the largest class of errors of this sort, 
and are especially common in the work of the scribes Aldo 
and Theodegrimnus. 

] I (/). XXII, 12, 4 imlo P 1 , uZlo P 2 , mlo R. The letter i 
I, which was written above the second u of P as a cor- 
rection, was mistaken for i (Aid.). XXVIIII, 38, 4 
aediles pi. essent P, aediles pi. essent R (L.). Where 
i is initial, owing to the fact that in Caroline minuscule 
writing initial i is often almost undistinguishable from 
Z, it is sometimes scarcely possible to tell whether the 
scribes of R intended to write an i or an Z, e.g. whether 
R has in XXII, 39, 7 Zactando or iactando (Aid.), and 
in XXII, 27, 4 /udicio or iudicio (Aid.). 
(L J). XXII, 60, 11 ca/purnius P, cai purnius R (Aid.). 
XXIII, 9, 9 conspectitur P 1 , conpfectitur P 2 ; the 
scribe Aldo misunderstood the correction in P, and, 
mistaking for an i the I placed' above the P, wrote 
coniectitur. XXIII, 14, 5 notalum P 1 , noZanum P 2 , 
noianum R (Aid.). XXVI, 38, 13 ad uZtumum P, 
ad m'tumum R (Theod.). 

) \(IT). XXIII, 12, 11 i'actauit P; toctauit was first 
written in R (Aid.). XXII, 60, 23 mrib. ( = uiribus) 
P, urib. R (Aid.). XXVI, 39, 11 ui ac uirtute P, 
u ac uirtute R (Theod.). XXIV, 20, 15 heraclensi 



k 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 167 

(= Heracleensi) iam P ; heraclestfiam was first written 
in R (F.). XXVI, 51, 4 quinto zterum P ; quiiito was 
first written in R, then t erased and iterum written after 
the erasure (Theod.). 

XXVI, 41, 6 ut ultro P, m' ultro R (Theod.). 

XXII, 30, 7 utro P, mro R (Aid.). XXVI, 39, 12 ex 
ufraque P, ex m'raque R (Theod.). XXVI, 3, 2 pugna 
ut P, pugnam R (Theod.). XXVI, 35, 10 uta P, 
uita R (Theod.). XXVI, 30, 3 facfam P, faci'am R 
(Theod.). XXIIII, 20, 14-15. mouit turn P, mouitium 
R (F.). XXIII, 3, 6 sfrenum (= strenuum) P, szre- 
num R (Aid.). XXIII, 11, 4 ure ac uino P, iure ac 
uino R (Aid.). 

[ \ (L T). XXII, 38, 13 ceZeribus P, ceferibus R (Ald.).- 
XXVIIII, 14, 3 iunonis sospitae Zanuuii P, iunonis sospi- 
tae fctnuuii R (L.). XXIII, 15, 5 noZam P, nofoim R 
(Aid.). With this compare the example given already 
under confusions of L and Z, noianum for nolanwn, 

XXIII, 14, 5. 

(T L). XXIIII, 19, 5 cu cefero exercitu P, cu ce^ero exer- 
citu R (F.). With this example compare ceteribus for 
celeribus in the preceding class. XXV, 18, 1 terrid P, 
terrifi was first written in R (N.). XXII, 30, 8 itala 
corrected to i^alia P 1 ; iZalia was first written by Aldo. 

In the following examples there is a double confusion of 
ZTand T I, and of T I and IT: XXII, 22, 14 uoft P, uoti R 
(Aid.). XXV, 19, 5 reducfr'que P, reduc^que R (N.). 

In Heraeus (jQuaestiones Criticae et Palaeograpliicae de Vetus- 
tissimis Codicibus Livianis} will be found numerous examples 
of the confusion of pairs of these letters with U. Of this 
[confusion I have found in R but one tolerably certain exam- 
ple, the confusion of IL and U. XXIIII, 7, 12 m. aemilium 
regiTlum P, m. aemilium regwlum R (F.). The reason for the 
scarcity of examples of this form of confusion in R is due to 
the fact that the left-hand stroke of the letter u in P is gen- 



168 F. W. SHIPLEY 

erally curved thus, U, and where u is confused with other 
letters it is with those in the C ' Gr E group. 

There are rare examples to be found in R of the confusion 
of the letters ITL with other letters. For instance, the 
letters P and F, when the loop of the one and the horizontal 
strokes of the other are small and light, may be mistaken for 
/in hasty reading. 

J ] (FT). XXIII, 7, 9/actum P, lactum R (Aid.). 

p 1 (P/)- XXIII, 43, 5 muneribus amjt?lis P, muneribus aim- 
lis R (F.). 

C 1 (C T). An example of a possible confusion of C and ^id 
the following: XXIII, 13, 5 dic-a P, ditoin R (Aid.), 
though there is really little similarity between the letters'.'. 

| (<7~Z/). C is written in the place of L in the following 
example : XX I II, 3, 6 Zocum P, cocii corrected to /ocu 
R (Aid.); but this is probably due to the fact that the 
scribe began to write the second syllable first, an error, 
which has happened before in the case of this scribe, 
e.g. XXII, 60, 21 incolumitate P 2 , in locumitate R. 



(2) Confusion of the Letters C C Q O "U 
The element of similarity among these five letters is that, inj 
uncial writing, G E Gr and the left-hand stroke of the U were 
formed by the arc of a circle, while 0, though a circle, was 
usually made in two strokes, the left-hand stroke being usually } 
heavier than the right. Each of these letters, then, contains a 
curve, the convex part of which is turned toward the left, andj 
if the other strokes are light or indistinct, confusion is an easy 
matter. A letter which might belong to this group is ^ G^V. 
which is capable of being confused with 0, but I have found no 
example of this confusion in the work of the scribes of R. 



1 Examples of the confusion of ^ and ^^^ are given by Lindsay 
Text. Emend, p. 103), Heraeus (de Vet. Cod. Liv. p. 103). 




SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 169 

(C E). Here confusion is very common; the only differ- 
ence between the letters is the horizontal stroke of the 
E, which was usually written quite high. Examples : 
XXV, 12, 14 in circo maximo P, in cireo maximo R 
(N.). XXV, 16, 17 id eohonestent P, ideo honestent 
R (N.). XXV V 17, 6 memorant credere P; memorante 
was first written by Nauto, who first mistook the c for 
an e. XXIII, 43, 13 capuae SLC P; capuae ae was first 
written in R (F.). 

(EC). XXIII, 47, 1 liceretne extra P, liceret neextra R 
(F.). 

( C G-) . The confusion between these two letters is par- 
ticularly easy. The only difference between them is the 
slight curve downward at the lower end of the stroke in 
the case of Cr. Examples : XXIII, 5, 13 ex afri|ca et a 
carthagine P ; ex afri^a was first written in R (Aid.). 
-XXV, 12, 10 graeeo ritu P, grae^oritu R (N.). 
XXVIIII, 23, 8 foedere cum populo P, foede return 
populo R (L.). 

(G-C). XXII, 11, 4 dimi^rarent (= demigrarent) P, dimi- 
crarent R (G.). XXIII, 3, 9 datae i^itur P 2 , data 
eitfitur R (Aid.). XXIII, 7, 7 ne^asset se iturum P, 
neeasset se iturum R (Aid.). XXII, 22, 9 adgreditur 
castra Lucks, ad^rredituricastra P, adcreditu|ricastra R 
(Aid.). XXVI, 6, 1 coepit Lucks, coe^it P, coeeit R 
(Theog.). XXVI, 3, 4 non a#|mine inexplorato P, non 
a<? mine inexplorato R (Theog.). XXVIIII, 7, 10 
airmen suorum P, a<? mensuorum R (L.). 

(E 0). This confusion is not recognized by either 
Lindsay or Heraeus. The examples given below show 
that such a confusion was possible ; and indeed there 
is considerable similarity in the letters, if is made 
with the heavier stroke on the left curve of the letter, 
and the horizontal stroke of the E is written high or 
is somewhat faint. 



170 F. W. SHIPLEY 

Examples : XXVI, 50, 4 iuuenis, inquit, iuuenem 
appello P, iuuenis inquit iuuenem apollo R (Theocl.). 
XXII II, 3, 14 cum permissu hannonis arcem intras- 
sent Lucks; P has for the last two words arcem ini- 
strassent, and arc0m inistrassent was first written in 
R (F.). XXIIII, 8, 9 deceat P, doceat R (F.). - 
XXV, 21, 2 ferociter P, forociter R (N.). XXIIII, 
20, 1(5 greges maxime abacti P, greges maximo abacti 
R (F.). 

(0 E). Examples of the opposite confusion are: XXIII, 

9, 10 tuam | doleo uicem P, tuam deleo uicem R (Aid.). 

-XXIII, 42, 2 poterant P, peterant R (F.). XXVI, 

6, 1 in ipso | uallo conficiunt P, in ipse uallo conficiunt 

R (Theog.)- 

TJl (OU). In the case of the substitution of one of these 
letters for the other, it is often extremely hard to decide 
whether the confusion is due to peculiarities of spelling 
and pronunciation on the part of the individual scribe, 
or is really a confusion of the form of the letters. 
Thus furtuna (= fortuna), uicture (= uictore), inco- 
lomi (= incolumi), luxoria (= luxuria), expugnatoro 
(=r expugnaturos), syracosanos, sicolorum, are probabl 
due to individual habits of spelling and pronunciation 
There are cases, however, where the change of lette 
makes a change of sense, and the errors are therefor 
to be attributed rather to a confusion of the form of th 
letters than of the sound. 

Examples : XXIII, 5, 12 docendo P, dwcendo R 
(Aid.)- XXVIII, 29, 11 adeo torpentibus qui ade 
rant P, adeotwr pentib ; qui adorant R 1 (Ans.). Her 
the confusion is double, that of U and of E 0. - 
XXIII, 19, 6 tolerantes P, twlerantes R (Aid.). 
XXIII, 40, 8 populatione P, pi^pulatione R 1 . 

(UO). XXII, 12, 8 d^cebat P, docebat R (G.). XXII 
60, 10 in twta loca P, in tota loca R (Aid.). XXVI 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 171 

37, 5 imperiwm P ; imperiom was first written in R 
(Aid.). This is probably not a case of archaizing 
the spelling, for the reason that such forms ending 
in om which occur in P are regularly changed to 
um by the scribes of R. XXVI, 16, 12 nmrosque P, 
moros que R (Theod.). XXVI, 16, 6 mwris P, moris 
R (Theod.). 

To the similarity of these two letters must be 
ascribed, in part at least, the writing of the accusa- 
tive plural masculine instead of the nominative singu- 
lar (and vice versa), in words of the second declension, 
where there is nothing in the structure of the sentence 
or in the sense of the passage to warrant the error. 1 
Examples : XXIII, 19, 18 subiectws P, subiectos R 
(Aid.). XXIII, 20, 5 legates P, legates R (Aid.). 
XXVI, 5, 14 interclusos P, interclusws R (Theog.). 
XXVI, 40, 8 romanos P, romanws R (L.). XXIIII, 
12, 2, infensos P, infensws R (F.). 

In the following examples of very exceptional confusions in 
this group I shall give more of the context, for the reason that 
there is but one example of each. 

(G-U). XXIII, 7, 9 ab universis id non oboedienter 
modo sed enixae (= enixe) fauore etiam uolgi et studio 
uisendi tot iam uictoriis clarum imperatorem factum 
est P. Here, where P has uoh/i, R has uol^i. There 
is nothing in the context to suggest uolui, and it must 
be regarded as an example of confusion of letters. 

: ;CU (EU). XXII, 60, 25 cum aciae (in acie Lucks) stare 
ac pugnare decuerit P ; here R has ducuerit. The error 
may possibly have been encouraged by the occurrence of 
u in the next syllable. 

1 Examples of confusion of these case-endings, due to a mistaken idea of the 
yntax of the sentence, will be found in the chapter on Errors of Emendation. 



172 F- W. SHIPLEY 

C"U (OU). XXVIIII, 18, 1 unum est, de quo nominatim et 
nos quaeri (= queri) religio infixa animos (animis Lucks) 
cogat, etc., P ; here R .has uocat, which involves a double 
confusion, namely, of U and G- 0. 

(3) Confusion of the Letters fc f K T K (BPRFK). 

These letters are all formed by means of a vertical stroke with 
loops (as in B P E) or straight lines (as in F K) drawn to 
the right. If these lines to the right are lightly made, the 
letters may sometimes be confused in rapid reading, though 
not so readily as the letters in the two preceding groups. 

^ P (#P). These two letters were also sometimes confused 
in pronunciation. It is therefore difficult to be certain, 
in a given instance, whether the substitution of one for 
the other is due to that cause or to confusion of form in 
cases in which P is followed closely by some other letter 
which helps the illusion. Examples: XXII, 28, 9 pel- 
lendos P, follendos R (Aid.). XXIII, 12, 6 6ar|cinae 
P, pircinae R (Aid.). XXIII, 18, 12 Mandi|us P, 
jolandius R (Aid.). In this example and the preceding 
one the words in P were divided by the end of a line. 
It is therefore hardly probable that the error is the result 
of wrong mental pronunciation, which would have beeni 
checked by the break in the words. XXV, 11, 1 rupib; 
P, ru&ib: R (N.). 

^ J^ (#.#). XXII, 9, 2 temptate uirib; P, temptate qui&; 
was first written in R, the r being taken for a b and 
the q unconsciously inserted (G.). 

f p CFP). XXVI, 6, 6 de/en|di P, de^endi R (Theog.). 

T 1^ (JF K). This confusion is made possible where the lette 
following F is one of the curved letters. XXIIII, 17, t 
ad/uere P, adruere R (F.). 

(PR). This confusion, also, is made possible where thi 
letter following P is one of the curved letters CE GrOL 




, SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 173 

XXV, 13, 7 apparatu jt?e|tendum P, apparaturae tendum 
R (N.). 

(RP). Of the converse of this form of error there are 
no examples of whole words, but in the following 
examples p was written for r and immediately erased : 
XXIII, 9, 13 minus res P; after minus the scribe 
Aldo wrote a p and then erased it. XXIV, 33, 9 
terrore P ; the first four letters written by the scribe 
of R were terp (F.). 

(RK). XXVIIII, 12, 8 epiroe (Epirotae Lucks) P, 
epi Koe R (L.). 

(4) Other Letters liable to Confusion. 

(/ ?Q (AX). The only sure example of this confusion is 
XXVIIII, 3, 11 patienda ea robore P, patienda QX ro- 
bore R (L.). 

(72 JV). When R is written close to the next letter 
and has the loop at the top very small (under which 
circumstances RI might sometimes suggest N), it is 
possible to mistake R for N, e.g. XXVI, 5, 5 terrore P, 
terrone R (Theog.). 

Q (S G-). XXVIIII, 19, 12 syracusarum P 2 , syracu^arum 
R (L.). A similar example is to be found in P which 
in XXIII, 39, 3 had cos non for cognomen. 

Jf. (PS). The letter P, when the loop is large and not 
closed, sometimes bears a slight resemblance to an $, 
e.g. XXIII, 17, 2 ^ublica P, sublica R (Aid.). 



C 7 -^ M ). XXVIII, 30, 2 deiwde P, dewck R 
(Ans.). XXVIII, 30, 10 intorta in proram P, intor- 
tam proram R (Ans.). This confusion is probably due 
not to any similarity between IN and M in uncial 
writing, but the Of^ unconsciously suggests the IN of 
the Caroline times. 



174 F. W. SHIPLEY 

The following confusions, represented in the above exam- 
ples, are not given in the lists of confusions in Lindsay's 
Introduction to Latin Textual Emendation or Heraeus's Quaesti- 
ones Criticae et Palaeographicae : FI; PI; CL; EO; OU; 
aU; EU; CU; BP; FR; RK; RN; PS; IN, M\ 
Of these the confusion of EO is represented by eight exam* 
pies ; that of U, by five ; that of BP, by two that are fairly 
certain; and that of IN, M, by two. The others are repre- 
sented by but a single example each. With the exception 
of C L they are all undoubtedly bona fide confusions. 

On the other hand, the combined lists of Heraeus and 
Lindsay contain the following confusions not represented in 
the above examples: AD; B, IS; CO; DO; DS; FS; 
FP; aE; GO; H with N, LI, El, EL; M with N, NI, 
NT; U with IT, TI, 01. 

VII. CONFUSION OF SIMILAR WORDS 

When one is reading rapidly, even a well-printed book, it is j 
not an uncommon thing unconsciously to substitute one of two 
similar words for the other, e.g. statue, statute. The letters of 
a word present themselves not individually, but as a group. 
When two words differ from each other merely by a letter or: 
two, it is very easy, unless one is reading carefully, for onetj 
group of letters to suggest the other. 

Naturally, in copying a manuscript such as P, the tendency 1 ; 
to confuse similar words was greatly increased by the lack of 
word-division. In printed books, and in manuscripts in which'i 
the words are divided, the separation of the words leaves com-a 
paratively little chance for errors of the eye. In copying the.fi 
continuously written text, on the other hand, the grouping of;, 
the letters had to be done entirely by the copyist. The world] 
of the scribes of R was, moreover, almost mechanical, and theyJ 
but rarely grasped the meaning of a sentence as a whole. There \ 
was, therefore, little to check these frequent illusions of thejl 
eye or to call the scribe's attention to the error after it wiial 




SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 175 

made. Consequently the unconscious substitution of one word 
for another is one of the more common forms of error in their 
work. 

In the following list of examples I have given only such 
substitutions of similar words as seem to be unconscious or 
accidental. Intentional substitutions will be treated in the 
Chapter on Conscious Emendation; confusions due to habits 
of spelling and pronunciation will be treated of in the Chap- 
ter on Errors of Spelling; and substitutions, such as uiro for 
utro, have been given in the preceding Chapter on Confusion of 
Letters. 

Examples of confusion of similar words : XXIII, 48, 4 exi- 
tus (exitu Lucks) aestatis eius P, aetatis R. XXIII, 42, 5 ita 
sumus aliquotiens hac aestate deuastati P, aetate R 1 . XXVIII, 
37-, 7 ei aetas in medio uirum robore P, aestas R. XXVI, 
29, 2 et extemplo oculos hominum conuerterint P, exemplo R. 
XXIIII, 14, 9 pugnam poscebant, signumque ut daret extemplo 
P, exemplo R. XXII, 32, 6 auri ... ad templorum ornatum P, 
temporum R. XXV, 12, 7 nam mihi ita iuppiter fatus est P, 
factus R. XXV, 16, 4 nulla tamen prouidentia fatum immi- 
nens moueri potuit P, factum R. XXV, 39, 14 ualerius antias 
una castra magonis capta tradidit (tradit Lucks) P, capita R. 

- XXVI, 35, 6 equi ornamenta et libras pondo P, liber as R. 
XXVI, 37, 8 quo propius spe (spem Lucks) uenerant P, pro- 
prius R. This error was copied into M. XXVI, 40, 8 ubi 
primum hostium agmen conspexisset P, urbi R. XXVIII, 
23, 5-ferro ignique P, ferre R. XXVI, 41, 6 id parem (pare- 
mus Lucks) atque agamus P, patrem R. This error was copied 
into M. XXVI, 41, 12 siciliae maioris partis P, patris was 
first written in R. XXVI, 28, 6 capua prouincia decreta.P, 
decreata R. XXVI, 34, 2 operae praetium (pretium) est omnia 
jenumerare P, opere R. This may, of course, be due to spelling. 

- XXVIII, 24, 12 reprehendere adque improbare P, improlrare 
R.-- XXIII, 45, 6 arma signaque eadem se noscere P; nocere 
jwas first written in R. XXII, 39, 20 omnia audentem con- 



176 F. If. SHIPLEY 

temnet P, audientem R. XXII, 25, 8 tamquam hostibus cap- 
tiuis arma adempta P, adepta R. XXII, 18, 7 dictator in 
larinati agro castra communiit P, commonuit R. XXVII, 
41, 10 ut sterni opterique, priusquam instruantur, possint P, 
optineri quae R 1 . XXVI, 51, 3 ipse paucos dies . . . exer- 
cendis naualibus pedestribusque copiis absumpsit P, exarcendis] 
R. XXVII, 42, 1 itaque excitm tumultu P, exercitus tumul- 
tum R. XXV, 13, 7 que (= quae) mutas accenderet bestias P, 
multas R. XXVI, 2, 3 melius uisum differri earn consulta- 
tionem P, consulationem R. The error is repeated, three lines 
farther on, where P had consultationi and R consulatione. 
XXVIIII, 16, 7 rogare P, rotate R 1 . XXVI, 36, 3 pins quaml 
pro uirile parte sibi qnemque capere principum nident P, prin- 
cipium R. XXIII, 46, 6 ad marcellum tramfugerunt P, trans-* 
fuerunt R. XXIII, 40, 7 manlius P, manilim R. XXIII, 
37, 5 nt eo die obsesso qnam obsidenti similior esset poenns Pj 
obsessio R. XXVI, 39, 22 paucos ex multis incidentis semi-j 
apertis portarum foribus P, incedentis R. XXV, 13, 7 paulo 
plus quadringenta uehicula missa et pauca praeterea iiimenta P, 
missa est R. XXII, 34, 2 quern sui generis hominem P, quam 
R. XXVI, 49, 16 ne in mails P, nee R. XXVI, 42, 1 ad 
hostem P, ab hostem R. XXV, 39, 9 db recenti pugna P, 
ad R. This error was copied into M. The confusion of these 
two prepositions, ab and ad, is very common. 

Examples of the substitution of one group of words for 
another have been already given in Chapter III. 



VIII. CORRUPTIONS ARISING FROM MISTAKING THE 
NUMERAL SIGNS 1 

Bede, in speaking of the work of the scribes of his own di 
made the following complaint : " numeri . . . negligenter desc] 
buntur et negligentius emendantur " (Opp. 1, 149). The 

1 The material contained in this chapter formed the subject of a paper 
before the American Philological Association at the meeting held in Schenect 
in 1902, and published in vol. XXXIII of the Transactions of that Associat 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 177 

quent occurrence in manuscripts of the ninth century, or later, 
of numerical records which are evidently corrupt seems to indi- 
cate that his complaint Avas not without foundation. Inasmuch 
as the scriptorium of Tours may be taken as typical of the scrip- 
toria of western Europe in the ninth century, it is of interest to 
see how the numbers in Livy's history, as given in P, fared in 
the hands of the monk-copyists of R. A comparison of the 
readings of the two manuscripts makes it possible to examine 
in detail the errors made by the scribes of R, and to see exactly 
in each case the reason for the error. 

Even the complaint of Bede hardly prepares one for the 
extensive corruption of numbers which took place in this one 
process of transcription. My study of R, as I have already 
said, covered about one-half of the portion copied by each 
scribe, an amount equal to about half of the third decade. 
Within this compass there were, in all, thirty-two cases of 
corruption involving numbers ; and were it not for the fact 
that in P many of the numbers are not represented by sym- 
bols, but are expressed in full, corruptions of this nature 
would have been much more numerous. These corruptions 
are due not so much to carelessness on the part of the scribes, 
^,s might be inferred from the complaint of Bede, as to igno- 
rance of certain of the numerical signs and methods of notation 
[which, although in vogue in the fifth centuiy, had in the ninth 
pecome partially obsolete. The real carelessness of the scribe 
consisted in attempting to render in the notation of his own 
|day the symbols which he did not understand. Fortunately, 
the more difficult symbols for the higher numbers, such as , 
&, do not occur in P, and the scribes' difficulties were confined 
to the symbols for 1000 and those of lesser denominations. 

(1) In P the sign regularly used for 1000 is oo. This sym- 
bol seems to have been entirely unfamiliar to the scribes of 
the early ninth century, and to this cause is due fully one- 
lialf of the numeral corruptions in the following list. The 
possibility of error might have been avoided by copying the 
symbol as it stood, but four of the scribes Aldo, Fredegaudus, 



178 F. W. SHIPLEY 

Ansoaldus, and Landemarus made the absurd blunder of sup- 
posing that QO, from its form, must stand for x, even where the 
context showed that 10 was entirely too small a number. For 
instance, the scribe Fredegaudus, in XXIII, 37, 6, has trans- 
scribed correctly enough the number ooccc, but only a page or 
two later, meeting with the symbol oo again (in XXIII, 4 >. -1 ), 
he imagined that he now knew what it meant, and wrote, instead 
of the GCCC which he found in P, the number xcc. If he had' 
exercised a moment's thought, he might have seen that it was 
not at all likely that GO was the symbol for 10, inasmuch as it] 
was followed by cc ; yet he continued to make the same mistake 
throughout his quota of the work, though once, being in doubt, 
he left a blank to be filled in by the corrector. Other examples 
of his treatment of the symbol are : 

XXIII, 40, 4 ad ccooco sardorum eo proelio caesa P. Here 
Fredegaudus first wrote xxx ; then, feeling that 30 was tool 
small a number, he drew a horizontal stroke above it, thus,i 
xxx. In this way the original 3000 becomes first 30 and then] 
30,000. 

XXIII, 49, 11 paulo minus GO equorum P. In R a corrector 
has written cc in an erasure of what was probably X. 

XXIIII, 40, 5 ITT ualerius GOOD praesidioque P. Here the 
scribe left a blank space, in which the numeral was written^ 
by a corrector. 

XXIIII, 40, 8 facturum se que (= quae) uellent pollicitus, 
GOOD delectorum militum navibus longis mittit P. The number 
as it now stands in R is cc delectorum militum, but the cc is 
written by a corrector in an erasure of what was probably xx. 
It is to be noted that the correction is also wrong, and that the 
scribe has returned to writing x for GO. 

The above examples from the work of Fredegaudus I have 
given first, not because his errors in this regard are the most 
numerous, but because they show four different stages in his 
treatment of the symbol: (1) he does not know what it means, 
but copies it as it stands in P ; (2) he becomes convinced 
it stands for x, and writes it accordingly; (3) he begins 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 179 

doubt his previous conviction, and leaves a blank ; (4) he 
resumes once more the writing of x. Examples of this error 
from the portions copied by the other scribes are : 

XXVII, 38, 11 equitum oo P. This the scribe of R copied 
correctly, but, having changed his mind, he erased the oo and 
wrote x in its place. 

XXVII, 38, 12 et sagittariorum funditorumque ad oooooo P, 
et sagittariorum funditorumque xxx R. This a corrector has 
altered to ex GO GO. 

XXVII, 43, 11 sex millia peditum co equites P, sex millia 
peditum x equites R. 

XXVIIII, 2, 4 erant in celtibero exercitu coooooco scutata P, 
erant in celtibero exercitu xxxx scuta R. 

XXVIII, 34, 2 uulnerata amplius cooooo hominum P, uulne- 
rata amplius xxx hominum R. In this and in other cases the 
genitive after the numeral does not seem to have troubled the 
scribe. 

XXVIIII, 36, 9 supra cococooo armatorum P, supra xxxx 
armatorum R. 

XXII, 41, 2 ad GO et DCC caesi P. A corrector in R has 
written m over an erasure of what was probably x. 

XXII, 7, 3 is a possible example of this confusion. P has 
ooooD hostium in acie periere. In R there is an erasure before 
D, in which a late corrector has written m. The erased let- 
ters were probably xx, as the work of this scribe, Aldo, shows 
other instances of this confusion. There is a possibility, how- 
ever, that the letters were coco, and that this correction was a 
deliberate one, made with the purpose of bringing Livy into 
harmony with Polybius, who gives 1500 as the number. 

In the two examples which follow, as well as in the second 
example from the work of Fredegaudus, this confusion of x 
and oo is responsible for a further increment of corruption. 

XXVII, 40, 11 ad cococooo hominum P, ad triginta milium 
hominum R. Here the scribe has made a triple error. He 
interpreted the oooococo as xxxx. Then, being in the habit 
of writing XL for 40, he supposed that the fourth oo was a 



180 F. H'. SHIPLEY 

scribal error and that 30 was the number. Feeling that the 
passage required a larger number than 30, he wrote ad tri- 
ginta milium hominum, and the 4000 of Livy has become 
30,000. 

XXIII, 13, 7 ut hannibali ocx'xx numidarum in supple- 
ment urn mitterentur. R has XL numidarum. The scribe sup- 
posed that the number was xxxx, and was in the habit of! 
writing XL for 40. As in the preceding example, the cluej 
for emendation is practically lost. 

(2 ) The symbol for 1000 with which the scribes were familiar 
was M. Consequently the scribes Theogrimnus and Theode-j 
grimnus sometimes write mille for M., the abbreviation for! 
Marcns. and a number is thereby created where none had 
existed. 

XXVI, 21. 13 id m cornelio mandatum P. id mille cornelioj 
mandatum R. To the scribe, if he took the trouble to trans- 
late, this must have meant. -This thousand was entrusted to 
Cornelius." 

XXVI. 21, IT inter has difficultates in Cornelius PR (= prae- 
tor ) et militum animos, etc. P, inter has difficultates mille 
Cornelius populus romanus et militum animos R. That the 
scribe had little idea of the sense is shown by populus 7.' 
mis; but if he concerned himself with the meaning at all. he 
must have taken it to mean something like this : " amid these 
thousand difficulties." 

XXVI, 22, 12 duobus plenis iam honorum que fabio et ni 
marcello P, que fabio et mille marcello R. 

XXVI, 21, 5 ut m. marco marcello (marco marcello P 2 . de 
leting m.) quo die urbe ouans iniret, imperium esset P, milh 
marco marcello R. The scribe has not only produced an utter 
absurdity, but has gone out of his way to do so by disregarding 
the correction in P. 

XXVI, 40, 10 ad p. tolomaeum ( = ad Ptolomaeum) et cleo- 
patram reges m atilius et in acilius legati P, ad populum tolo- 
maeum et cleopatrani reges m atilius et milia acilius legati R. 



- 'F CORRUPTION JLV LATiy MAXU+CRIPT* 

Here the scribe arbitrarily left one ni as it was and wrote miUa 
for the other. 

These errors were all corrected while P was still accessible, 
ind are so absurd that, if P had been lost altogether, they 
would, if not carried further, have presented no difficulty 
whatever to a modern critic. But these blunders would 
surely have grown in passing through the hands of later 
Dopvists, to whom it would be a great temptation, on finding 
these numbers standing alone, to add a noun to indicate the 
thing numbered. 

(o ) The svrubol jSf, for 500, also gave rise to an important class 
rf corruptions in R. In order to distinguish the numeral sign 
from the letter O. a stroke is regularly drawn through it in P. 
Unfortunately an oblique stroke was drawn in the same way. 
by the correctors in P. through letters which they wished to 
lelete ; and some of the scribes of R, supposing that this was 
the purpose of the oblique stroke through the Jf, have omitted 
the symbol for 500 altogether. 1 

XXIII. 16. 15 U et jerccc hostium caesos non plus if roma- 
norum amississet ( amissis et Lucte) P, If et ccc hostium caesos 
on plus romanorum amisisset R. The number of the enemy's 
flled has thus decreased from 2800 to 2300, and the number 
[ the Roman dead has disappeared entirely. 
XXIII. 19. 17 ex jSfLXX qui in praesidio fuerunt P. ex LXX 
ni in praesidio fuerunt R ; a reduction from 570 to 70. The 
sribe added the if at a later time. 

XXIII, 17. 8 casilinum eo tempore JZf praenestini habebant P. 
( was omitted by Aldo, and R first read casiUnum eo tempore 
vaenestini habebant, though the if was inserted at a later 
Line, 

XXVII. 41. 8 circa if romanorum sociorumque uictores ceci- 
erunt P. The number is omitted in R. 
The scribe Fredegaudus seems to have regarded this as a 

D as early as the copying of P. in the fifth or sixth century, the 
f was not unusual, as is shown by its occasional omission in P. 



182 F. W. SHIPLEY 

blunder to be carefully guarded against, and in XXIII, 43, 8, 
where P has nolandos, which was corrected to nolanos by P 2 , 
by drawing a line through the ^ (thus, NOLANDOS), this 
scribe wrote nolanjKos, probably because he had been cautioned 
against omitting the symbol. This precaution shows how great 
a tendency there was to errors of this kind. 

(4) Another source of error in connection with the numerals 
was the difference in practice in the fifth century and in the 
ninth with regard to the manner of writing 40. In P it is\ 
regularly written xxxx. In the ninth century the form XL 
seems to have been the more familiar form. Consequently 
there is a slight tendency among the scribes of R to suppose 
that xxxx is a mistake, and that xxx is the number intended. 
Thus, in XXVII, 40, 11, the scribe in R wrote xxx for 00000000,] 
supposing that GO was x. 

In XXVII, 8, 13, quattuor milia cccxxxxiv, though written 
correctly by the scribe of R, has become in the hands of a 
corrector, who erased one x, quattuor milia cccxxxvi. And! 
in XXIII, 37, 11, signa militaria ad xxxxi cepit P, became, in 
the hands of the scribe, xxxi, though a corrector has since 
emended to XLI. 

One would expect to find the same confusion in the case of 
vim for 9, but of this I have found no examples. 

Manuals on textual emendation have little to say on the 
subject of the numerals, and the illustrations which they give 
deal for the most part with corruptions caused by the confu- 
sions of the numeral signs with letters of the alphabet, the 
numeral thereby becoming part of a word. Of this variety of 
error I have found but two examples : 

XXVIIII, 36, 9 paulo minus ccc ui ui capti P. Here the 
word uiui is divided in P by the end of a page, one half 
being at the bottom of one page, the other at the top of the 
next. In consequence, Landemarus supposed that the first 
was part of the numeral, and wrote CCCVi ui capti. 




SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 183 

XXII, 37, 5 uictoriam auream ponclo ducentum ac uiginti is 

;he reading of Luchs. P has uictoriam auream p. cc ac xx. 

For this the scribe in R wrote uictoriam auream picca cxx. 
"his absurdity is now emended in R to p. cccxx. The a of 

ic is thus omitted and the c is added to the numeral, thereby 

increasing the weight by 100 pounds. 
From the paucity of examples, it would seem that this was 

iot a class of error to which the scribes of R were prone, and 

bhe actual corruption due to this cause is slight when compared 
dth the other classes already indicated. The same may be 
lid of the errors arising from the two uses of the horizontal 

[troke which was drawn above the numerals, sometimes to indi- 
ite thousands, and sometimes simply to indicate a numeral, 
have found no errors from this cause in R, for the reason 
iat where the horizontal stroke was already in P it was usually 
^produced in R, or if omitted, omitted intelligently. 

To make the list of numeral corruptions complete, I shall 
Lve one more. In XXVIIII, 38, 8, P reads ludi romani biduum 
jtaurati. Here the scribe Landemarus wrote ludi romani x duu 
istaurati. His reason for writing x duu is difficult to see. He 
have thought that -duum meant 2 in combination with a pre- 
ling number, and then guessed that the first part meant 10. 
It will be seen from the above examples that the great major- 
of the numeral corruptions involve the larger numbers. Of 
>tal of 32 examples, there are 15 in which x is written for oo. 
we include the five examples in which mille was written for 
"., the abbreviation for Marcus, which, however, as they 
jur in the work of but two scribes, must not be regarded 
a common species of error, we have 20 examples, or nearly 
r o-thirds of the total number, involving thousands. Adding 
[e examples of the omission of f, we have a total of 25 cases 
numeral corruptions involving errors of 500 or more. The 
il number of numeral corruptions due to all other causes 
tounts to but 7. The smallest class is that to which books 
textual criticism give the most attention. 



184 F. W. SHIPLEY 

The havoc made with the numerals in this one process of 
transcription goes to show how little reliance can be placed! 
upon the accuracy of the numerals in the texts of classical 
Latin writers which are based only on manuscripts of the 
ninth century or later. The chief cause of error in It is 
the scribes' lack of familiarity with the signs of notation in 
vogue in the fifth and sixth centuries. The monastery of 
Tours was surely no exception in this respect, and it is safe 
to assume the same ignorance of the older notation for the 
majority of the scribes in western Europe in the early ninth 
century. It is therefore probable that errors of the same 
nature continued to be made until experience had given the 
scribes more familiarity with the notation of the older time. 
Most of the errors in It passed through the hands of a cor- j 
rector, in which process some of them were corrected, and 
others augmented. But that such supervision was not ew 
tended to all the manuscripts of the period is shown by the i 
occurrence of similar errors in the Bamberyensis, an eleventh- 
century descendant of P. In the few chapters at the end of 
the decade, in which the readings of the Bamberyensis appear 
in the critical apparatus, there are 4 cases in which x is 
written for cc, and 2 cases of the omission of Jf. 1 The prelH 
ence of these corruptions in this manuscript of the eleventh 
century helps to confirm the impression that manuscripts of the 
ninth century and later, however trustworthy in other respects, 
are not to be depended upon in their record of numbers unless 
that record is corroborated from some independent source. 

IX. ERRORS DUE TO ABBREVIATIONS 

Nothing shows more clearly the ignorance of the scribes of 
and their lack of familiarity with the Latin of the classi< 
period, than the absurd blunders made in copying the abbrevii 

1 See Transactions of the American Philological Association, vol. XXXII 
pp. 53, 54, where I have treated of the errors in the Bamberyensis in mo 
detail. 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 185 

tions which occur in the Puteanus. These contractions, as is 
usual in uncial manuscripts, are comparatively few and simple. 
The more common of them are : b. for bus in the ending of the 
dative and ablative plural ; q, for que the enclitic ; e for est ; a 
stroke over the vowel for m or n ; the use of initials in proper 
names (praenomina) and in such words as senatus consultum, res 
publica, populus Romanus ; and contractions of two or more let- 
ters, such as pr for praetor, cos for consul. It was, of course, 
natural that the scribes should not know what was meant by 
the contractions s. c., p. r., and pr, the first time they were 
encountered, but it was always possible to avoid error by writ- 
ing the- contractions as they were in P. They were not obliged 
to expand them and write the word in full. 1 But they often 
did not choose to adopt this safer course, and have expanded 
p. (= Publius) into prae, although Scipio is the next word, 
p. r. and pr into per, en into con, without any regard for sense 
or construction, in passages where a minimum of understanding 
of the text they were copying, even if it did not suggest the 
word represented by the contraction, would have warned them 
against expanding this in such a way as to make nonsense. 

It is evident from these blunders that most of the scribes of 
R had never before been engaged in copying the prose text of 
a pagan Latin writer. Otherwise they would have been more 
familiar with such common contractions as those for proper 
names at least. Their previous work, to judge from these errors, 
had been confined entirely to the copying of the church books, 
land being now set to work for the first time upon the text of 
(one of the older Latin prose writers, they confused the abbre- 
[viations with which they were familiar with the contractions 
[which occur in the text of Livy. Errors of the same nature 
jmust have been common in all the work of the early ninth 
century until the scribes became familiar with the abbreviations 
p the works of the older Latin writers. 

1 The scribe Landemarus, after having made all sorts of errors by wrongly 
pxpanding these signs of contraction, finally avoided further blunders by making 
in. his copy uncial facsimiles of the abbreviations in P. 



186 F. W. SHIPLEY 

(1) The simplest form of this species of error among the 
scribes of R was the failure to recognize that a given letter or 
group of letters was an abbreviation. In consequence the con- 
traction, if it consisted of a single letter, was attached either to 
the word which preceded it, or to that which followed ; or, if it 
consisted of several letters, part of them were attached to the 
preceding word, and part to the next. This form of error was 
encouraged by the lack of word-division in P. The contrac- 
tions were not separated from the surrounding letters except 
occasionally by a dot to the right, and not distinguished from 
them except by a horizontal stroke above the letter, while both 
of these indications were sometimes wanting. 

Examples of attaching the abbreviation to the preceding 
word (this is most common with the letter m) : XXII, 14, 9 si 
hoc modo peragranda cacumina saltusque m. furius recipere a 
gallis urbem uoluisset P, cacumina saltus quern furius R. - 
XXVI, 28, 13 qui in exercitu m. claudii, m. ualerii, q. fuluii i 
f uissent P, qui in exercitum claudii m. ualeriigue f ului fuis- 1 
sent R. XXVII, 38, 11 auxilia . . . a p. scipione m. liuio 
missa P, auxilia apud scipionem (sic) liuio missa R. Here, in I 
addition to writing m with the preceding word, a p. is taken for' 
apud. XXVII, 38, 11 mixtos numidas hispanos^wg m. lucre- 
tium has copias nauibus aduexisse P, hispanos quern lucretium R. 
XXVIIII, 13, 2 et eidem gallia m. pomponio mathoni sicilia P, 
galliam pomponio R. XXVIIII, 20, 8 si m. pomponius P, simi 
pomponius R. XXVIIII, 37, 8 in qua m. liui nomen erat P,fc 
in quam liui nomen erat R. XXVIIII, 7, 2 et ipse a messana< 
I. scipione fratre in praesidio ibi relicto P, a messanal scipione R. 
XXVIIII, 13, 2 sicilia ti claudio P, sicilia^' claudio R. 
XXVIII, 27, 15 sederunt in tribunali p. scipionis P, sederunt' 
in tribunalip. scipionis R. XXVI, 32, 1 principe eius senten- 
tiae t. manlio torquato P, principe eius sententia et manlic 
torquato R. XXV, 40, 3 dedicata a m. marcello templa P^ 
dedicata am marcello templa R. In M this has become a mar- 
cello. XXVI, 26, 8 dilectum prope a m. Cornelius P, dilecl 
prope am Cornelius R. In these two cases a Latin word 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 187 

not been formed by attaching the abbreviation to part of the 
preceding word. Sometimes slight emendation was resorted to, 
as in XXIIII, 20, 7 haec a q. fuluio intra paucos dies gesta P, haec 
atque fabio, etc. R, and in XXIIII, 8, 17 aliquem in civitate r. 
(= Romana) meliorem bello haberi quam te P, civitatem melio- 
rem R. Here the r after civitate was not understood, and con- 
sequently the scribe altered to civitatem. 

Examples of attaching the abbreviation to the following word 
(not so common): XXIII, 38, 11 1. apustio legato P, Zapustio 
legato R. XXVI, 28, 3 t. otacilius P, fotacilius 1 R, XXVI, 
33, 5 dein cum m. atilium P, dein cum watilium R. 

Examples of the breaking up of two or more letters serving 
as an abbreviation : XXVIIII, 5, 5 satis scire sp. lucretium P, 
satis scires p. lucretium R. XXVI, 5, 8 ita inter se copias 
partiti sunt : ap. claudius campanis, fuluius annibali est oppo- 
situs P, a p. claudius campanis R. The scribe of M, perceiving 
that a was not a preposition, emended the passage and wrote 
ea p. claudius. XXIIII, 18, 9 additumque . . . censoriae 
notae triste s. c. (= senatus consultum) P, additumque . . . 
censoriae notaettristes c R. 

(2) Many abbreviations did not admit of being attached to 
the adjoining words, and the scribe, not knowing what to do 
with the letter or letters which he did not understand, left 
them out altogether. These omissions are particularly common 
in cases where the preceding word happened to end with the 
same letter as the abbreviation, the scribe regarding the repeti- 
tion of the letter as a dittography. They are, however, of 
frequent occurrence even when this is not the case. 

Examples of the omission of abbreviations (the abbreviation 
somitted in R is given in italics in the reading of P) : XXVIIII, 
J37, 10 item m. liuius P, item liuius R. XXV, 18, 4 sed. in 
hello nihil tarn leue est quod non . . . momentum facial, t. 
mdnctio crispino badius campanus hospes erat P. The scribe 
|of R, regarding the two tf's as a dittography, has written faciat 
minctio. XXIII, 48, 2 ne . . . sumptui . . . essent. et t. 

! 

1 This error in the case of the name T. Otacilius occurs quite frequently. 



188 F. W. SHIPLEY 

gracchus iussit P, essent et gracchus R. XXIIII, 19, 4 securae 
res ab hannibale essent, ti. gracchum proconsulem a beneuento 
acciturum P, essent gracchum (omitting ti.) R. XXVII, 
40, 2 ut eodem tempore utrubique res p. (= publica) prospere 
gereretur P, res prospere (omitting p.) R. All the above 
examples of omission are due to supposed dittography, but in 
the following cases there is no such reason for the omission : 
XXVIIII, 12, 9 cum p. sempronio P, cum sempronio R. 
XXVI, 39, 3 praeerat classis commeatibusque d. quintius P, 
commeatibusq ; quintius R. XXV, 14, 7 qui sociis captorura 
concederent decus, t. pedanius princeps . . . P, decus peda- 
nius R. XXVII, 40, 4 multa secunda in italia siciliaque gesta 
quassata rem p. (= publicam) excepisse P, quas satarem exce- 
pi sse ft. XXVI, 30, 12 pro uobis p. c. bella gerimus P, pro 
uobis c. bella gerimus was first written in R. XXIIII, 7, 8 
incerto rerum statu atp. claudius P. Here atp. is a corruption 
of app. The scribe in R, Fredeg, has written statuat claudius, 
omitting p. 

(3) In the examples given in the two preceding classes, the 
error is due to the failure of the scribe to recognize contractions 
as such ; but the largest class of errors, and the one which best 
illustrates the illiteracy and stupidity of the scribes of R, con- 
sists of the cases where the scribes recognized that there was an 
abbreviation, but expanded it wrongly. Though they had always 
the alternative of writing the abbreviation as it was in P in cases 
where they were in doubt, yet they have often chosen to expand 
the contractions in ways so absurd as to seem almost incredible. 

(a) per wrongly written for p. r. ( = populus Romanus) and 
^pr (= praetor). 1 



1 This species of error is confined to the portion copied by Theodegrimnus. 
This scribe subsequently went over his work, and corrected all the mistakes given 
in the following list, except the first, by erasing the e, and drawing a line over pr ; 
thus pr. This is the contraction for praetor, but the contractions for praetor 
and populus Eomanus are often not distinguished even in P. In giving the 
contractions in the examples, I have inferred from Luchs's silence that the 
normal contraction was used in each case, namely pi" for praetor, and pr for 
populus Eomanus, 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 189 

XXVI, 28, 11 1 quinctio pr (= praetori) ad optinendam sici- 
liam P, quinctio per adobtinendam R. XXVI, 28, 12 totidem 
legiones in sardiniam p. nianlio uulsoni pr (= praetori) decre- 
tae P, uulsorii per decretae R. XXVI, 30, 1 multa de hieronis 
regis fide perpetua erga^r (= populum Romanum) uerba fece- 
runt P, erga per uerba R. XXVI, 30, 6 quo scilicet iustiore 
de causa vetustissimos socios pr (= populi Romani) trucida- 
ret P, socios per trucidaret R. XXVI, 30, 7 bellum cum pr 
( = populo Romano) gessissent P, cum per gessissent R. 
XXVI, 31, 1 non adeo maiestatis, inquit, pr (= populi Romani) 
imperiique huius oblitus sum P, inquit per oblitus sum R. 

(b) Prae wrongly written for p. (= Publius or publica). 
This is a form of error confined to the work of Theogrimnus 
and Landemarus, who were accustomed only to the regular 
ninth-century usage of writing p for prae. XXV, 41, 8 itaque 
senatus romae decrevit, ut p. Cornelius pr (= praetor) litteras 
capuam ad consules mitteret P, ut prae Cornelius populus roma- 
nus litteras . . . R. XXV, 41, 11 et p. sulpicium serg. f . P, 
et prae sulpicium serg. f. R. This is copied into M as follows : 
et pre sulpicium ser. g. f. XXVI, 1, 1 de re p. ( = publica) 
. . . consuluerunt P, de re prae . . . consuluerunt R. XXVI, 
1, 2 ap. (= Appio) claudio P, a prae claudio R. XXVIIII, 
9, 11 ad p scipionem profectos P, ad prae scipionem R. 
XXVIIII, 10, 1 cum p. licinio cos. litterae romam allatae P, 
prae licinio cos. R. XXVIIII, 10, 2 exercitum . . . dimitti 
e re p. (= publica) esse P, exercitum . . . dimitie re prae esse R. 
- XXVIIII, 10, 3 ut e re p. fideque sua daret P, ute re prae fide 
quae suadaret R. XXVIIII, 10, 7 p. scipionis P, prae scipio- 
nis R. XXVIIII, 11, 10 consules facti m. Cornelius cethegus, 
p. sempronius tuditanus apsens P, prae sempronius R. 1 

(tf) populus wrongly written for p. where the contraction 
stood for Publius, publica, etc. Errors of this nature "occur 

1 The examples from Books XXV and XXVI are all from Theogrimnus, while 
those from Book XXVIIII are from Landemarus. In both cases these errors 
cover about two pages. They were probably noticed by the supervisor of the 
scriptorium, who prevented the further recurrence of the error. 



190 F- W. SHIPLEY 

in the quaternions signed by Theogrimh. and Theodegriiim. 
Inasmuch as these scribes were responsible for some of the 
errors given in the two foregoing lists, (a) and (T), it is proba- 
ble that they were told by the monk who supervised their work 
that p. sometimes stood for populus, and as a result of being 
thus cautioned they went to the extreme of writing populus 
for that contraction regardless of the sense. 

Examples : XXVI, 36, 8 ut uoluntaria conlatio et certamen 
adiuuandae rei p. (= publicae) excitet . . . P, certamen acliu- 
uaiide rei populus excitet R. XXVII, 4, 10 et alexandream 
ad p. tolomaeum (sic) et cleopatram reges ... P, ad populum 
tolomaeum R. XXVI, 1, 5 m. iunio netruria, p. sempronio 
in gallia . . . prorogatum est imperium P, netruria populus sem- 
pronio in gallia R. XXVI, 2, 4 adscribi autem pro pr (error 
for pr = praetori) 1. marcio P, adscribi autem pro populus 1. 
marcio R. 

(d) pr (= praetor) wrongly expanded as populus Romanus. 
This error is confined to the work of the scribe Theogrimnus. 

The abbreviations pr and p r are sometimes confused in P ; 
but the scribe was not obliged to expand the contractions, and 
the absurdity of writing populus Romanus in the following 
passages would have struck him at once if he had had any 
understanding of the meaning of what he was copying. XXVI, 
21, 17 m. Cornelius pr (== praetor) . . . militum animos seda- 
uit P, m. Cornelius populus romanus . . . militum animos sedauit 
R. XXV, 41, 8 ut p. Cornelius pr. (= praetor) litteras . . . 
mitteret P, ut prae Cornelius populus romanus litteras . . . mit- 
teret R. This absurd error has passed over into M, where, in 
an attempt to make sense out of the passage, the scribe has 
emended it as follows : ut prae Cornelius populusq. romanus 

(e) Another mistake sometimes made by the scribes Theo- 
grimnus and Theodegrimnus is that of expanding the abbre- 
viation pr (= populus Romanus) in the nominative case, 
regardless of its relations to prepositions or verbs. This 
species of error well illustrates the purely mechanical char- 
acter of the work of these two scribes. They had evidently 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 191 

been informed, by the person in charge of the scriptorium, 
that pr stood for populus Romanus, and they were satisfied 
to expand it as such without questioning whether or not it 
was the proper case. 

XXVI, 21, 11 et quingena iugera agri, . . . qui aut regius 
aut hostium p. r. (= populi Romani) fuisset P, aut hostium 
populws romantt* R. XXVI, 21, 12 ex is (= iis) qui a pr 
(= populo Romano) defecissent P, exis quia populws romanws 
defecissent R. XXVI, 27, 11 quoad eo animo esse erga 
pr (= populum Romamim) sciret P, erga populws romanws R. 
Here a corrector, in order to have the accusative case after 
the preposition, has written erga populos romanos. XXVI, 
36, 4 itaque classes habere atque ornare uolumus p r ( = popu- 
lum Romanum) P, ornare uolumus populws romanws R. The 
error is perpetuated in M. 

(/) The writing of mille and milia for m. ( = Marcus). 
For a full list of these confusions, see Chapter on the Numer- 
als (VIII). 

(</) que, the enclitic, or quae wrongly written for q. (= Quin- 
tus). Examples of this confusion are too numerous to be given 
in full, occurring, as they do, on almost every page of the 
manuscript and particularly in the portions copied by Aldo and 
Fredeg. The confusion is not uncommon in P. 

XXII, 8, 6 dictatorem populus creauit q. fabiurn maximum P ; 

I creauit quae fabium was first written in R. XXII, 35, 2 c. atilio 

serrano et q. alio (aelio Luchs) paeto P, et quae alio paeto R. 

XXII, 38, 13 et quod id constantius perseueraret q. fabius maxi- 
mus sic ... adlocutus fertur P, perseueraretgwe fabius R. 

XXIII, 40, 1 postquam q. mucius pr graui morbo est implicitus P, 
postquam que mutius R. XXIII, 7, 12 turn q. fabius . . . tali 
oratione est usus P, turn que fabius R. XXIIII, 9, 5 ut q. fuluio 
. . . urbana prouincia esset P, ut que fuluio R. XXVI, 33, 9 
securique percusses a q. fuluio . . . P, securique percussos &que 
fuluio R. XXVI, 33, 5 et q. minucium et 1. ueturium philonem, 
item . . . P, atque minutium et 1. ueturium philo nemitem R. 

[ Here the scribe has altered what he supposed was etque to atque. 



192 F. W. SHIPLEY 

(A) The following is a list of miscellaneous errors of less 
common occurrence than the foregoing : 

The writing of con for en in XXVI, 28, 9 en. fuluio con- 
suli P, con fuluio consuli R. This is copied into M as co 
fuluio. 

The confusion of cos and quos : XXVI, 33, 13 fuluio procos 
quosque . . . P, fuluio pro quosque R, the scribe regarding the 
cos and quos as an apparent dittography. XXVIIII, 22, 5 quo 
die ilium omnes centuriae priorem cos dixissent P, priorem quos 
dixissent R. 

apud for a p. : XXVII, 38, 11 auxilia ex hispania quoque 
a p. scipione m. livio missa P, apud scipionem liuiomissa R. 

me for m: XXIII, 39, 8 inde m marcellum P, inde me was 
first written by the scribe in R. 

(4) Thus far the examples have been confined to cases where 
a word was abbreviated by the use of the initial letter or letters. 
Errors arising from contractions within a word or at the end 

v3 

are confined to the sign ~, representing the nasals m and n> 
and the contraction b. for the ending -bus of the dative and* 
ablative plural. 

(a) From the sign ~~ there spring two forms of error : (1) the 
omission of the nasal altogether, due to failure to notice the sign, 
and (2) the writing of m for 71, or vice versa, in expanding the 
contraction. Examples of these two forms of error are exceed-i 
ingly common, and I shall give only a few, without references: 
e.g. in africa for in africd, reliquo for reliquo (= reliquom), t' 
tos for imultos (= in multos), couehi for couehi, comeatibus fol 
comeatibus, etc. 

(6) Examples of error arising from the contraction b. = bi 
are : XXVI, 40, 18 hos neque relinquere ... in insula . . . ueluj 
materiam nouamdu reb. satis tutum ratus est P, nouam disre^ 
satis tutum R. Here the scribe failed to recognize b. as ai 
abbreviation, and wrote disrepsatis for phonetic reasons of h 
own. XXVI, 26, 2 sita Anticyra est in Locride laeua pai 
sinum Corinthiacum intranti. Irene terra iter eo . . . Lucks; 
has this, in substance, with the exception of locide for Locridej( 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 193 

and coryntldacum for Corinthiacum. In R it is written as 
folloAvs : sita est in locide laeua parte sinum corynthia cum 
intrantibus reveterra iter eo. The scribe supposed that the b 
of breue was the abbreviation for -bus. This passage is, in turn, 
copied into M as follows : sita est in locidelaeua parthesinum 
corynthia cum intrantib ; reue terra, etc. 

X. ERRORS DUE TO CORRECTIONS IN THE PUTEANUS 

Three series of corrections had already been made in the 
Puteanus before T the copying of R : (1) the scribe of the fifth 
century who copied it corrected many of the errors which he 
himself had made, and occasionally attempted to emend the 
text ; (2) a subsequent corrector went systematically through 
the manuscript making numerous corrections for the most part 
of a superficial nature ; and (3) it was corrected by a second 
corrector, whose corrections, however, were not nearly so 
numerous as those made by the scribe or the first corrector, 
and are confined to parts of the manuscript only. These three 
sets of corrections are designated by Luchs as P 1 , P 2 , P 3 , 
respectively. In all three the manner of making the correc- 
tion is the same. Where it is the purpose of the corrector 
to strike out a letter or letters, erasure is not resorted to, 
but a fine line is drawn diagonally through the letter, and a 
little dot is sometimes placed above it in addition (thus, */). 
Corrections of this nature are made in such a wa}^ as to be 
as inconspicuous as possible, and not disfigure the manu- 
script, so that one has sometimes to look twice to see them. 
Where it was desired to insert letters, or substitute them in 
the place of those which had been stricken out, they were 

1 The corrections in P, designated by Luchs as P 4 and P 5 , which were made 
after its copy R had been completed, do not concern the purpose of the present 
paper. The numerous corrections made in P by means of erasure are also later 
than the copying of R, for the reason that the letters erased in P are there to be 
found fully written. Occasionally Luchs has been in doubt as to what was 
originally written in P where letters have been erased. In most of these cases 
the erased letters can easily be established by consulting R. 



194 F. W. SHIPLEY 

written above the word and were likewise made small and 
inconspicuous. 

These corrections were not drawn from any manuscript 
authority, 1 but were simply superficial alterations which sug- 
gested themselves to the scribes or the two correctors. They 
are therefore not at all trustworthy, and not unfrequently 
passages were thus altered which were perfectly correct. 
Naturally the existence in P of these corrections, upon which 
so little reliance could be placed, greatly increased the diffi- 
culties of the scribes of R. They were constantly confronted 
with the necessity of choosing between the original reading 
of the manuscript and the correction, or of adopting a com- 
promise when both were manifestly wrong. Inasmuch as 
Alcuin had been influential in shaping the methods of the 
School of Tours at the beginning of this revival under 
Charlemagne, and had insisted upon accuracy in the copy- 
ing of the church books, one would expect to find that here 
also the scribes had been furnished with some principle upon 
which to decide between the two readings, and to find them 
adhering strictly to the original readings or to the correc- 
tions, or departing from the one method or the other upon 
some critical principle. But one looks in vain for evidence 
that they followed any definite instructions, or that they 
made use of any critical faculty in deciding between read- 
ings. The scribes follow the one reading or the other almost 
at random, often giving the reading of P 1 when it is mani- 
festly wrong, or of P 2 when the original reading is manifestly 
right, 2 and often the correction passed unnoticed entirely. 
Their treatment of corrections is throughout in keeping with 
the character of the rest of their work. 

Frequently, by reason of oversight or failure to understand 
the purpose of the correction, the scribes have written neither 
the original reading of P nor the correction, but a corruption 

1 See Luchs, Introduction to his edition. 

2 The treatment of the corrections in P by the scribes of R has been discussed 
by Wolfflin in an article in the Philolcxjus, XXXIII, 1863, pp. 186-189. 






SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 195 

which sometimes contains elements from both the original 
reading and the correction, and sometimes omits elements 
from both. Corruptions of this nature form a large class 
and are the more serious, because, if the Puteanus had been 
lost, many of them would have offered little clue toward 
emendation. I have attempted to classify them as follows : 

(1) The scribes were often mistaken with regard to the 
extent of a correction in P by reason of the fact that the 
lines and dots, by which the deletion of letters was indi- 
cated, were usually made as light as possible, in order that 
the manuscript might not be unnecessarily disfigured. The 
eye was consequently sometimes deceived into believing that 
the corrections were more extensive than they really were. 

Examples : XXVII, 40, 2, P 1 wrote deos urbit eodem tem- 
pore. Subsequently he corrected urbit to ut by placing dots 
over the three letters to be omitted (thus, urbit). It was 
easy enough for Ansoaldus to overlook the fact that the cor- 
rection did not extend to the whole word, and consequently 
he wrote deos eodem tempore, omitting the word altogether. 
XXVIII, 20, 10 consultum sine alto sine alterius P 1 ; the words 
sine alto are deleted by P 2 . R has consultum nealterius, the 
scribe imagining that the correction extended farther than it 
really did. XXIII, 19, 13 adicitumque P 1 , radicumque P 2 , 
radiq ; R. XXVIII, 35, 3 proanimos changed to primos by 
P 1 , imos R. XXIII, 21, 7 creatique caecilius P 1 , creati q. 
caecilius P 2 , creati caecilius R (omitting q). XXIII, 21, 7 
et quam fabius P 1 , et q. fabius P 2 , et fabius R. XXVIII, 
12, 4 uincinculo P 1 , uicinculo P 2 , uriculo R. XXVI, 38, 10 
liberius fingenti sitia ita inde P 1 ; sitia was altered to sit by 
P 2 . R has fingentis ita, the scribe imagining the correction 
to extend to the it as well as the ia. XXIII, 42, 5 usideatur 
corrected to uideatur P 1 , udeatur R. 

In the above examples the scribes imagined that the lines 
or dots used in deletion extended to more letters than was 
actually the case. Sometimes the opposite error is made, and 
some of the deleted letters find their way into the text. E.g. : 



196 



F. W. SHIPLEY 



XXIII, 46, 13 obsequitastaset P 1 , obequitasset P 2 , obequitasaset 

R. XXVIIII, 24, 2 scipionis amquam P 1 , scipio tamquam P 2 , 

scipioiii tamquam R. 

(2) Corrections in P which involved the alteration of a single 
letter were made by drawing a line through the letter to be 
changed and writing the corrected form above it. In the case 
of such corrections the eye of the copyists of R has often caught 
the letter added above the line, but not the sign of deletion 
drawn through the letter immediately below, and in conse- 
quence both the error and the correction have been embodied 
in the text of R. 

Examples: XXII, 25, 7 edenti casilini P 1 , sedenti casulini 
P 2 , sedenti casuilini R. XXII, 33, 2 uicisti P 1 , uicinti P 2 , 
uicinsti R. XXIII, 48, 6 quiii et ue|ra P 1 , qui nee ue ra P 2 , 
quinectuera R. XXVII, 6, 7 tarsumeimum P 1 , trasumennum 
P 2 , tarasumennum R. XXVII, 21, 10 tatis P 1 , satis P 2 , statis 
R. XXVII, 26, 13 iocur P 1 , iecur P 2 ; ieocur was first written 
in R. XXVII, 33, 3 ramam P 1 , famam P 2 , flamam R. The 
scribe altered r to I apparently as an improvement in spelling. 
- XXVIII, 10, 5 etriscoram P 1 , etruscorum P 2 , etruiscorum 
R. XXVIII, 16, 6 dua fugae P 1 , dux fugae P 2 , dux afugae R. 
XXVIII, 18, 2 dirimd darum corrected to dirimedarum P 1 , 
dirime]darum P 2 , dirimaedarum R. XXVIII, 28, 7 conpuges 
P 1 , coniuges P 2 , conipuges R. 

(3) Corruptions arising from mistaking the purpose of cor- 
rections placed above the line, and inserting letters in the wrong 
place in the text. Examples: XXVII, 40, 8 proditumst P 1 , 
proditum est P 2 (the correction being made thus: | e st), pro- 
ditum sed R. The scribe imagined that the word was set, and 
altered the spelling to sed. XXVI, 39, 3 teterum P 1 , ceterum 
P 2 , tecterum R 1 . This is now corrected to ceterum. XXVIII, 
10, 4 etturia P 1 , ettruria P 2 , etturriam R. XXVIIII, 4, 8 eti- 
rnularet P 1 , estimularet P 2 (probably meant, however, for stimu- 
laret). Here Landemarus wrote in R et imularet, which a 
corrector having P before him has altered to et simularet. - 
XXI III, 8, 13 experti t. otacilie musus (sumus after correc- 



SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN LATIN MANUSCRIPTS 197 

tion) P 1 , expert! t. te acili ope sumus P 2 , expert! t. laecilio pesu- 
mus R 1 (7 in laecilio arises from confusion of letters). This is 
now corrected to experti t. laecili ope sumus. XXVII, 49, 4 
ne superstes tanto P 1 , ne superesset tanto P 2 . The correction 

e s t 

was made thus : super| stes. A fine stroke was drawn through 
the t and the last s. R has superest. 

(4) Sometimes the scribes have omitted both the correction 
and the letters to be corrected : XXVIIII, 24, 5 non ultra esse 
cunctandum apt P 1 , non ultra esse cunctandum ait P 2 ; here R 
has omitted both i and p, and written at. XXVIIII, 34, 9 
seuehentis P 1 , seuientis P 2 , seuentis R. XXIIII, 3, 3 quae P 1 , 
quai P 3 , qua R. (For other examples see Chapter on Omission.) 

(5) The scribe Fredeg, instead of omitting both the difficulty 
and the correction, adopted the plan of leaving a blank where 
he did not understand the purpose of a correction. These 
blanks were filled in by the corrector. E.g. XXIIII, 3, 15 
attipcu P 1 , at it ipsut cu P 2 . Here, after an erasure, Fredeg 
wrote adidip, leaving a blank for the space of several letters, in 
which the corrector wrote sud. XXIII, 42, 2 his parum fide 
eamus P 1 , his parum n\debanms P 2 . Fredeg wrote his parum 

amus, leaving a blank in which the corrector wrote fideb. 
XXIII, 39, 8 super besumiam P 1 , super besuuium P 2 ; superbe 
was written by Fredeg, who left a blank in which suuium was 
written by the corrector. These blanks have all been filled in 
by the corrector, but it is conceivable that, in other manuscripts 
of the period, blanks were left which were not filled in by subse- 
quent correctors, thus giving rise to a lacuna. 

Similar caution was shown in a few cases where the scribes 
made a facsimile of both the original word and the correction 
as they stood in P. Examples of this are unfortunately rare. 

XXV, 16, 7 cam P 1 , clam P 2 , cam R. XXV, 20, 5 ducas P 1 , 

ducis P 2 , ducas R. 

[To be concluded.] 

F. W. SHIPLEY. 



archaeological 
Institute 
of America 



BAETYLIA 



" THE worship of holy stones," I have written elsewhere, 
" is one of the oldest forms of religion of which we have evi- 
dence, and one of the most universal. It has frequently 
persisted in venerable cults in the midst of high stages of 
civilization and in the presence of elevated religious concep- 
tions, while its survivals in popular superstitions have proved 
nearly ineradicable." 1 

The holy stone was sometimes a natural rock, of striking 
form or position, in situ; sometimes a prehistoric megalith; 
more frequently a rude block set up for the purpose. It was 
most commonly of oblong shape, roughly circular or rectangu- 
lar in section, rounded or pointed at the top. The tapering 
rectangular block was often fashioned to an obelisk or a pyra- 
mid; the round one, to a cone (meta) or omphalos. In some 
places the steps of the further development to rudely iconic 
forms, and finally to the statue as a work of art, can be traced. 
On the other hand, the holy stone may grow into an altar on 
which offerings are made. 

Of the origin of this wide-spread phenomenon we may say, 
as Tacitus does of the sacred stone of Aphrodite at Paphos 
{Hist. II, 3), " ratio in obscuro " ; but the oldest conception to 
which we have historical testimony, and the most general in 
modern times, is that the stone is the seat (809) of a numen ; 
it is the primitive equivalent at once of temple, idol, and altar. 

A distinct class of holy stones are the so-called fiairvKoi, or 
paiTvXia. The earliest mention of these is in the Phoenician 

1 Encyclopaedia Biblica, III, 2279 ; cf. 3352 f. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 198 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VII (1903), No. 2. 



BAETYLIA 199 

History of Philo of Byblos (died under Hadrian), professedly 
based upon the native work of Sanchoniathon. \i\frg. 2, 19 
(F.H.Gr. Ill, 568, A), we read, eTrevdrjcre 0eo<? Ovpavbs /3atruXta, 
\ldovs e/ji^vxovs wxavrjadpevos (" Uranos invented baetylia, 
contriving animated stones ") ; in the theogony (ibid. frg. 2, 
14; F.H.Cr. Ill, 567, B), Uranos and Ge have four sons, 
*H\o^ TOV /cal Kpovov, /cal BouVi'Xoz', /cal Aa^co^ o? ean 2tTa>i>, 
/cal "Ar\avra. 

The baetylia, then, were \(9oi e^v^oi. The modern reader 
is not unlikely to interpret the words, in the light of animistic 
theory, " stones with souls," an expression that might apply to 
any holy stone inhabited by a numen. But Philo though, for 
his time, up in the latest theories of the origin of religion had 
not had the advantage of reading Tylor, and doubtless used 
eVn/^%09 in the sense in which Plato, e.g., defines it in the 
Phaedrus (245 E), 1 irav <yap o-wfjia o> /JLCV e^wdev TO tavelcrOai 
w Be evboOev avro ef avrov e^-^rv^ov tw? TavTys ovcn^ 
^^7)9, which Cicero (Tusc. I, 23, 54) translates: " Ina- 
nimum est enim omne quod pulsu agitatur externo ; quod 
autem animatum est, id motu cietur interiore et suo ; nam 
haec est propria natura animi et vis." 

The distinctive peculiarity of \i6ou e^v^o^ therefore, is 
that they are endowed with the power of self-motion. So the 
words were correctly interpreted by Joseph Scaliger : "... Bae- 
tylos illos fuisse e'/^u^ou? et sponte moveri solitos dicunt." 2 

The appearance and behavior of such an " animated stone " 
is described at length in the Orphic Lithica: 3 Apollo gave Hele- 
nus a speaking stone, an unerring lodestone, 4 which others call 
"animated (e^v-^ov) mountain-stone." It was round, rough- 
ish, firm, dark colored, dense ; its whole surface was covered, in 

1 See also Arist. Da anima, I, 2 (403, 6 25); Phys. IX, 4 (255, a 7.), self- 
motion is frTLKbv ... /cat TtDv t^tixuv t8iov. The definition is said to go back to 
Thales, who attributed life to the lodestone because it moves iron ; see Arist. 
De anima, I, 2 (405, a 19) ; Plut. De platit. philos. IV, 2, 1 ; Diogen. Laert. 
I, 24. 

2 Animadv. Euseb. ad ann. 2150. 3 Ed. Abel, v. 360 ff. 
* On the marvels of the magnet, see Plin. N.H. XXXVI, 126. 



200 GEORGE F. MOORE 

every direction, with wrinkly veins. To obtain a response, the 
possessor, after a period of purification, bathed the knowing 
stone, swaddled it like a babe, and, by sacrifices and incanta- 
tions, got it to breathe ; then, after he had dandled it a long 
time, it suddenly started up the cry of a new-born infant 
woe to him if, in alarm, he let it fall ! To any question now 
put to it, it returned an infallible response ; then, if closely 
watched, it would be seen miraculously to cease breathing 



Damascius, 1 in his life of Isidorus, gives us similar descrip- 
tions of the baetylia, which were particularly common in the 
region of the Lebanon. A certain Eusebius, who was the pos- 
sessor or, rather, minister ( OepaTrevcov) of a baetyl, told the 
story that one night he had a sudden impulse to wander, from 
the city of Emesa, to a mountain a long way off, on which was 
an ancient temple of Pallas. While he was resting himself 
there, he saw a ball of fire rushing down from on high ; when 
it reached the earth there appeared beside it a lion, which 
presently vanished. When Eusebius approached the spot, 
he found the stone cooled off, and, recognizing that it was a 
baetyl, took it home with him. Damascius describes it as an 
exact sphere about nine inches in diameter, of a dull white 
color, though it varied in size, and sometimes turned purplish. 
There were letters on the stone, colored with vermilion, through 
which responses were given to inquirers. The stone also emitted 
a thin, piping voice, which Eusebius interpreted. 

Eusebius's baetyl belonged to a god, Gennaios, who was wor- 
shipped at Heliopolis in the form of a lion ; others were dedi- 
cated to other deities, such as Kronos, Zeus, or Helios. 

Damascius thought the baetyl was something divine, but Isi- 
dorus held that it was a daemon that moved it one of the kind 
that is neither very bad nor very good. 

In another place 2 Damascius says that, in the vicinity of the 

1 Preserved in Photius, Sibliotheca Codicum, cod. 242, p. 348 Bekker = Migne, 
Patrol. Graeca, CIII, 1292 f. 

2 Photius, op. ciL 342 Bekker = 1273 Migne. 



BAETYLIA 201 

Syrian Heliopolis, Asclepiades went up 011 Mt. Lebanon and 
saw many of the so-called baetylia, " about winch he tells many 
marvels." Damascius himself had seen a baetyl moving through 
the air, and again hidden from sight in its garments or carried 
in the hands of its minister. 

From Damascius is derived the wisdom we find in the Ety 
mologicum Magnum, and in Zonaras, BaiVfXo?, Xt#o? yevopevos 
:ara rov Aifiavov TO 0/309 TT)? 'HXtofTro'Xea)?. 

A Christian writer of uncertain date, Joseph, the author of 
the Hypomnesticon, 1 in a chapter on various forms of pagan 
divination, writes: ^prjcrTijpLa BiapdrjTa Trap' avrok etrn ra ev 
rot? vaols ySatruXta Sia \i0cov ev rot? aroi^eioi^ TrpoapacrcrdvTtov? 

Sotacus of Carystus (Plin. N.H. XXXVII, 135) classed the 
baetylia with the cerauniae gemmae, of which there are two 
kinds, black and red, resembling axes ; the black, round ones 
are sacred ; by means of them cities and fleets are captured, 
these are called baetyli, while the long ones are "ceraunian" 
in the narrower sense. 

The word j3airv\os occurs in only one other connection. In 
te lexica it is explained as the name of the stone which was 
>iven to Kronos to swallow in place of the infant Zeus. Thus 
the Etymol. Magn., s.v.: BcuruXo? Be efc\r)0rj KOI o X/#o? ov avrl 
Ato v ? 6 KjOoVo? KareTTiev eiprjrai Be on r) 'Pea fBairr) atyo? crTrapya- 
a TO) K/ooVw Beowtce /3am; Be o-rf^aiveL rrjv Si(f>0epav. 

This statement is found in substance in several other lexi- 
cographers and grammarians : Herodian, Hepl /ca0o\iKfjs Trpo- 
?, VI (ed. Lentz, I, 163); Hesychius (ed. M. Schmidt, I, 
353); Theognostus, KawW?, 61, 21 (Cramer, Anecdota Oxon. 
II); Aefet? 'Prjropi/caL (Bekker, Anecdota G-raeca, I, 224); 
Etymol. Grudianum, etc. Here belongs, also, the proverb from 
Arsenius's collection (Leutsch, Corpus Paroem. II, 468): KOI 
ftairv\ov av KareTTies ' ejrl rwv a<yav \i/A/3(0v. ySa/ruXo? ^e etrriv 

1 First printed in Fabricius, Codex Pseudepiymphus V. T. II, 326 ft, then by 
Galland, Bibl. Vet. Pair. XIV, 3 ff., Migne, Patrol. Graeca, CVI, 16 ff. 

2 A footnote (? gloss) in Fabricius adds, ^airi/Xta Xi'0ot 



202 GEORGE F. MOORE 

6 e<T7rapyava)fjLVOS \i0os ov K/ooVo? KareTnev avrl TOV AtoV. A com- 
parison of these passages plainly shows that they are all ulti- 
mately derived from one source. 

The myth of Kronos devouring his offspring and the fraud 
by which Zeus was saved from this fate l is Cretan ; the god of 
whom it is told is evidently related to the Phoenician Kronos 
(El), of whom Philo of Byblos relates that he killed a son and 
daughter with his own hands (frg. 2, 18; F.H.G. Ill, 568), 
and on more than one occasion sacrificed his own children (ibid, 
frg. 2,24; 4 .) 

The Semitic word 2 ySan-fXo? itself, of which the Greeks give 
far-fetched etymologies, connects the Cretan myth with the 
Phoenicians. The presumption, therefore, is that the stone 
which was shown in Crete as the Zeus stone was really such 
a baetyl as those in the Lebanon described by Damascius. 
Direct evidence of this is lacking; but two passages may at 
least be cited in this connection : Porphyry, in his life of 
Pythagoras ( 17), narrates how Pythagoras in Crete visited 
the mystae of Morgos, one of the Idaean Dactyls, 3 and by 
them was purified " with the ceraunian stone," after which 
he went down into the Idaean cave, etc. The other passage 
is a note of Tzetzes on Lycophron, 1. 400 : ALCTKOV Be TOV Am, 
\eyei oia TOV \i0ov TOV avTi Ato? VTTO 'Pea? o-TrapyavcoOe'vra /cal 
UTTO KpoVou KaTdTroOevTci, &>? cf)i](nv 'HcribSo? ev TTJ eoyovia ic.T.X. 

We read in Hesiod ( Theog. 497-500) that, when Kronos had 
disgorged the stone, Zeus set it up at Delphi, "to be a sign in 
after times and a marvel to mortals." 4 Pausanias (X, 24, 6) 
was shown there a stone, of moderate size, on which oil was 

1 Hesiod, Theog. 468 ff. Represented on an altar relief in Rome (Overbeck, 
Kunstmythologie, II, 326 ; Baumeister, Denkmaler, II, 798) and on a red-figured 
vase of Sicilian origin (J. De Witte, Gazette Archeologique, I, 30 ff. and pi. 0). 
According to Paus. IX, 2, 7, the scene was represented in a temple of Hera at 
Plataea. 

2 See below, p. 203. 

3 The Idaean cave as place of Zeus's birth, in later poets, etc. ; see Callim. In 
Jov. 4 ff. ; Preller-Robert, I, 133. 

4 A. Meyer (1887) and Peppmuller (1896) reject vv. 492-500, as well as 501- 
506, which are more generally regarded as an interpolation. 



BAETYLIA 203 

daily poured, while on every feast day white wool was placed 
upon it ; it was reputed to be the stone that was given to 
Kronos instead of his son. 

There is no reason to believe that the stone at Delphi had 
actually been transported thither from Crete, as the stone of 
the Mater Deum of Pessinus or that of Elagabalus of Emesa 
was brought to Rome. The probability is vastly greater that 
the foreign myth was simply attached to an old Zeus stone 
at Delphi, 1 just as the scene of the deception of Kronos was 
localized at Chaeronea (Paus. IX, 41, 6). In later times 
the Terminus 011 the Capitol at Rome was identified with the 
stone which Saturn had swallowed (Lactant. I, 20, 37). Per- 
haps the local custom of covering the holy stone at Delphi 
with wool suggested the X<$09 ecnrap^avcoiJievos of the myth. 

However that may be, there is neither in the tradition nor in 
the facts as reported to us any warrant for applying the name 
./&uTuXo? to the Delphian stone, as modern writers often do. 

The word ySatruXo? is of Semitic origin more specifically, 
as the vowels show, Phoenician. Bait-yl, corresponding to 
Hebrew beth-el, may be translated ad verbum, "house of god"; 
but, as often, the seeming exactness of the literal rendering 
is misleading. El (Phoen. Yl) is a much vaguer word than 
our " god " it is merely Saifjioviov ; we may approximately 
render it " supernatural power " ; and bait in such compounds 
is a place where, or a thing in which, something is. Bait-yl 
therefore is, more properly, " a thing in which is a supernatu- 
ral power, a daemonic life." It admits equally the opinion of 
Damascius, who thought Oeidrepov elvai TO xpfji*a TOV /3aLTv\ov, 
and that of Isidore, elvau . . . TIVCL oai'fjiova TOV KLVOVVTO, avTov. 2 

A synonym of baetylus is abaddir. Priscian (VII, 32, ed. 
Hertz, I, 313) writes: " Abaddir 6 /SairuXo? . . . lapis quern pro 
love devoravit Saturn us." That this also was a \iOos e/^t^o? 
appears from Mythogr. Vatican. (Scriptores Rerum Mythicarum 

1 Schoemann, De incunabulis Jovis, 7 f . = Opusc. Acad. II, 254, who, however, 
erroneously thinks that the myth, started at Delphi. 

2 See above, p. 200. 



204 GEORGE F. MOORE 

Lat. ed. Bode, p. 34) : Rhea " misit Saturno gemmam in sinri- 
litudinem pueri celsam, quam abidir vocant, cuius natura semper 
movetur." 

Augustine (Ep. 17, 2, ad Maxim.), replying to the pagans, 
says : " miror, quod nominibus absurditate commoto in mentem 
11011 venerit liabere vos et in sacerdotibus Eucaddires et in numi- 
nibus Abaddires." An inscription from Mauretania (EpJiem. 
Epigraph. VII, no. 529) reads: "abaddiri sa ncto culto|res 
iuniores suis sumpt [ aram constitu | pro . . ." The word occurs 
frequently in Latin glossographers, who need not be quoted 
here, as equivalent to baetylus, with or without the story of 
Saturn and Rhea. 

The word dbaddir, like baetylus, is of Semitic origin ; Augus- 
tine's reference is to its use by the Punic population of North 
Africa; from Mauretania comes the inscription of the cultores 
juniores. The natural interpretation of the name is " mighty 
or noble father " ; the epithet addir is repeatedly applied in the 
Old Testament to God, and occurs in other Phoenician com- 
pound names ; cf . Baliddir in a Numidian inscription (Ephem. 
Epigraph. VII, no. 792). 

Upon the question what the baetylia really were, I do not 
propose to enter here. They were believed to be fallen from 
heaven, that is, to be small aerolites, and in some instances 
they may have been such ; but, in the light of kindred beliefs 
in many parts of the world, it is probable that they were gener- 
ally prehistoric stone implements, especially axes and "mace 
heads." 1 

It appears, from the examination of all the evidence, that 
the name j3airv\oi was appropriated fo certain small stones of 

1 Cf. Plin. N.H. XXXVII, 135, " similis eas esse securibus." They were not 
belemnites, of which Pliny speaks, as a third class, in the following sentence. 
On stone axes regarded as thunderbolts, see Lenormant, Revue de V Hist, des 
Religions, III, 48, Daremberg et Saglio, s.v. Be'tyles, with references ; further, 
T. Evans, Ancient Stone Monuments'*, 62 ff. ; A. J. Evans, Journ. Hellen. Studies, 
XXI, 118. Greek peasants still call stone axes dcrrpoTreX^ia (Dumont, Rev. 
Archeol. N.S. XV, 358). The same belief about white jade axes in China 
(Keane, Man Past and Present, 219); among. the Shans (ibid. 172); in Mexico 
(Ratzel, History of Mankind, II, 152), etc. 



BAETYLIA 205 

peculiar character, to which various daemonic or, as we might 
say, magical properties were ascribed ; they moved about, 
talked, or otherwise answered questions, and afforded a pow- 
erful protection to their possessors. There is no evidence that 
the name was anywhere applied to the ordinary holy stones, 
cones, pillars, omphaloi, or the like. 1 

Many modern writers, on the contrary, employ the term of 
the latter specifically. Thus, L. Schmitz, in Smith's .Dictionary 
of Biography and Mythology, s.v., writes : " Baetylus (/3an-f Xo?) 
is in reality the name of a peculiar kind of conical-shaped stones, 
which were erected as symbols of gods, in remarkable places, 
and were, from time to time, anointed with oil, wine, or blood." 
And not to name any others Sir Arthur Evans, in his 
instructive ' Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult,' 2 constantly uses 
the word laetylos in the sense of " stone pillar," " the aiiiconic 
image of the divinity" (p. 113); he applies the name "baetylic 
altars " to a type of altar or table supported by four legs over 
a central, slightly tapering stone, and thinks that in one of 
these the stone may, perhaps, represent the actual Cretan bae- 
tylos of Zeus ( 6); he even speaks of sepulchral stelae as 
" baetylic habitations of departed spirits " so completely has 
the word become for him a name for any cippus conceived to 
be the seat of a numen or spirit. 3 

The origin of this deflection of the word to a use so contrary 
to that which it has in the ancient authors is an interesting and 
instructive chapter in the history of learning. In the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries the theory prevailed that heathen 
rites and customs were, in great part, perversions of the purer 
primitive religion whose record we have in the Old Testament. 4 

1 See Falconnet, Mem. Acad. Inscr. VI, 523 (1722), where the whole matter 
is correctly stated. 

2 Journ. Hellen. Studies (1901), XXI, 99 ff., and separately. 

3 The presentation of the subject is not free from minor errors of fact, as 
when (p. 113) the author says that the name pairvXos was " applied to the black 
cone representing the Sun God at Baalbec." The Etymol. Magn., which is cited 
in support of this statement, says nothing of the kind. 

4 The theory is, of course, much older. 



206 GEORGE F. MOORE 

The anointing of holy stones (\C6ot, \L7rapoi) was thus a per- 
version to idolatry of a patriarchal precedent. 1 In his flight to 
Syria, Jacob passed a night at a place called Luz. Having 
taken one of the stones of the spot as a pillow, he slept, and in 
his dream saw a ladder reaching from the earth to heaven and 
the messengers of God ascending and descending upon it. The 
vision showed him that the place was an abode of divine beings, 
the entrance of heaven. In the morning he took the stone that 
was under his head, set it up as a pillar (massebdli), poured oil 
upon it, and vowed that, if he returned in safety, this stone 
should become a temple (av6x ITS); this was the way that the 
place came to be called Bethel (bKn'3). 2 

The name beth-el naturally suggested the ffairvXai. Joseph 
Scaliger, after referring to the anointing of holy stones, and to 
the (Sairv\oi of Philo of By bios and the /3aiTv\os which Saturn 
swallowed, wrote : u omnemque hunc morem manasse ab eo 
lapide, quern unxerat Jacob in Bethel." 3 

One of the most learned and most perilously ingenious 
of French scholars, Bochart, went a step farther. He not only 
explicitly derives the name baetylia, baetylus, from the place 
Bethel, but, by a bold emendation in " Sanchoniathon," the 
alleged Phoenician original of Philo, he identifies the objects 
with lapides uncti. Philo, as we have seen, calls the baetylia 
\i6oi eptyvxpi. u Live stones," says Bochart, " is a contradic- 
tion in terms, an absurdity ; instead of nephdshlm (' animati '), 
Sanchoniathon doubtless wrote neshdphlm (' uncti '), 4 from the 
root shuph, used in Syriac in the sense ' anoint.' " Then, after 
quoting the story of Jacob, he continues: "The Phoenicians, 
with an unhappy imitation of this example, first worshipped 
the stone which the patriarch had set up ; then they anointed 
and consecrated other stones, and called them baetylia, baetyli, 
in memory of the stone at Bethel." 



1 Falconnet cites as adherents of this opinion, besides Bochart and Scaliger, 
G. J. Voss, Grotius, Selden, Huet, Heidegger, Witsius, etc. 

2 Gen. xxviii. a Animadv. Euseb. ad ann. 2150. 

4 Perhaps it is not superfluous to say that this "Phoenician " is purely fictitious. 



BAETYLIA 207 

To the conclusive refutation of Bochart by Falconnet no 
attention was paid, while the whole long passage from the 
G-eogr. Sacra, in which Bochart set forth his theory, has been 
incorporated bodily in modern editions of the Greek Thesau- 
rus, through which its philological and historical errors have 
filtered into the encyclopaedias and hand-books of classical 
archaeology. 1 

Classical scholars the more readily accepted this erroneous 
theory, because they incautiously assumed that the name /3ai- 
rfXo?, given in the lexicographical tradition to the stone swal- 
lowed by Kronos, referred or might be referred to the 
stone at Delphi, of which the same story was told. Since 
this was daily anointed with oil, the connection with the 
stone pillar which Jacob anointed at Bethel seemed to be 
doubly secured. 

Many modern Old Testament students, on their side, sur- 
mise that the name beth-el originally belonged, not to the 
place, but to the holy stone itself as "the abode of a divin- 
ity," corresponding thus, in fact as well as in name, with 
the "fetish-stones" which the Greeks designated by the for- 
eign word ftairvXoi. 2 

It must be borne in mind, however, that this theory is 
suggested, not by anything in the Hebrew accounts in Gene- 
sis, but solely by the etymological association with the j3ai- 
TV\OL and by the " baetylic " theories of classical scholars. 
What is much more important to observe is that in no 
Semitic language is the word beth-el or its equivalent used 
to designate the rude standing stones, pillars, obelisks, and 
the like which were found at every place of worship. The 
argument from silence is of more than usual force, because 
the references to these stones are so numerous, and the vari- 
ous names by which they were called so abundantly attested. 3 

1 Tiimpel, e.g., in Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. abaddir, reproduces Bochart's impos- 
sible etymology. 

2 See, e.g., Gunkel, Genesis, 290. 

3 See Encyclopaedia Biblica, s.v. Massebah. 






208 



GEORGE F. MOORE 



In Phoenician we know them from inscriptions on the objects 
themselves. 

Summing up, then, the results of this investigation which 
may fairly claim to be exhaustive we may say that there is 
no evidence, either from Semitic sources or from Greek and 
Latin authors, that the name baetylm was ever applied in 
antiquity to the class of objects which modern archaeologists 
habitually call " baetyls " ; on the contrary, it was the dis- 
tinctive designation of an entirely different thing. 

It is to be hoped that the abuse of the term may not become 
unalterably fixed. There is no lack of names properly appli- 
cable to the common holy stones ; there is no other convenient 
word for the real laetylia. 

GEORGE F. MOORE. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL BOOKS 

1902 

HAROLD N. FOWLER, Editor 

*** Books, pamphlets, and other matter for the Bibliography should be addressed, 
during Professor Fowler's absence in Europe, to Professor JAMES M. PATON, Wes- 
leyan University, Middletown, Conn. 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 



E. Babelon, Histoire de la gravure sur 
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210 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 



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collection sold at auction at Paris, 

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den Funden in Osterreich-Ungarn im 
Zusammenhange m. der Gesammtent- 
wickelg. der bild. Kiinste bei den 
Mittelmeervolkern. Vienna, 1901, 
Hof u. Staatsdruckerei. vi, 222 pp. ; 
23 pis. ; 100 figs. Gr. folio. $30.00. 
A. Rosenberg, Handbuch der 
Kunstgeschichte. Bielefeld and Leip- 
sic, 1902, Velhagen & Klasing. vi, 
646 pp.; 4 pis.; 885 figs. 8vo. 
L. Rousselet. see A. de Paniagua. 
A. Schneider, Zur Topographie slidti- 
roler Burgen. Vorbereitende Studie 
zum Vergleiche soldier in it antiken 
Siedelformen des Siidens. Leipsic, 
1902, Dieterich'sche Verlagsbuchh. 



vii, 52 pp. ; 5 pis. ; 6 figs. 4to. 
G. Sixt, Ftihrer durch die K. Samin- 
lung romischer Steindenkmaler in 
Stuttgart. 2d ed. Stuttgart, 1902, 

W. Kohlhammer. J. C. L. Sparkes, 

A Manual of Artistic Anatomy for 
the Use of Students in Art. 2d ed. 
London, 1900, Balliere, Tindall, & 
Cox. 84 pp. and pis. 8vo. 81.88. 

P. Sticotti, see A. Puschi. 
Strzygowski, see Festschrift. 
George R. Swain, A Catalogue of 
Lantern Slides for Educational Insti- 
tutions. Bay City, 1902, Swain. 80 

pp. 12mo. $0.15 Ludwig von 

Sybel, Weltgeschichte der Kunst im 
Altertum ; Grundriss. Zweite ver- 
besserte Auflage. Marburg, 1902, 
X. G. Elwert'sche Verlagsbuchhand- 
lung. xii, 484 pp. ; 3 colored pis. ; 
380 figs. Large 8vo. 10 Mk. 

J. de Waele, Etude sur Involution des 
formes architecturales. 259 figs. 4to. 

Weissbrodt, Die antik-archa- 
ologische Sammlung des k. Lyceum 
Hosianum. 4 pp. 8vo. R. 
Wiinsch, Das Fruhlingsfest der Insel 
Malta. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte 
der antiken Religion. Leipsic, 1902, 
B. G. Teubner. 70 pp. Gr. 8vo. 



EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 



F. W. v. Bissing, see Service des 

Antiquites. G. Botti, Catalogue 

des monuments exposes au Musee 
gr&joromain d'Alexanclrie. Alexan- 
dria, 1901, A. Moures & Co. xxiv, 

584 pp.; 12 pis.; 1 plan. 8vo. 

E. A. W. Budge, History of Egypt 
to the Death of Cleopatra VI. Lon- 
don, 1902, Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co. 
8 vols. Small 8vo. 

'J- , Capart, Kecueil de Monuments 
Egyptiens. Cinquante planches pho- 
totypiques avec texte explicatif. 
Brussels, 1902, A. Vromant & Co. 

46 pp.; 50 pis. 4to. A. St. G. 

Caulfield, The Temple of the Kings 
at Abydos (Egyptian Research Ac- 
count). London, 1902, Quaritch. 
26 pis. 4to. 

G. Daressy, see Service des Antiqui- 
tes. N. de G. Davies, The Rock ' 

Tombs of Sheikh Said. (Tenth 
Memoir of the Archaeological Sur- 
vey of Egypt.) London, 1901. xii, 
46 pp.; 35 pis. 4to. The Rock 
Tombs of Deir el Gebrawi. Part I : 
Tomb of Aba and Smaller Tombs 
of the Southern Group. (Eleventh 



Memoir of the Archaeological Sur- 
vey of Egypt.) London, 1902. viii, 
43 pp. ; 27 pis., 2 colored. 4to. 

Egypt Exploration Fund, Archaeologi- 
cal Report, 1901-1902. Comprising 
the work of the Egypt Exploration 
Fund and the progress of Egyptology 
during the year 1901-1902. Edited 
by F. LI. Griffith. London, 1902. 

64 pp. ; 5 maps. 4to. See N. de 

G. Davies and W. M. Flinders 
Petrie. 

Forrer, Achmim-Studien. I: Uber 
Steinzeit-Hockergraber zu Achmim, 
Naquada, etc., in Ober-Agypten und 
uber europaische Parallelfunde. 
Strassburg, 1901, K. J. Triibner. 
57 pp. ; 4 pis. ; 50 figs. 8vo. 

J. Garstang, El Arabah : A Cemetery 
of the Middle Kingdom ; Survey of 
the Old Kingdom Temenos ; Graffiti 
from the Temple of Sety. With 
notices by P. E. Newberry, on the 
Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, and by J. 
G. Milne, on the Greek Graffiti. 
(Egyptian Research Account, 1900.) 
London, 1901, B. Quaritch. viii, 49 
pp. ; 40 pis. 4to. A. Gayet, 



CLASSICAL] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1902 



213 



Antinoe et les sepultures de Thais 
et Serapion. Paris, 1902. 64 pp.; 

4 pis. ; 23 figs. 4to. Bernard P. 

Grenfell, Arthur S. Hunt, and J. 
Gilbart Smyly, The Tebtunis Papyri. 
Part I. London, 1902, Henry Frowde ; 
New York, The Oxford University 
Press, xix, 674 pp. ; 9 pis. 8vo. 
[University of California Publica- 
tions. Graeco-Roman Archaeology, 
Vol. I ; also Annual Volume of the 
Graeco-Roman Branch of the Egypt 
Exploration Fund for 1900-01 and 

1901-02.] F. LI. Griffith, see 

J. Ward. 

A. S. Hunt, see B. P. Grenfell. 

H. G. Lange, see Service des Anti- 
quit6s. 

J. G. Milne, see J. Garstang. 

P. E. Newberry, see J. Garstang. 

W. M. Flinders Petrie, Abydos. Part 
I, 1902. With a chapter by A. E. 
Weigall. (Twenty-second Memoir of 
the Egypt Exploration Fund.) Lon- 
don, 1902. viii, 60 pp. ; 81 pis. 4to. 
B. Portner, see Spiegelberg. 

H. Schafer, see Service des Antiqui- 

tes. Service des Antiquites de 

1'Egypte. Catalogue ge"ne"ral des 
antiquity's e"gyptiennes du Muse"e du 
Caire. Vol. II, Nos. 3426-3587: 
Metallgefasse von Fr. W. v. Bissing. 
Vienna, 1901, A. Holzhausen. 80 pp. ; 
3 pis. ; many figs. 4to. Vol. Ill, 
Nos. 24001-24990: Fouilles de la 



valtee des rois. (1898-1899) p. G. 
Daressy. Cairo, 1902, Impr. d. 
1'Inst. Fran. 311 pp. ; 57 pis. 4to. 
Vol. IV: see Christian Art, II, 
Early Christian and Byzantine. 
Vol. V, Nos. 20001-20780. Grab- 
und Denksteine des Mittleren Reichs 
von H. O. Lange und H. Schafer. 
Berlin, 1902,- Reichsdruckerei. vii, 
400 pp. ; tigs. 4to. Vol. VI : Fay- 
encegefasse von Fr. W. v. Bissing. 
Vienna, 1902, A. Holzhausen. xxi, 

114 pp.; 1 pi.; figs. 4to. K. 

Sethe, Imhotep der Asklepios der 
Agypter. Ein vergottotter Mensch 
aus der Zeit des Konigs Doser. 
(Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und 
Altertumskunde Agyptens II, 4.) 
Leipsic, 1902, J. C. Hinrichs'sche 

Buchh. 26pp. 4to. J. Gilbart 

Smyly, see B. P. Grenfell. -^- W. 
Spiegelberg and B. Portner, Agypt- 
ische Grabsteine und Denksteine aus 
siiddeutschen Sammlungen. I. Karls- 
ruhe, Miilhausen, Strassburg, Stutt- 
fart. Strassburg i. E., 1902, Schlesier 
Schweikhart. 52 pp. ; 20 pis. 4to. 
J. Ward, The Sacred Beetle : A Popu- 
lar Treatise on Egyptian Scarabs in 
Art and History. Five hundred 
examples of scarabs and cylinders, 
the translations by F. LI. Griffith. 
London, 1902, J. Murray, xvii, 122 

pp. ; 17 pis. ; 86 figs. 8vo. A. E. 

Weigall, see W. M. Flinders Petrie. 



ORIENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY 



F. Delitzsch, Babel u. Bibel. Ein 
Vortrag. Leipsic, 1902, J. C. Hin- 
richs Verl. 52 pp. ; 50 figs. 8vo. 

Katalog der orientalischen Mtinzen in 
den kbnigl. Museen zu Berlin. Die 
Mlinzen der muslim. Dynastieen 
Spaniens u. des westl. Nordafrika. 
Berlin, 1902, W. Spemann. Vol. II. 
xiii, 302 autogr. pp.; 6 pis.; Lex. 
8vo. $5.00. 



Jak. Prestel, Die Baugeschichte des 
jiidischen Heiligtums und der Tempel 
Salomons. (Zur Kunstgeschichte des 
Auslands VIII.) Strassburg, 1902, 
J. H. E. Heitz. viii, 56 pp. ; 7 pis. 
Gr. 8vo. $1.13. 

H. Winckler, Die babylonische Kultur 
in ihren Beziehungen zur unsrigen. 
Leipsic, 1902, J. C. Hinrichs. 54 pp. ; 
8 figs. 8vo. 



CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 



GREEK AND ROMAN 

(Works treating of the monuments of 
the Greeks and Romans, but not 
exclusively of those of either.) 

Album gratulatorium in honorem Hen- 
rici van Herwerden propter septua- 
genarian! aetatem munere professoris 
quod per XXXVIII annos gessit se 
abdicantis. Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1902, 



apnd Kemink et filium. 260 pp. ; 2 
Bl. 8vo. [Partial contents : R. 
Foerster, De Libanio, Pausania, tem- 
plo Apollinis Delphico ; pp: 45-54. 
H. van Gelder, Ad titulos graecos 
aliquot, qui in Museo Leidensi asser- 
vantur; pp. 65-71. A. E. J. Hol- 
werda, Zum Miinzwesen Atticas vor 
den Perserkriegen ; pp. 107-119. A. 
H. Kan, De Mithra Tauroctono ob- 



214 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1003 



servatiunculae ; pp. 124-128.] 

W. Altmann, De architectura et 
ornamentis sarcophagorum pars prior. 
Halle, 1902. 38 pp.; 2 pis. 8vo. 
[Doctor dissertation.] Architektur 
und Ornamentik der antiken Sarko- 
phage. Berlin, 1902, Weidmann'sche 
Buchh. 112 pp.; 2 pis.; 33 tigs. 

8vo. Arndt, see Brunn. 

E. Babelon, Traite" des monnaies 
grecques et romaines. P. I, T. I : The'o- 
rie et doctrine. Paris, 1 901 , E. Leroux. 
vii, 1206 pp. 4to. Boston Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts, Guide to the 
Catharine Page Perkins Collection of 
Greek and Roman Coins. Boston, 
1902, Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. vii, 

110 pp. ; 5 pis. 8vo. F. Bruck- 

mann, see Brunn. Brunn-Arndt, 

Griecliische und romische Port rats. 
Munich. 1902. 56. Lfg. : 551-552. 
Unbekannter Romer. A. B. Rom, 
Capitol. 553. Unbekannter Romer. 
Kopenhagen, Glyptothek Ny-Carls- 
berg. 554. Kaiser Gallienus (?). 
Kopenhagen Glyptothek Ny-Carls- 
berg. 555. Unbekannter Romer. 
Muuchen, Glyptothek. 556-5">8 and 
560. Unbekannte Romer. Kopen- 
hagen, Glyptothek Xy-Carlsberg. 
559. Kaiser Maxi minus Thrax (?). 
Kopenhagen, Glyptothek Xy-Carls- 
berg. 57. Lfg. : 561-562. Unbe- 
kannter Grieche. A.B. Kopenhagen, 
Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg. 563-564. 
Unbekannter Grieche. A. B. Rom, 
Conservatorenpalast. 565-568 and 
570. Unbekannte Romerinnen. Ko- 
penhagen, Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg. 
569. Unbekannte Romerin. Miinchen, 

Glyptothek. Brunn-Bruckmann, 

Denkmaler griechischer und rom- 
ischer Skulptur. Munich, 1901-02. 
Lfg. CVI : 526 a. b. Zwei archaische 
Nike-Figuren aus Marmor. Athen, 
Akropolismuseum. 52(5 c. Archaische 
Nike-Figur aus Bronze. London, 
British Museum. 527. Kopf ernes 
Athleten. Rom, Capitol. 528 a. b. 
Griecliische Grabreliefs. Rom, Pa- 
lazzo Barberini und Athen, Dipylon. 
529. Statue des Hypnos. Madrid, 
Prado. 530. Zwei Reliefs aus der 
Zeit des Marc Aurel. Rom, Constan- 
tinsbogen. Lfg. CVII : 531. Drei 
archaische Reliefs aus Nordgriechen- 
land. Athen, Nationalmuseum. 532. 
Weibliche Herme. Rom, Villa Al- 
bani. 533. Zwei attische Urkunden- 
reliefs. Athen, Nationalmuseum. 
534 a. b. Sklavinnen, attische Grab- 



statuen. Berlin, Kgl. Museen. 
534 c. Sklavin, attische Grabstatue. 
Mimchen, Kgl. Residenz. 535. Kopf 
eines Keritauren. Rom, Conservato- 
renpalast. Lfg. CVIII: 536. Weib- 
liche Statue. (Text von P. Herrmann.) 
Eleusis, Museum. 537. Weibliche 
Statue. Berlin, Kgl. Museen. :, 
Weibliche Statue. Rom, Villa Doria- 
Pamfili. 539. Kopf derselben. 540. 
Bronzestatue eines Madchen. Rom, 
Palazzo Grazioli. Lfg. CIX : 541. 
Archaischer Jiinglingskopf. Rom, 
Galleria geografica. 542. Athleten- 
kopf aus Perinthos. Dresden, Alber- 
tinum. 543. Kopf des Diomedes. 
England, Privatbesitz. 544. Kopf 
eines Athleten. Liverpool. Samm- 
lung Dr. P. Nelson. 545. Herme 
des Herakles (?). Neapel, Museo 
Nazionale. Lfg. CX : 546. Torso 
eines gepanzerten Mannes. Ma'nn- 
licher Torso, Rest einer Gruppe. 
Athen, Akropolismuseum. 547. Kopf 
der Hera. Florenz, Uffizien. 548. 
Votivrelief an Hermes und die 
Nymphen. Berlin, Kgl. Museen. 
Votivrelief an die Eleusinischen 
Gottheiten. Eleusis, Museum. 549. 
Sirenen, attische Grabstatuen. Athen, 
Nationalmuseum. 550. Statue des 
Poseidon aus Melos. Athen, National- 
museum. 

S. Cybulski, Das romische Haus. 
Erklarender Text zu No. 11 der 
Tabulae quibus antiquitates graecae 
et romanae illustrantur. 28 pp. ; 17 
tigs. 8vo. Theatrum. Ed. II. (In: 
Tabulae quibus antiquitates graecae 
et romanae illustrantur, tab. XII u. 
XIII.) Leipsic, 1902, K. F. Koehler. 
See also M. Rostowzew. 

Daremberg, Saglio, and Pettier, Dic- 
tionnaire des antiquite's grecques el 
romaines. Paris, 1902, Hachette. 
30* fascicule (LIB-LUD). 

Feestbundel Prof. Boot, Verzameling 
van wetenschappelijke bijdragen den 
lyden Augustus Prof. Dr. J. C. G. 
Boot aangeboden bij gelegenheid van 
zijn negentigsten geboortedag door 
eenige vrienden en oudleerlingen. 
Leiden, 1901, E. J. Brill. 4 to. [Par- 
tial contents : J. van der Vliet, Aedes 
Opis explicata (Epistularum ad Atti- 
cum, lib. XVI, 14, 4); pp. 19-24. 
A. H. Kan, De tetrastylis Romanis 
pp. 31-36. S. J. Warren, Oknos en 
de Danai'den in Delphi en op Ceylon 
pp. 69-73. J. W. Beck, Over her 
sprookje van Eros an Psyche ; pp. 89- 



GKKEK: GENERAL] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1902 



215 



96. J. Six, De Anadyomene van 

Apelles; pp. 153-158.] A. Furt- 

wangler, Hundert Tafeln nach den 
Bildwerken der Koniglichen Glypto- 
thek. Munich, 1902, A. Buchholz. 
iii pp. text. 

P. Gardner, Classical Archaeology in 
Schools. With an appendix contain- 
ing lists of archaeological apparatus, 
by P. Gardner and J. L. Myres. 
Oxford, 1902, Clarendon Press. 35 
pp. 8vo. Guide to the Casts of 
Sculpture and the Greek and Roman 
Antiquities in the Ashmolean Mu- 
seum, Oxford. Oxford, 1901. 48 pp. 

8vo. A. Gnirs, Das Gebiet der 

Halbinsel Istrien in der antiken Uber- 
lieferung. Pola, 1902, Programm. 

30 pp. ; maps. 8vo. Guhl and 

Koner, La vie antique. Manuel 
d'arche"ologie grecque et romaine. 
Traduction E. Trawinski. l re partie : 
la Grece. 2d ed. Paris, 1902, Laveur. 
xxviii, 472 pp. ; 578 figs. 8vo. 

Hemme, Abrifs der griechischen urid 
romischen Mythologie mit besonderer 
Beriicksiehtigung der Kunst und Lite- 
ratur. Hannover, 1901, Norddeutsche 
Verlagsanstalt. 

Koner, see Guhl. 

W. Luckenbach, Antike Kunstwerke 
im klassischen Unterricht. Karls- 
ruhe, 1901, Programm. 

E. Michon, Statues antiques trouve"es 
en France au Muse"e du Louvre. La 
cession des villes d'Arles, Nimes et 
Vienne en 1822. Paris, 1901. 97pp.; 

6 pis. ; 5 figs. 8vo. J. L. Myres, 

see P. Gardner. 

E. Pernice and F. Winter, Der Hildes- 
heinier Silberfund. Berlin, 1901, 
W. Spemann. 74 pp. ; 46 pis. ; 43 
figs. Folio. 

W. H. Roscher, Ausftihrliches Lexi- 
kon der griechischen und romischen 
Mythologie. 46. Lfg. : Pan-Paris. 
Leipsic, 1902, B. G. Teubner. 8vo. 
M. Rostowzew, Das alte Rom. 
Erkliirender Text zu den Tafeln XV a 
und XVb der Tabulae quibus antiqui- 
tates Graecae et Romanae illustrantur. 
Leipsic, 1902, K. F. Kohler. 26 pp. ; 
23 figs. 8vo. See also S. Cybulski. 

Saglio, see Daremberg. G. Salo- 

man, Erklarungen antiker Kunst- 
werke. 1. Teil. Stockholm, 1902. 

81 pp.; 4 pis. 4to. E. Samter, 

Familienfeste der Griechen u. Romer. 
Berlin, 1901, G. Reimer. vi, 128 pp. 

8vo. Societa Numismatica Ita- 

liana, Omaggio al Congresso inter- 



nazionale di scienze storiche in Roma. 
Milano, 1902. [Partial contents: F. 
Gnecchi, Scavi di Roma (1886- 
1891). Pp. 13-16; 3 pis. Dattari, 
Appunti di numismatica Alessan- 
drina. XIII. Sulla classificazione 
delle monete fino ad oggi assegnate 
a Salonino e a Valeriano juniore. 
Pp. 17-40; 7 figs. J. Maurice, 
L'atelier mone"taire d'Ostia pendant 
la pe"node- Constantinienne sous les 
regnes de Maxence et de Constantin. 
Pp. 41-65 ; 1 pi. A. Sarnbon, La 
cronologia delle monete di Neapolis. 
Pp. 119-137 ; 1 pi. ; 24 figs. M. Ro- 
stowzew, Tessere di piombo inedite 
e notevoli della collezione Francesco 
Gnecchi a Milano e la cura munerum. 

Pp. 151-164; 1 pi.] ^Symbolae 

in honorem Lodovici Cwikliriski. 
Leopoldi, 1902, Gubrynowicz & 
Schmidt (also title in Polish). [Par- 
tial contents : P. Bierikowski, De 
praetorianorum monumentis sepul- 
cralibus. 4 pp.; 1 pi. T. Garlicki, 
Z naukowejwycieczky na wyspe 
Thera. 19 pp. ; 1 pi. St. Romariski, 
Korynt. 17 pp. M. Sabat, Itaka, 
czy Leukas ? (Nowa teorya Dorp- 
felda w swietle krytyki.) 38 pp. ; 3 
plans.] 

E. Trawinski, see Guhl. 

F. Winter, see E. Pernice. 

GREEK 

(Including also titles of works relating 
to pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Greece 
and to kindred peoples, and to monu- 
ments of Greek art wherever found.) 

I. GENERAL AND MISCELLA- 
NEOUS 

F. H. Bacon, see Clarke. Paul V. 

C. Bauer, Eileithyia. (University of 
Missouri Studies, Vol. I, No. 4.) 
Columbia, 1902, published by the 
University. 90 pp. 8vo. $1.00. 
[A revised translation of the author's 
treatise in Philologus, Supplement- 
band VIII, pp. 453-512.] F. 

Bechtel, Die attischen Frauennamen. 
Gottingen, 1902, Vandenhoeck & Ru- 

precht. vii, 144 pp. 8vo. V. 

Berard, Les Phe"niciens et PQdyss^e. 
Tome I. Paris, 1902, A. Colin, vii, 

591 pp.; 98 figs. 4to. Th. Birt, 

Griechische Erinnerungen eines Rei- 
senden. Marburg, 1902, N. G. El- 
wert'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. 304 
pp. 8vo. H. Bluemner, see 






216 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AHCIIAEOLOGY [ VOL. VII, 1903 



Pausanias. F. Boll, Sphaera. 

Neue griechische Texte und Unter- 
suchungen zur Geschiehte der Stern- 
bilder. Leipsic, 1902, B. G. Teubner. 
xii, 564 pp.; 6 pis.; 19 figs. 8vo. 

L. Bolle, Die Biihne des Sopho- 

kles. Wismar, 1902, Programm. 23 

pp. 4to. A. Bruckmann, EAAA2. 

Erne Sammlung von Ansichten aus 
Athen und den griechischen Landern. 
Nach Photographieen der English 
Photographic Co. Keproduktionen 
von A. B. Athens, 1902, W. Barth. 

1. u. 2. Heft. Obi. 4to. Alfred 

Briickner, see W. Dbrpfeld. C. 

Buslepp, De Tanagraeorum sacris 
quaestiones selectae. Jena, 1902, 
Dissertation. 37pp. 8vo. How- 
ard Crosby Butler. The Story of 
Athens. New York, 1902, The Cen- 
tury Co. xvi, 532 pp. ; 127 figs. ; 

2 plans. 8vo. 82.40. 

J. T. Clarke, F. H. Bacon, and R. Kol- 
dewey, Investigations at Assos : Draw- 
ings and Photographs of the Buildings 
and Objects discovered during the Ex- 
cavations of 1881-1882-1883. Part 1. 
Cambridge, London, and Leipsic, 1902. 

3 Bl. 74 pp. ; 2 maps ; 24 pis. ; 20 figs. 
Folio. 

Wilhelm Dorpfeld, Alfred Briickner, 
Hans von Fritze, Alfred Gotze, 
Hubert Schmidt. Wilhelm Wilberg, 
and Hermann Winnefeld, Troja und 
Ilion. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen 
in den vorhistorischen und histori- 
schen Schichten von Ilion 1870-1894. 
Athens, 1902, Beck & Barth. 2 vols. 
Pp. xviii, 1-128, 429-052 ; 68 pis. ; 
471 figs.; 8 folded plans. 4to. 
, $10.00. 

Ecole frangaise d'Athenes, Fouilles de 
Delphes, exe'cute'es aux frais du Gou- 
vernement franQais sous la direction 
de M. Th. Homolle. (1892-1901.) 
Tome II. Topographic & architec- 
ture. Releve's et restaurations p. A. 
Tournaire. Ease. 1. Paris, 1902, 

A. Fontemoing. 12 pis. Folio. 

A. J. Evans, The Palace of Knossos. 
Provisional Report of the Excavations 
for the Year 1901. London, 1902. 

Festschrift, Theodor Gomperz darge- 
bracht zum siebzigsten Geburtstage 
am 29. Marz 1902 von Schiilern, 
Freunden, Collegen. Vienna, 1902, 
A. Holder. iv, 499 pp. ; portrait. 
8vo. [Partial contents : O. Benndorf, 
Grabschrift von Telmessos. Pp. 401- 
411 ; 1 fig. A. Engelbrecht, Studien 
tiber homerische Bestattungsscenen. 



Pp. 150-155. E. Lowy, Zum Freier- 
mord Polygnots. Pp. 422-426 ; 1 pi. ; 
1 fig. E. Keisch, Zur Vorgeschichte 
der attischen Tragodie. Pp. 451-473. 
K. v. Schneider, Chimaira. Pp. 479- 
484; 5 figs. F. Studniczka, Zwei 
Anmerkungen zu griechischen Schrift- 
stellern. Pp. 427-433 ; 4 figs. A. 
Wilhelm, Ein neuer Heros. Pp. 417- 
421. F. Winter, Bildnis eines griechi- 
schen Philosophen. Pp. 436-442 ; 3 

figs.] Hans von Fritze, see W. 

Dorpfeld. Fiihrer durch die 
Ruinen von Pergamon. Ilrsg. v. d. 
Generalverwaltung der Kgl. Museen 
zu Berlin. 3. Aufl. Berlin, 1901, 
W. Spemann. 31 pp.; 1 fig. ; 2 
plans. 8vo. Also a Greek edition 
under the title, '0577765 rijs apxo.ia.3 
llepyd^v, 1901. 36 pp.; 1 fig. ; 2 
plans. 8vo. 
Ernest Arthur Gardner, Ancient 
Athens. London and New York, 
1902, Macmillan. xvi, 578 pp.; 8 
pis.; 16 1 figs. ; 9 plans. 8vo. $5.00. 

Alfred Gotze, see W. Dorpfeld. 

O. Gruppe, Griechische Mytholo- 
gie u. Religionsgeschichte. 2. Halfte 
1. Lfg. (Handbuch der klassischen 
Altertumswissenschaft. V. Bd. 2. 
Abt. 2. Halfte). Munich, 1902, Beck. 
Pp. 385-768. 8vo. 

Harvard Studies in Classical Philol- 
ogy, Vol. XIII, 1902. Cambridge, 
Mass., published by the University. 
176 pp. 8vo. [Partial contents : 
G. H. Chase, Shield Devices of the 
Greeks. Campbell Bonner, A Study 

of the Danai'd Myth.] B. Haus- 

soullier, Etudes sur 1'histoire de 
Milet et du Didymeion. (Biblio- 
theque de T^cole des hautes Etudes. 
Sciences histor. et philol., fasc. 138.) 
Paris, 1902, E. Bouillon, xxxii, 323 

pp. 8vo. O. Hense, Die Modifi- 

zierung der Maske in der griechischen 
Tragodie. (Festschrift der Universitat 
Freiburg.) Freiburg i. Br., 1902. 
F. v. Hiller von Gartringen, Al Iv 
'EXXciSi dvoffKCKfiai. '0/J.iXia . . . ^e 
\-qviffdeiffa birb M. Kpiffir-rj. 'Ev ' Ad 
i/cus, 1901. 35pp. 8vo. Altes und 
Neues von den Inseln des Agiiischen 
Meeres. (From Volkerschau ) Dil- 
lingen, 1902. 23 pp. 8vo. Thera. 
Untersuchungen, Vermessungen und 
Ausgrabungen in den Jahren 1895- 
1902. IV. Bd. : Klimatologische Be- 
obachtungen aus Thera, bearb. v. P. 
Wilski. 1. Tl. : Die.Durchsichtigkeit 
der Luft tiber dem Agaischen Meere 






GREEK SCULPTURE] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1902 



217 



nach Beobachtungen der Fernsicht 
von der Insel Thera. Berlin, 1902, 
G. Reimer. 53 pp. ; 3 Beilagen ; 3 

figs. 4to. H. Hitzig, see Pausa- 

nias. R. Holland, Die Sage von 

Daidalos u. Ikaros. Leipsic, 1902, 
J. C. Hinrichs Verl. 38 pp. 4to. 

A. G. Keller, Homeric Society. A Socio- 
logical Study of the Iliad and Odyssey. 
New York, 1902, Longmans, Green, 

&Co. viii,332pp. 8vo. O. Kern, 

tiber die Anfange der hellenischen 
Religion. Vortrag. Berlin, 1902, 

Weidmann. 34 pp. 8vo. H. 

Kiepert, Graeciae antiquae tabula in 
usum scholarum descripta, 1 : 500000. 
Ed. emendata. 9 sheets, each 51.5 x 

64 cm. Berlin, 1902, D. Reimer. 

F. Koepp, Ausgrabungen. Olympia- 
Troja-Limes-Haltern. Vortrag. Mtin- 
ster i. W., 1902, Aschendorffsche 

Buchh. 29 pp. 8vo. R. Kol- 

dewey, see Clarke. M. Kpurirt], 

see Hiller von Gartringen. 

B. AeovapSos, 'H '0\v/jnrla. ' A6rjvr)<ri 

1901, n. A. SaKeXXa/>fov. 352 pp. ; 2 
pis. 8vo. 

De Mandat-Grancey, Aux pays d'Ho- 
mere. Paris, 1902, Plon. Figs. 8vo. 

H. Michael, Das homerische und 
das heutige Ithaka. Jauer, 1902, 

Programm. A. Milchhofer, Die 

Tragodieu des Aeschylus auf der 
Biihne. Oration. Kiel, 1902. 14 pp. 

A. Miiller, Das attische Buhnen- 
wesen. Kurz dargestellt. Giitersloh, 

1902, G. Bertelsmann, vii, 117 pp.; 
1 pi. ; 21 figs. 8vo. 

N. IlttuXdTos, 'H dX^drjs 'IddKrj rov 'O/xij- 
pov. 'Ev'A8rivais, 1902. 30pp. 8vo. 

Pausaniae graeciae descriptio. 
Edidit, graeca emendavit, apparatum 
criticum adiecit H. Hitzig, commenta- 
rium germanice scriptum cum tabulis 
topographicis et numismaticis addide- 
runt H. Hitzig et H. Bluemner. Volu- 
minis secundi pars- prior. Liber 
quartus : Messeniaca. Liber quintus : 
Eliaca I. Leipsic, 1901, A. R. Reis- 

land. xiv, 449 pp. ; 5 pis. 8vo. 

H. Pernot, En pays turc. L'ile de 
Chio. Avec 120 phototypies. Paris, 

1902, Maisonneuve. Svo. R. 

Poehlmann, Griechische Geschichte 
im XIX Jahrh. Festrede. Munich, 
1902. Verlag der k. b. Akademie. 
37 pp. 4to. 

W. H. Denham Rouse, Greek Votive 
Offerings. An Essay in the History 
of Greek Religion. Cambridge, 1902. 
University Press, xv, 463 pp. Svo. 



Hubert Schmidt, see W. Dorpfeld. 

I. N. Svoronos, ''Kp/j.jjvda T&V (JLVTJ- 
[Aeiwv TOV E\V<Tivta.Kov /mvcmKov KIJK\OV 
/ecu T07ro7pa0i/ca'EXeu(r{Vos /ecu ' Adr/vtay. 
Athens, 1902. 

A. Tournaire, see Ecole francaise 

d'Athenes. A. Trendelenberg, 

Der grosse Altar des Zeus in Olympia. 
Programm des Askanischen Gymna- 
siums. Berlin, 1902. 44 pp. ; 3 pis. 
4to. 

Wilhelm Wilberg, see W. Dorpfeld. 
- P. Wilski, see Hiller von 

Gartringen. Hermann Winne- 

feld, see W. Dorpfeld. P. Wolters, 

Zu griechischen Agonen. 30. Pro- 
gramm des kunstgeschichtlichen Mu- 
seums der Universitat Wiirzburg. 
Wiirzburg, 1902, Stahel'sche, Verlags- 
Anstalt. 23 pp. ; 1 pi. ; 13 figs. 4to. 

II. GREEK ARCHITECTURE 
H. Lechat, Le temple grec. Histoire 
sommaire de ses origines et de son 
de"veloppement jusqu'au V e siecle 
avant Je"sus-Christ. (Petite Biblio- 
theque d'art et d'arche"ologie 25.) 
Paris, 1902, E. Leroux. iii, 134 pp. ; 
17 figs. 8vo. 

W. Passow, Studien zum Parthenon. 
(Philologische Untersuchungen, 17. 
Heft.) Berlin, 1902, Weidmann 1 sche 
Buchhandl. xi, 65pp.; 24 figs. 8vo. 
R. Reinhard, Die Gesetzmassigkeit der 
griechischen Baukunst dargestellt an 
Monumenten verschiedener Baupe- 
rioden. 9. pt. : Der Theseustempel 
in Athen. Stuttgart, 1902, A. Berg- 
strasser. 13 pp. ; 13 pis. ; 5 figs. 
Folio. 

III. GREEK SCULPTURE 

Beschreibung der Skulpturen aus Per- 
gamon. I. Gigantomachie. Hrsg. v. 
d. General verwaltung der Kgl. Museen 
zu Berlin. 2. Aufi. Berlin, 1902, W. 
Spemann. iii, 41 pp.; 4 pis.; figs. Svo. 

A. Furtwangler, Uber ein griechisches 
Giebelrelief. (Abhandlungen der 
bayerischen Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften.) Munich, 1902, G. Franz' 
Verlag. Pp. 99-105 ; 1 pi. 4to. 

A. Joubin, La sculpture grecque entre 
les guerres me'diques et 1'^poque de 
Pericles. Paris, 1901, Hachette & 
Co. 294 pp. ; 80 figs. Svo. 

F. Lehner, Homerische Gottergestalten 
in der antiken Plastik. Linz, 1902, 
Programm. 31 pp.; figs. Svo. 

A. Mahler, Polyklet u. seine Schule. 
Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der 



218 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 



griechischen Plastik. Athens and 
Leipsic, 1902, W. Earth, vii, 159 
pp. ; 51 figs. 8vo. 

G. Saloman, Anhang zur Abhandlung : 
Die Venus von Milo u. die mitge- 
fundenen Hermen. 4 pp. ; 1 pi. 4to. 

Ch. de Ujfalvy, Le type physique 
d'Alexandre le Grand d'apres les 
auteurs anciens et les documents 
iconographiques. Paris, 1902, A. 
Fonteraoing. 185 pp. ; 22 pis. ; 86 
figs. 4to. 

F. W. Vogel, Merkmale der Epochen 
griechischer Plastik. Strassburg, 
1902, J. H. E. Heitz. 31 pp. 8vo. 

IV. GREEK VASES AND 

PAINTING 

C. Angelini, Vasi dipinti del Museo 
Vivenzio disignati da C. A. nel 
MDCCXCVIII. Testo illustrative di 
G. Patroni, pubblicaztone di Gh. 
Rega. Roma-Napoli MCM. Fasc. 
4-6. (Preface dated maggio 1902.) 
Pp. 5-8 ; pis. xxi-xlii. Folio. 

M. Collignon and L. Couve, Catalogue 
des Vases peints du Muse'e Nationale 
d'Athenes. Paris, 1902, Fontemoing. 
ix, 671 pp. 8vo. [Bibliotheque des 
Ecoles Franchises d'Athenes et de 

Rome, fasc. 85.] L. Couve, see 

Collignon. 

A. Furtwangler and K. Reichhold, 
Griechische Vasenmalerei. Auswahl 
hervorragender Vasenbilder. 2. Lfg. 
Munich, 1902, F. Bruckmaim. 10 
folio pis. with text, pp. 55-91. 

J. H. Huddilston, Lessons from Greek 
Pottery, to which is added a Bibli- 
ography of Greek Ceramics. New 
York, 1902, The Macmillan Co. xiv, 
144 pp.; 17 pis. 8vo. 

A. Joubin, De sarcophagis Clazomeniis. 
Paris, 1901, Hachette. x, 122 pp.; 
26 figs. 8vo. [Thesis.] 

G. Patroni. see C. Angelini. 

K. Reichhold, see Furtwangler. 

A. de Ridder, Catalogue des Vases 
peints de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 
Ouvrage public" par la Bibliotheque 
Nat. avec le concours du Ministere 
de 1'instrnction publ. et des beaux- 
arts et de I'Acad&nie des inscriptions 
et belles-lettres (Fondation Piot). 
P. 1. Vases primitifs et Vases a 
figures noires. Paris, 1901, E. Le- 
roux. 11 pis. ; 50 figs. Folio. 

V. GREEK INSCRIPTIONS 
Corpus inscriptionum graecarum Pe- 

loponnesi et insularum vicinarum. 



Vol. primum: Inscriptiones graecae 
Aeginae Pityonesi Cecryphaliae Argo- 
lidis. Consilio et auctoritate Acade- 
miae litterarum regiae Borussicae ed. 
M. Fraenkel. Berlin, 1902, G. Reimer. 
viii, 411 pp. Folio. 

M. Fraenkel, see Corpus inscriptionum 
graecarum Peloponnesi. 

0. Kern, Inscriptionum thessalicarum 
antiquissimarum sylloge. Rostock, 
1902. 18 pp. 4to. [University 
programme.] A. Korte, Inscrip- 
tiones Bureschianae. Greifswald, 
1902. 42 pp. 8vo. [University Pro- 
gramme.] 

W. Larfeld, Handbuch der griechischen 
Epigraphik. 2. Bd. : Die attischen 
Inschriften. Leipsic, 1902, 0. Reis- 
land. xiv, 957 pp. ; 1 pi. 8vo. 

A. Nikitsky, Die geographische Liste 
der delphischen Proxenoi. Jurjew, 
1902, C. Mattiesen. 42 pp.; 2 pis. 
8vo. 

P. N. Papageorgiu, Die 'Iepeia-0tf<ra- 
Inschrift von Saloniki. Triest, 1901. 
4 pp. 8vo. 

VI. GREEK COINS 

B. p. Head, Catalogue of the Greek 
Coins of Lydia. London, 1901. cl, 

440 pp. ; 45 pis. ; 1 map. 8vo. 

G. F. Hill, see Ward. 

G. Macdonald, Catalogue of Greek 
Coins in the Hunterian Collection, 
University of Glasgow, Vol. II. : 
Northwestern Greece, Central Greece, 
Southern Greece, and Asia Minor. 
Glasgow, 1901, J. Maclehose & Sons. 
vi. 649 pp. ; 62 pis. 4to. 

J. Ward, Greek Coins and their Parent 
Cities. Accompanied by a catalogue 
of the author's collection, by G. F. 
Hill. London, 1902, J. Murray, 
xxxi, 464 pp.; 45 pis.; many figs. 
8vo. 

ROMAN 

(Including also titles of works relating 
to the monuments of the Etruscans 
and other peoples who inhabited Italy 
before or contemporaneously with the 
Romans, as well as to Roman monu- 
ments outside of Italy.) 

1. GENERAL AND MISCELLA- 

NEOUS 

J. Asbach, Zur Geschichte und Kultur 
der romischen Rheinlande. Berlin, 
1902, Weidmann. vii, 68 pp. ; figs, 
and map. 8vo. 

O. Basiner, Ludi saeculares. Drevne- 



ROMAN: GENERAL] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1902 



219 



rimskija sekyljarnyja igry. Varsava, 

1901. cxv, 340pp. ; 12 pis. 8vo. 
J. Bergmann, Upptackterna i Bosco- 
reale vid Pompeji. (Svenska Huma- 
nistiska Forbundets Skrifter 5.) 
Stockholm, 1901, P. A. Norstedt & 

Soner. 40pp. 8vo. Maurice Bes- 

nier, L'lle Tib&rine dans I'Antiquite". 
Paris, 1902, Fontemoing. 359 pp.; 

I pi.; 31 figs. 8vo. [Bibliotheque 
des Ecoles franaises d'Athenes et de 

Rome, fasc. 87.] A. Blanchet, 

Melanges d'arche'ologie gallo-romaine. 
Fasc. 2. Paris, 1902, E. Leroux. 
Pp. 63-152; 2 pis.; 1 fig. 8vo. 

P. Cabrini, De antiquitatibus sacris ad 
magnum Romanum imperium cele- 
brandum in Aeneide adhibitis. Me- 
diolani, 1901, typis P. Confalonieri. 
63 pp. 8vo. M. E. Cannizzaro, 

II cranio di Plinio. Edizione privata 
di sole 100 copie. Stampato a Londra 
ai 15 settembre 1901 coi tipi della 

Ballantyne Press. 36 pp. 4to. 

Cocchia, Saggi filologici. Vol. 3. 
L' Italia meridionale e la Campania 
nella tradizione classica. Naples, 

1902. 429 pp. ; 1 map. 8vo. 

F. Colonna (dei Principi di Stigliano), 
II Museo Civico di Napoli nell' ex 
monastero di S a - M a - di Donnaregina 
e scoperte di antichita in Napoli dal 
1898 a tutto agosto 1901. Naples, 
1902, Fr. Giannini & Figli. 144 pp. 
Folio. 

Dahm, Die Romerfestung Aliso bei Hal- 
tern an der Lippe. (From : Reclams 
Universum. Leipsic, 1902, Ph. Re- 
clam. 8 pp. ; 2 figs. 4to. J. B. 

Delort, Dix anne"es de fouilles en 
Auvergne et dans la France Centrale. 
Lyon, 1901, A. Rey & Co. 86 pp. ; 
40 pis. 4to. 

R. Engelmann, Pompeji. 2. durch- 
gesehene Aufl. (Beriihmte Kunst- 
statten Nr. 4.) Leipsic and Berlin, 
1902, E. A. Seemann. 105 pp.; 144 
figs. ; 1 plan. 8vo. 

E. Fabricius, Die Entstehung der romi- 
schen Limesanlagen in Deutschland. 
Vortrag, gehalten vor der 46. Ver- 
sammlung.deutscher Philologen und 
Schulmanner in Strassburg am 3. 
Oktober 1901. Trier, 1902, J. Lintz. 
17 pp. ; 1 pi. 8vo. Ein Limes- 
problem. Freiburg i. B., 1902, F. E. 
Fehsenfeld. 25 pp. ; 1 pi. 4to. 

See O. v. Sarwey. G. Ferrero, 

Grandezza e Decadenza di Roma. 
Vol. I : La Conquista dell' Impero. 
Milan, 1902, Treves. 526 pp. 8vo. 



V. Forcella, Le Industrie e il 

commercio a Milano sotto i Romani 
Milan, 1901, P. B. Bellini. 

Gaidoz, Le Grand Dieu Gaulois chez 
les Allobroges. Opuscule de"die" a 
Anatole de Barthe"lemy. Lutece des 
Parisiens, 1902. xix pp. ; 3 figs. 8vo. 

E. Giuria, Le navi romane del 

Lago di Nemi. Progetto tecnico per 
i lavori di ricupero delle antichita 
lacuali Nemorensi e notizie di altro 
emissario scoperto a sud del Lago. 
Rome, 1902, Officina Poligrafica 
Romana. 47 pp.; 4 figs. 8vo. 
A. Graham, Roman Africa. An 
Outline of the History of the Roman 
Occupation of North Africa based 
chiefly upon Inscriptions and Monu- 
mental Remains in that Country. 
London, 1902, Longmans, Green, & 
Co. xiii, 325 pp. ; 30 pis. ; 2 maps. 

8vo. G. Grasso, Studi di geo- 

grafia classica e di topografia storica. 
3e vol. Ariano, 1901. 109 pp. 8vo. 
[Partial contents: Uno dei passaggi 
di Annibale attraverso 1' Apennino ; 
II pauper aquae Daunus Oraziano ; 
Gli Strapellini di Plinio; Sui limiti 
dell' insula allobrogica e per le isole 
fluviali ; Per la sopravvivenza del 
nome sannitico ; Sul significato geo- 
grafico di Fratta o Fratte in Italia.] 
St. Gsell, Les monuments an- 
tiques de I'Alge'rie. T. I: viii, 290 
pp. ; 72 pis. ; 85 figs. T. II : 445 pp. ; 
34 pis. ; 89 figs. Paris, 1901 , A . Fonte- 
moing. 8vo. Muse"e de Te*bessa. 
(Musses et collections arche"ologiques 
de I'Alge'rie et de la Tunisie. Deux- 
ieme se"rie.) Paris, 1902, E. Leroux. 
100 pp. ; 11 pis. ; 12 figs. 4to. 

F. Haverfield, Romano-British Worces- 
tershire. (In : The Victoria History 
of the County of Worcester, Vol. 1.) 
Westminster, 1901. Pp. 199-221 ; 
3 pis. ; 4 figs. ; 1 map. 4to. Romano- 
British Northamptonshire. (In : The 
Victoria History of the County of 
Northampton, Vol. 1.) Westminster, 
1902. Pp. 157-222 ; 1 pi. ; 37 figs. ; 

1 map. 4to. F. Hettner, Drei 

Tempelbezirke im Trevererlande. 
Festschrift zur Feier des lOOjahrigen 
Bestehens der Gesellschaft fiir niitz- 
liche Forschungen in Trier, Hrsg. 
im Auf trage des Provinzialausschusses 
von der Direktion des Provinzialmu- 
seums in Trier. Trier, 1901, Lintz'sche 
Buchh. 92 pp.; 14 pis.; 7 figs. 

4t . See O. v. Sarwey. P. 

Huvelin, Les tablettes magiques et 



220 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 



le droit remain. M^moire pre'sente' 
au Congres international d'histoire 
compare, Paris, 1900. (Extrait des 
Annales internationales d'histoire, 
1901.) 66pp. 8vo. 

O. Kaemmel, Rom u. die Campagna. 
Bielefeld, 1902, Velhagen & Klasing. 

187 pp. ; 1 map. 8vo. Fr. Kenner, 

Die romische Niederlassung in Hall- 
stadt (Oberosterreich). Vienna, 1901, 
C. Gerald's Sohn. 44 pp. ; 1 pi. ; 44 

figs. 4to. C. Knoke. Ein Urteil 

iiber das Varuslager im Habichts- 
walde, gepriift. Berlin, 1901, R. 
Gaertner. 28 pp. 8vo. 

R. Lanciani, forma orbis Romae. 
Consilio et auctoritate R. Academiae 
Lynceorum formam dimensus est et 
ad modulum 1 : 1000 delineavit R. L. 
In 8 fasc. Milan, U. Hoepli. 12 pp. ; 
46 maps, each 57 x 87 cm. Large 
folio. Storia degli Scavi di Roma e 
notizie intorno le collezioni romane 
di antichita. Vol. I (1000-1530). 
Rome, 1902, E. Loscher. 272 pp. 

4to. F. Liger, I)e"couverte de la 

ville romaine de Mortagne et de ses 
voies antiques. Notes sur les Essuins. 
Paris, 1902, lib. Champion. 66 pp. ; 
plan. 8vo. 

E. Maass, Die Tagesgotter in Rom 
und den Provinzen. Aus der Kultur 
des Niederganges der antiken Welt. 
Berlin, 1902, Weidmann. vii, 311 

pp. ; 30 figs. 8vo. C. Maes, 

Le navi imperial! romane del lago 
di Nemi. Sacrosanta rivendica- 
zione. Ricorso a S. M. il re Vitto- 
rio Emanuele II. in forma di lettera 
pubbl. Roma, 1902, F. Cuggiani. 35 
pp. 8vo. Re Vittorio Emanuele III 
e le navi romani di Neini. Risposta 
sovrana al ricorso 30 marzo 1902. 
Rome, 1902, F. Cuggiani. 8 pp. 4to. 
B. Modestow, Introduction to 
Roman History. Prehistoric Ethnol- 
ogy and pre- Roman Civilization in 
Italy and the Beginnings of Rome. 
Vol. I. St. Petersburg, 1902, M. O. 
Wolff. xv, 256 pp.; 35 pis. 8vo. 

[Russian.] Monumenta Pompei- 

ana. 3. u. 4. Lfg. Leipsic, 1902, G. 
Hedeler. 

H. Nissen, Italische Landeskunde. 
2. Bd. : Die Stadte. 1. Halfte. Ber- 
lin, 1902, Weidmann. iv, 480 pp. 
8vo. 

Giovanni Oberziner, Origine della Plebe 
Romana. Leipsic, 1901, Brockhaus 
(Genoa, Sordomuti). 232pp. Large 
8vo. F. Ohlenschlager, Romische 



Uberreste in Bayern, nach Berichtei 
Abbildungen und eigener Anschauui 
geschildert und mit Unterstiitzung 
kaiserlich Deutschen Archaologiscl 
Institutes herausgegeben. Heft 
Munich, 1902, J. Lindauersche Bucl 
handlung. 96 pp. ; 32 figs. ; 3 m 
8vo. 

A. Clement Pallu de Lessert, Fa 
des Provinces africaines (Proconsul 
aire, Numidie, Maure"tanies) sous 
la domination romaine. Vol. II : 
Bas-Empire. 2 part. Paris, 1902, 
Leroux. 4to. 

O. v. Sarwey, E. Fabricius, and F. 
Hettner,Derobergermanisch-ratische 
Limes des Romerreiches. lui Auf- 
trage der Reichs-Limeskommission 
lirsg. Heidelberg, 1901-02, O. Pet- 
ters. 4to. [Lfg. XIV: Nr. 73. Das 
Kastell Pfiinz (Fr. Winkelmann). 
75 pp. ; 22 pis. Lfg. XV : N% 7. 
Das Kastell Kernel (H. Lehner). 
Pp. 1-8 ; 1 pi. ; 3 figs. Nr. 67 a - Das 
Kastell Halheim (Steimle). 4 pp.; 

1 pi.; 2 figs. Nr. 69. Das Kastell 
Dam bach (Popp). 22 pp.; 4 pis.; 

2 figs. Lfg. XVI : Nr. 25- Das 
Kastell Okarben (G. Wolff). 37 pp. ; 
5 pis. Nr. 75. Das Kastell Pforing 
(J. Fink). 24 pp.; 4 pis.; 12 figs. 

C. Schuchhardt, Aliso. Ftihrer 
durch die romischen Ausgrabungen 
bei Hal tern. Hrsg. vom Altertums- 
verein zu Haltern. Haltern, 1902. 

32 pp. ; 14 figs. ; 1 map. O. Seeck, 

Kaiser Augustus (Monographien zur 
Weltgeschichte, XVII). Bielefeld, 
1902, Velhagen & Klasing. 148 pp. ; 

106 figs. 8vo. F. Skutsch, Aus 

Vergils Fruhzeit. Leipsic, 1901, B. G. 
Teubner. viii, 169 pp. ; 1 pi. 8vo. 

Unterforcher, Aguontum. Programm 
des k. k. Staats-Gymnasiums, Triest, 
1901. 

G. Vaccai, Le feste di Roma antica. 
Torino, 1902, Bocca. xxiv, 342 pp. 
8vo. 

G. Wissowa, Religion u. Kultus der 
Rb'mer. (Handbuch der klassischen 
Altertumswissenschaft, V. Bd. 4. 
Abt.) Munich, 1902, C. H. Beck, 
xii, 534 pp. 8vo. 

II. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 
A. Ballu, Theatre et forum de Timgad 
(Antique Thamugadi). Etat actuel 
et restauration. Paris, 1902, E. Le- 
roux. ii, 27 pp.; 12 pis.; 16 figs. 
Folio. 
O. Krell, Altromische Heizungen. Mu- 




CHRISTIAN ART] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1902 



221 



nicli and Berlin, 1901, R. Oldenbourg. V. ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS 

vi, 117 pp.; 39 figs. 8vo. 
C. Nispi Landi, Marco Agrippa, i siloi 
tempi e il suo Pantheon. 4. ediz. 
accresciuta e migliorata. Rome, 1902. 
144 pp. ; 3 pis. 8vo. 



III. ROMAN SCULPTURE 

G. Chauvet, Hypotheses sur une statu- 
ette antique trouve"e a Angouleme 
(Extrait du Bulletin de la Soci^te" 
archeologique et historique de la 
Charente 1900). 19 pp. ; 2 pis. 8vo. 

M. Gavin, Mors de cheval italiques en 
bronze du X e siecle avant 1'ere chre- 
tienne. Paris, 1902, Rudeval. 1 pi. 
8vo. 

E. Petersen, Ara pacis Augustae. Mit 
Zeichnungen von G. Niemann (Son- 
derschriften des osterreichischen 
archaologischen Institutes in Wien, 
Bd. 11). Vienna, 1902, A. Holder. 
vii, 204 pp.; 8 pis.; 60 figs. 4to. 

G. Sixt, Fiihrer durch die K. Samm- 
lung romischer Steindenkmaler in 
Stuttgart. 2d ed. Stuttgart, 1902, 
W. Koh'lhammer. 

IV. ROMAN, ETC., VASES AND 
PAINTING 

P. d' Amelio, Pompei. Dipinti murali 
scelti. (Preface by G. de Petra.) 
Naples, Richter & Co. ix, 20 pp.; 
20 pis. Folio. 

Geissner, Die im Mainzer Museum 
befindlichen feineren Gefasse der 
augusteischen Zeit und ihre Stempel. 
Mainz, 1902. [Programm.] 

G. de Petra, see P. d' Amelio. 

Picturae, ornamenta, complura scriptu- 
rae specimina codicis Vatican! 3867, 
qui codex Vergilii Romanus audit, 
phototypice expressa consilio et opera 
Curatorum Bibliothecae Vaticanae. 
Romae, 1902. In ofncina Danesi. 
xxi pp. ; 34 pis. Folio. 



O. Bohn, see Corpus Inscriptionum 
Latinarum. E. Bormann, see 
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 
Vol. Ill, supplementum, pars poste- 
rior : Inscriptionum Orientis et Illy- 
rici latinarum supplementum. Edd. 
Th. Mommsen, O. Hirschfeld, A. 
Domaszewski. Berlin, 1902, G. 
Reimer. Ixxxiii, 35*-48*, and 2039- 
2724 pp. ; 10 pis. Folio. Vol. 
XI : Inscriptions Aemiliae Etruriae 
Umbriae latinae ed. E. Bormann. 
Partis posterioris fasciculus prior 
inscriptions Umbriae, viarum publi- 
carum, instrumenti domestic! com- 
prehendens. Berlin, 1901, G. Reimer. 
vi, 53*-92*, 595-1224 pp. Folio. 
Vol. XIII : Inscriptiones trium Gal- 
liarum et Germaniarum latinae. Par- 
tis tertiae fasc. I: Instrumentum 
domesticuin ed. 0. Bohn. Ber- 
lin, 1901, G. Reimer. iv, 429 pp. 
Folio. 

A. Domaszewski, see Corpus In- 
scriptionum Latinarum. 

F. B. R. Hellems, Lex de imperio 
Vespasiani. Chicago, 1902. [Dis- 
sertation.] 248 pp. 8vo. O. 

Hirschfeld, see Corpus Inscriptio- 
num Latinarum. Ch. Hiilsen, 

Neue Inschriften vom Forum Roma- 
num. (From : Beitrage zur alten 
Geschichte.) Leipsic, 1902. 28 pp. ; 
6 figs. ; 1 plan. 8vo. 

T. Mommsen, see Corpus Inscriptio- 
num Latinarum. 

VI. ROMAN COINS 

Fr. Binhack, Skizzen aus der Alter turn s- 
Literatur und Volkskunde. Passau, 
1901, Programm. 55pp. 8vo. [Con- 
tains : Romermiinzi'imde in Raetia 
secunda. ] 



CHRISTIAN ART 



I. GENERAL AND MISCELLA- 
NEOUS 

V. Alinari, La Divina Commedia nova- 
mente illustrata da artisti italiani. 
Florence, 1902. Fratelli Alinari. 
4to. 

Ed. Bajot, L' Encyclopedic du Meuble 
du XVe siecle jusqu'a nos jours. 
Fasc. 5. Paris, 1902, Schmidt. 30 

pp. Folio. H. Barth, Konstan- 

tinopel. (Beruhinte Kunststatten 



11.) Leipsic and Berlin, 1901, E. 
A. Seemann. 201 pp. ; 103 figs. 

8vo. A. de Baudot and A. 

Perrault-Dabot, Archives de la com- 
mission des monuments historiques, 
publie"es sous le patronage de Tad- 
ministration des beaux-arts. Paris, 
1900, Laurens. Vol. I, iii, 17 pp.; 
Vols. II and III, in Bibliography for 

1901. De Kunst in Belgie, Keus 

der voornaamste voortbrengselen der 
kunst in Belgie, met eene voorrede, 



222 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 190 



door Henri Hymans. Leipsic, 1900. 
E. A. Seeman. Plates. Gr. Folio. 

$5.00. A. Beltrami, Brescia an- 

tica nella storia e nell' arte. Milan, 
1902, Allieri, Gressi, & Gelmi. ' 47 pp. 

16mo. W. Moore Binns, see 

L. Lefevre. K. H. Bird, see L. 

Lefevre. A. Blanchet, Sigillogra- 

phie Franchise. Paris, 1902, Picard. 
53 pp. 8vo. [Bibliotheque de Bib- 
liographies critiques.] E. Bon- 

naffe, Etudes sur 1'Art et la Curiosite". 
Paris, 1902, Socie'te' frai^aise d' edi- 
tions d'art. 243 pp. Gr. 8vo. $1.20. 

- H. Brockhaus, Forsclmngen 
iiber Florentiner Kunstwerke. Leip- 
sic, 1902. ix, 139 pp.; 13 pis.; 

43 figs. Folio. $7.50. J. C. 

Broussolle, La critique mystique et 
Fra Angelico. Paris, 1902, Oudin. 

- J. E. Buschmann and L. J. 
Veen. Onze Kunst. Voortzetting van 
de vlaamsche school. Jahrlich 12 
Nrn. Antwerp, 1902, J. E. Busch- 
mann ; Amsterdam, 1902, L. J. Veen. 
4to. $3.60. 

Cervera and Lacour, Manual del co- 
leccionista 6 pequeno tratado de la 
restauraci<5n y conservaci6n de los 
cuadros. Madrid, 1901. Kicardo Fe. 

31 pp. 8vo. The Connoisseur, 

A Magazine for Collectors. London, 
1901, Low. Vol. I, Xo. 1; Septem- 
ber. 60 pp. ; illus. 4to. E. T. 

Cook, A Popular Handbook to the 
National Gallery, including, by spe- 
cial permission, notes collected from 
the work of and a preface by John 
Ruskin. London, 1902, Macmillan. 

2 vols. 740 pp. ; 637 pp. 8vo. 

W. J. Cripps, Old English Plate: 
Ecclesiastical, Decorative, and Domes- 
tic, its Makers and Marks. London, 
1901. 540 pp. 8vo. $10.50. - 
H. H. Cunynghame, On the Theory 
and Practice of Art-Enamelling upon 
Metals. 2d ed. London, 1901, Con- 
stable. 212pp.; figs. 8vo. $1.50. 

G. Dehio, L' influence de Tart fran^ais 
sur Part alleinand. Paris, 1901, Le- 

roux. 8vo. L. Demaison, see 

C. Giorlet. Louis Dimier, Les 

Danses macabres et PIde"e de la mort 
dans Part chre"tien (Science et reli- 
gion). Paris, 1902, Blond. 64 pp 
8vo. 80.60. 

G. Ebe, Der deutsche Cicerone. Fiihrer 
durch die Kunstschatze der Lander 
deutscher Zunge. IV. Malerei. 
Fremde Schulen. Leipsic, 1901, O. 
Spamer. iii, 675 pp. 8vo. $2.37. 



Isabelle Errera, Collection d'anJI 

ciennes Etoffes. Brussels, 1901, Falk I; 
fils. i, 199 pp. ; 419 tigs. 4to. 
C. P. Fieff, Les Faiences patrony-'Jl 
miques. Caracte"ristiques des Saints 
dans la ce"ramique nivernaise. Paris,!' 

1901, E. Lechevalier. 52 pis. Gr!ji 

8vo. $7.00. Augustin Filon. La 

Caricature en Angleterre. Paris, lr I 

1902, Hachette. v, 282 pp.; 8 figs. 

C. Rohault de Fleury & Son, Les 
Saints de la Messe et leurs monuJl 
ments. Vol. IX : Saint Barthe"lemy ;j|l 
saint Mathieu ; saint Thomas. 132 
pp.; 106 pis. Vol. X (and last): Saint 
Andre" ; saints Sime'on et Jude, 
saint Mathias ; saint Barnabe" ; saint \ 
Jean-Baptiste, Agneau de Dieu. j 
Paris, 1902, Lib. impr. r^unies. 106 ! 

pp. ; 109 pis. 4to. J. C. For- 

mig6, see L. Lefevre. R. Forrer, 

Geschichte der europaischen Fliesen- 
Keramik vom Mittelalter bis zum 
Jahre 1900. Strassburg, 1901. 93 
pp. ; 107 pis. ; 200 figs. 4to. $25.00. 

Fournier-SarlovSze, Artistes 
oubltes. Paris, 1902, Ollendorff. 
221 pp.; 16 pis.; figs. 4to. $4.00. 

Ludovico Frati, La vita privata 
di Bologna dal sec. XIII al XVII. 
Bologna, 1900, N. Zanichelli. 290 

pp. ; pis. 8vo. W. H. Frere, 

Pontifical Services. Illustrated from 
Miniatures of the 15th and 16th Cen- 
turies. Descr. Notes and Liturgical 
Introduction. London, 1901, Long- 
mans. 2 vols. Folio. $7.50. 

A. Germain, L'Art chre'tien en France, 
des origines au XVI e siecle. Paris, 
1902, Bloud & Co. 64 pp. 8vo. 
L'Influence de saint Francois d' Assise 
sur la civilisation et les arts. Paris, 
1902, Bloud & Co. 64 pp. 8vo. 

C. Giorlet, H. Judart, and L. 
Demaison, Repertoire arche"ologique 
de rarrondissement de Reims. 10 
fasc., Canton de Beine. Reims, 
1901, Michaud. Figs. 8vo. - 
Gaetano Guasti, Di Cafaggiolo e 
d' altre fabbriche di ceramiche in 
Toscana secondo studi e document] 
in parte raccolti da Gaetano Mila- 
nese. Florence, 1902, Barbera. xxvi, 
494 pp. 8vo. J. Guiffrey, La Vie 
de la Vierge. Monographic sur les 
tapisseries de la cath^drale de Stras- 
bourg. Strassburg, 1902, Staat. 32 
pis. ; album in folio of 14 pis. 8vo. 

C. Gurlitt, Die Baukunst Frank- 

reichs. Dresden, 1902, Gilbers. & 
Lief, x, 25 pp.; 25 pis. P. Gus- 



CHRISTIAN ART] 



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223 



man, Les Villes d'art ce"lebres. 
Venise. Paris, 1902, H. Laurens. 
150 pp. ; 130 figs. 4to. 

G. Hastings, Sienna, its Art and Archi- 
tecture. London, 1902, The de la 

More Press. 4to. $0.88. H. J. 

Hermann, Zur Geschichte der Minia- 
titrinalerei am Hofe der Este in Fer- 
rara. Leipsic, 1902, Freytag. 155 

pp. ; 26 pis. ; 108 figs. Folio. 

G. Hirth, Kleinere Schriften. (Wege 
zur Kunst, Geschichte, Technik, 
Physiologic, Monacensia.) Munich, 
1902, Verlag der "Jugend." xvi, 

526 pp. Gr. 8vo. $1.25. H. 

Hyman, see L'Art en Belgique. 

H. Judart, see C. Giorlet. I. I. Jus- 

serand, Les Sports et jeux d'exercise 
dans 1'ancienne France. Paris, 1901, 
Plon. 474 pp. 18mo. 

Katalog der Bibliothek des k. k. osterr. 
Museums fiir Kunst und Industrie. 
Gruppe I. C. Zeitschriften. Vienna, 

1902. xx iv, 50 pp. 8vo. Kunst- 

denkmale aus Dalmatien und Istrien. 
Vienna, Josef Wlha. 400 figs. ; 50 
photos. 

Lacour, see Cervera. L. Lefdvre, 

Architectural Pottery. Bricks, Tiles, 
Pipes, Enamelled Terra-cottas, Ordi- 
nary and Encrusted Quarries, Stone- 
ware, Mosaics, Faiences, arid Archi- 
tectural Stoneware. Preface by M. 
J. C. Forrnige'. Trans, from the 
French by K. H. Bird and W. Moore 
Binns. London, 1900, Scoot & Green- 
wood. 516 pp. ; 5 pis. ; 950 figs. 
Imp. 8vo. $3.75. 

Mallet, L'Art Chretien. Paris, 1902, 

Poussielgue. 380 pp. 16mo. 

L. Mannocchi, Guida practica dei 
inonumenti e delle opere d' arte nella 
provincia di Ascoli-Piceno. Grotam- 
mare, 1902, Economica. li, 184 pp. 
16mo. - W. Martin, see J. f C. 

Overovorde. H. Marucchi, Ele"- 

ments d'arche"ologie chre'tienne. Ill : 
Basiliques et e"glises de Rome. Rome 
and Paris, 1902. xxxix, 528 pp.; 

many figs. 8vo. A. Melani, 

Pittura italiana antica e moderna. 
2d ed. Milan, 1901, Hoepli. xxix, 
429 pp. ; 137 pis. ; 23 figs. Rich- 
ard Muther, Studien und Kritiken. 
Vol. II. 2d ed. Vienna, 1902, 
Wiener Verlag. v, 290 pp. Gr. 8vo. 
$2.00. 

Oriens Christianus, Romische Halb- 
jahrhefye i'iir die Kunde des christli- 
chen Orients. Rome, 1901, Topografia 
poliglotta della s. c. de propaganda 



fide. 1 Jahrg. 1 Hft. 215 pp. 8vo. 

$5.00. J. C. Overovorde and 

W. Martin, Stedelijk Museum te 
Leiden. 19 afbeeldingen in licht- 
druk van eenige der voornaamste 
Kunstwerken. Leiden, 1902, Blank- 
enberg & Co. 4to in 6 Lief, at 
0.50. 

G. E. Pazaurek, Die Glasersamm- 
lung des Nordbohmischen Gewerbe- 
Museums in Reichenberg. Leipsic, 
1902, Karl W. Hiersemann. 37 pis.; 
3 col. pis. ; 18 figs. Folio. $12.00. 
A. Perrault-Dabot, see A. de 
Baudot. 

C. H. Read, Catalogue of the Works 
of Art bequeathed to the British 
Museum by Baron Ferd. Rothschild, 

M.P., in 1898. London, 1902 

G. Riat, L'Art des Jardins. (Bibl. 
de PEnseignment des B. A.) Paris, 

1901, Soc. frang. d'Edit. d'Art. 389 
pp.; 180 figs. 8vo. .$0.75. Mary 

F. Nixon Roulet, Saint Anthony in 
Art, and Other Sketches. London, 

1902, Art and Book Co. 272 pp. 
8vo. $1.88. 

Charles Saunier, Les conquetes artis- 
tiques de la Revolution et de 1'Empire. 
Reprises et abandons des Allie's en 
1815 ; leurs consequences sur les 
musses d' Europe. Paris, 1902, 
Laurens. viii, 191 pp.; 12 pis. 

8vo. J. v. Schlosser, Album 

ausgewahlter Gegenstande der kunst- 
industriellen Sammlung des aller- 
hochsten Kaiserhauses. Herausge- 
geben mit Genehmigung des h. 
Oberstkammereramtes Seiner k. und 
k. apostolischen Majestat. Vienna, 
1901, Anton Schroll. 33 pp.; 53 
pis. ; 23 figs. Gr. 4to. $6.25. 

G. SSailles^Eugene Carriere, 1'Homme 
et P Artiste. Paris, 1901, Pelletan. 

102 pp.; figs. 8vo. E. G. Smith, 

The Story of Bruges. London, 1902, 
Dent, xii, 418 pp. ; figs. 8vo. 

D. Tarnilia, II Sacro Monte di Pieta di 
Roma. Rome, 1900, Forzani. 
H. Thode, Die deutsche bildende 
Kunst. Leipsic, 1902, Bibliogr. In- 
stitut. 24mo. 

L. J. Veen, see J. E. Buschmann. 
A. Venturi, Storia dell' Arte Italjana. 
II. Dall' Arte Barbarica alia Roma- 
nica. Milan, 1902, Hoepli. xxiii, 

- 673 pp. ; 506 figs. Pietro Vigo, 

Le Danze Macabre in Italia. 2d ed. 
Bergamo, 1901, Istituto Italiano 
d' arti grafiche. 179 pp. ; 8 pis. 
Paul Vitry, L'Art fra^ais, des ori- 



224 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 



gines & 1800, d'apres les collections de 
Petit Palais ( Exposition universelle de 
1900). I. Moy en Age et Renaissance 
(Ministere de I'lnstruction publique 
et des beaux arts). Melun, 1902, 
Impr. administrative. 8vo. $4.75. 
A. Warburg, Bildniskunst und floren- 
tinisches Burgentum. Leipsic, 1902, 
Hermann Seemann. - Wilh. v. 
Weckbecker, Handbuch der Kunst- 
ptlege in Osterreich. Hrsg. v. k. k. 
Ministerium f. Callus u. Unterricht. 
3d ed. Vienna, 1902, Schulbiicher- 
verlag. xviii, 818 pp. Gr. 8vo. 

$1.68. G. C. Williamson, The 

Cities of Northern Italy. London, 
1902, Richards. 274 pp. 12mo. 

II. EARLY CHRISTIAN AND 
BYZANTINE 

L. de Beylie, L' Habitation byzantine. 
Recherches sur l'architecture civile 
des Byzantins et son influence en 
Europe. Grenoble, 1902, Falque & 
Perrin ; Paris, Leroux. xv, 218 pp.; 

82 pis. ; 818 tigs. 4to. Brissel, 

Bilder . aus der Geschichte der alt- 
christlichen Kunst und Liturgie in 
Italien. Freiburg in B., 1901, B. 
Herker. 200 figs. 8vo. 

W. E, Crum, see Service des Antiqui- 
tes de 1'Egypte. 

O. M. Dalton, Catalogue of Early 
Christian Antiquities and Objects 
from the Christian East in the De- 
partment of British and Mediaeval 
Antiquities and Ethnography of the 
British Museum. London, 1901. 
xxiii, 180 pp.; 05 pis.; 145 figs. 
4 to. 

A. Gayet, L'art Copte. (Ecole d'Alex- 
andrie ; Architecture monastique ; 
Sculpture ; Peinture ; Art somptu- 
aire.) Paris, 1902, E. Leroux. 
viii, 334 pp. ; (3 pis. ; many figs. 8vo. 

$4.00. Adolph Goldschrnidt, Die 

Kirchenthur des heiligen Ambrosius 
in Mailand. Ein Denkmal friih- 
christlicher Skulptur. (Zur Kunst- 
geschichte des Auslandes. VII.) 
Strassburg, 1902, J. H. E. Heitz. 
30 pp.; 6 pis. Lex. 8vo. $0.75. 

Adolf Jacoby, Ein bisher unbeachteter 
apokrypher Bericht iiber die Taufe 
Jesu, nebst Beitragen zur Geschichte 
der Didaskalie der Zwolf Apostel 
und Erlantertmgen zu den Darstel- 
lungen der Taufe Jesu. Strassburg, 
1902, K. J. Trubner. 107 pp. ; 8 figs. 
4.50 Mk. 



G. Lampakis, Me"moire sur les aiitiqui- 
te"s chre'tiennes de la Grece prsent4 , 
au Congres international d'histoire i 
compared. Paris, 1900 ; Athens, 
1902, "Hestia" Press. 94 pp.; 1<8 
figs. 4to. - - V. LampSrez y 
Romea, El bizantinismo en la arqui- 
tectura cristiana espanola (Sigle.s VI- 
XII). Madrid, 1902. 29 pp. 4to. 

P. Lugano, S. Maria Antiqua e i 
le origini di S. Maria Nova de Urbe 



al Foro romano. Rome, 1902. 
pp. 8vo. 

N. Miiller, Koiineterien, die altchrist- 
lichen Begrabnisstatten. (Reprint 
from Bd. 10 der Realencyklopadie 
fiir protestantische Theologie und 
Kirche. 3. Aufl.) Leipsic, 1902, 
J. E. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandl. 102 
pp. 8vo. 

W. A. Neumann, Der Dom von Pa- 
renzo. Vienna, Josef Wlha. Pis.; 
53 figs. ; map. 

Service des Antiques de 1'Egypte, 
Catalogue ge'ne'ral des antiquitfe 
e"gyptiennes du Muse"e du Caire. 
Vol. IV, Nos. 8001-8741, Coptic 
Monuments, by W. E. Crum. Cairo, 
1902, Impr. de 1'Inst. Frang. 160 
pp. ; 57 pis. 4to. 

J. E. Weis-Liebersdorf, Christus- und j 
Apostelbilder. Einfluss der Apokry- 
phen auf die altesten Kunsttypen.' 
Freiburg i. B., 1902, Herder'schirj 
Verlagsbuchh. ix, 124 pp.; 54 figs.) 

8vo. F. Witting, Die Anfange i 

der christl ichen Architektur. Ge- 
danken iiber Wesen und Entste- 
hung der christlichen Basilika. (Zur| 
Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes. 
Strassburg, 1902, J. H. E. Heitz. | 
vii, 101 pp. ; 26 figs. 8vo. 

III. MEDIAEVAL 

Abb6 Charles Ablin, Chroniques sur lei 
culte de saint Denis, premier e'veque < 
Paris (le Tombeau ; les Translations 
la Basilique ; les Ce"re"monies ; 
Pelerins ; les Miracles; la Ville sainta 
la Revolution ; 1'Eglise neuve). Paris, 
1902, Retaux. viii, 172 pp. 

Karl von Amira. Die Dresder 
Bilder hand sch rift des Sachsei 
gels. Vol. I. Leipsic, 1902, KJ 
W. Hiersemann. 184 pis. Gr. folk 
In two portfolios ; subscription prk 
of each, $22.50. 

E. Bassermann-Jordan, Die dekoratn 
Malerei an Bayerischen llofe. Mu-l| 
nich, 1902, Bruckmann. 100 pp.;;] 



MEDIAEVAL] 



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225 



11 pis.; 100 figs. 4to. $4.50. 

Luca Beltrami, Gli Avanzi della 
Basilica di 8. Maria in Aurona a 
Milano. Milan, 1902, Umberto Alle- 

gretti. 45 pp. ; 50 figs. 4to. 

J. W. Bradley, Historical Introduc- 
tion to the Collection of Illuminated 
Letters and Borders in the National 
Art Library. London, 1901, Eyre & 

Spottiswoode. J. W. Brown, 

Dominican Church of Santa Maria 
Novella at Florence. Historical, 
Architectural, and Artistic Study. 
Edinburgh, 1902, Schulze & Co. ix, 
176 pp. ; 9 pis. 4to. $5.26. 
R. Bruck, Die elsassische Glasmalerei 
vom Begin ne des XII. bis zum Ende 
des XVII. Jahrhunderts. Strassburg, 
1901, Heinrich. I. Lief. 10 pis. 

Folio. Bulteau, Monographic de 

la cathe"drale de Chartres. 2d ed. 
Chartres, 1902, Selleret, lii, 352 pp. ; 

figs. 8vo. D. Butler, Scottish 

Cathedrals and Abbeys. With Introd. 
by R. .H. Story. London, 1900, 
Black, xv, 210 pp. 8vo. $0.38. 

P. Leopold de Cherance, Sainte Claire 
d'Assise. Paris, 1901, Poussielgue. 

xiv, 253 pp. 16mo. A. Chroust, 

Monumenta palaeographica. Denk- 
maler der Schreibkunst des Mittel- 
alters. 1. Abt. : Schrifttafeln in 
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$5.00. J. Clement and A. Guitard, 

Vitraux de Bourges : Vitraux du XIII e 
siecle de la cathedral e de Bourges. 
Bourges, 1902, Tardy-Pigelet. xi, 

120 pp. ; 54 pis. 8vo. A. Cocchi, 

Degli antichi reliquiari di Santa Maria 
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pp.; figs. 8vo. C. A. Cummings, 

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R. Davidsohn, Forschungen zur Ge- 
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14 Jahr.) Berlin, 1901, E. S. Mittler 
& Son. xviii, 339 pp. ,Gr. 8vo. $2.75. 
Don Dijon, L'Eglise abbatiale 
de Saint-Antoine en Dauphine*. His- 
toire et arche"ologie. Grenoble, 1902, 
Falque & Perrin. 516 pp. ; illustrated. 

Camille Enlart, Manuel d'Arche"ologie 
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Paris, 1902, Picard. xx, 816 pp.; 

405 figs. 8vo. $3.00. G. Fleury, 

see A. Ledru. 

Van den Ghein, De Hoofdkerk St. 
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christ, An Itinerary of the English 
Cathedrals for the Use of Travellers. 
Revised and edited, with an Intro- 
duction on Cathedral Architecture, 
by the Rev. T. Perkins. London, 
1900, G. Bell. 91 pp.; 40 illus. ; 
map. Cr. 8vo. $0.38. I. Ron- 
ald Sutherland Gower, The Tower 
of London. Vol. II. London, 1902, 
G. Bell & Sons. 202 pp. Gr. 8vo. 
$5.25. A. Guitard, see J. Clement. 

C. Hallett, The Cathedral Church of 
Ripon. A Short History of the 
Church and a Description of its 
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x, 148 pp. ; 53 figs. Cr. 8vo. $0.38. 

N. Hamilton, Die Darstellung 

der Anbetung der hi. drei Konige in 
der toskanischen Malerei von Giotto 
bis Lionardo. Strassburg, 1901, J. H. 
E. Heitz. x, 118 pp. 8vo. $2.00. 

P. HSrard, Recherches arch- 

ologiques sur les abbayes de Pancien 
diocese de Paris. I. Maubuisson ; 
II. Vaux-de-Cernay ; III. Notre- 
Dame-du-Val ; IV. Port-Royal-des- 
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portr. and pi. 4to. Charles 

Hiatt, Westminster Abbey. A Short 
History and Description of the 
Church and Conventual Buildings, 
with Notes on the Monuments. 
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York, 1902, The Macmillan Co. 
xii, 140 pp. ; 47 figs. 12mo. $0.60. 

F. X. Kraus, Die Wandgemalde der 
St. Sylvesterkapelle zu Goldbach am 
Bodensee. Munich, 1902, F. Bruck- 
mann. 

Charles de Lasteyrie, L'abbaye de 
Saint Martial de Limoges. Etude 
historique e"conomique et arche"olo- 
gique sur la vie du saint. Paris, 
1902, Picard. xviii, 512 pp.; 9 pis. 

Gr. 8vo. $3.00. A. Ledru and 

G. Fleury, La Cathddrale Saint 
Julien du Mans. Mamers, 1900, 
Fleury & Dangin. 200 pis. 'Folio. 

$15.00. L. Loye, Histoire de 

I'^glise de Besangon. Jacquin, 1901, 

T. I. Besangon. 347 pp. ; pis. 16mo. 

Vittorio Lusini, II San Giovanni 

di Siena e i suoi restauri diretti dal 



226 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [ VOL. VII, 1903 



cav. prof. Agenore Socini. Florence, 
1901, Alinari. 118 pp.; 4 pis.; figs. 
8vo. 

Emile Male, L'Art reHgieux du XIII* 
siecle en France. Etude sur 1'ico- 
nographie du moyen age et sur ses 
sources d'inspiration. Nouvelle Edi- 
tion, revue et corrige"e. Paris, 1902, 
Colin. 474 pp.; 127 figs. 4to. 
G. Longo Manganaro, II vero ri- 
tratto giottesco di Dante : cronaca 
della discussione ed osservazioni. 
Messina, 1901, V. Muglia. 09 pp. 

8vo. A. Marignan. Etudes sur 

Tart frangais au moyen age. His- 
toire de la sculpture en Languedoc 
au Xlle-XIIle siecle. Paris, 1902, 
Bouillon. v, 143 pp. 8vo. La 
Tapisserie de Bayeux e'tude arche'- 
ologique et critique. Paris, 1902, 
Leroux. xxvi, 203 pp. 18mo. 
H. J. L. G. Masse, The Cathedral 
Church at Bristol. A Description 
of its Fabric and a Brief History of 
the Episcopal See. London, 1900, 
G. Bell. 112 pp.; plan and illus. 

8vo. $0.38. A. Matthaei. Werke 

der Holzplastik in Schleswig-IIolstein 
bis zum J. 1540. Kin Beitrag zur 
Entvvicklungsgeschichte der deut- 
schen Plastik. Leipsic, 1901, See- 
man & Co. ix, 245) pp., Gr. 8vo ; and 
atlas in folio, iv pp., 46 pis. $15.00. 
E. F. A. Miinzenberger and 
S. J. St. Beissel, Zur Kenntniss 
und \Vurdigung der mittelalterlichen 
Altare Deutschlands. Ein Reitrag 
zur Geschichte d. vaterlandischen 
Kunst. Frankfort, 1901. Peter 
Kreuer. 16 Lfg. Pp. 169-192 ; 10 
pis. 4to. $1.50. 

A. Nardini Despotti Mospignotti, II 
Duomo di San Giovanni oggi batti- 
stero di Firenze, Florence, 1902, 
Alinari. xii, 181 pp.; 2 pis.; 38 figs. 
8vo. 

Gate Pedrick, Monastic Seals of the 
Xlllth Century. London, 1902, The 
de la More Press. 158 pp.; 50 pis. 

4to. $5.25. F. M. Perkins, 

Giotto (The Great Masters in Paint- 
ing and Sculpture, edited by G. C. 
Williamson). London, 1902, Bell. 

xii, 160 pp. 8vo. $1.25. T. 

Perkins, The Cathedral Church of 
Amiens. A Short History and De- 
scription of its Fabric. (Bell's 
Handbooks to Continental Churches). 
New York, 1902, The Macmillan Co. 
x, 112 pp. ; 57 figs. 12mo. $1.00. 
See also J. G. Gilchrist G. 



Piccirilli, L' Abbagia di S. Spirito 
di Sulmona e 1' Brenio di Pietro 
Celestino sul Monte Morrone. Lan- 

ciano, 1901, R. Carabba. E. 

LefSvre-Pontalis, Les Faades suc- 
cessives de la eathe"drale de Chartres 
au XI e et au XII e siecle. Caen, 1902, 
Delesques. 54 pis. ; plans. 8vo. 

G. T. Rivoira, Le origini della archi- 
tectura lombarda e delle sue princi- 
pali derivazioni nei paesi d' oltr' Alpe. 
Rome, 1901, Loescher. 2 vols. Vol. I : 
xvi, 372 pp. ; 6 pis. ; 464 figs. $7.00. 

Ing. Dionigi Scano. La Cattedrale di 
Cagliari. Una pagina d' arte Pisana. 
Cagliari, 1902, Stab. G. Dessi. 
Ch. Signerin, Les quatre anciennes 
Madones des portes historiques de 
St. Rambert-en-Forez. Lyons, 1901, 
Nouvellet. 56 pp. ; 5 pis. 8vo. $0.25. 

S. J. St. Beissel, see E. F. A. 

Miinzenberger. G.Stephens. Old 

Northern Runic Monuments of Scan- 
dinavia and England. London, 1901, 
Williams & Norgate. Folio. $5.00. 

R. H. Story, see D. Butler. 
E. F. Strange, The Cathedral Church 
of Worcester. A Description of the 
Fabric and a Brief History of the 
Episcopal See. London, 1900, G. 
Bell. 117 pp.; 53 figs. Cr. 8vo. 
$0.38. 

IV. RENAISSANCE AND 
MODERN 

W. Armstrong, Sir Henry Raeburn. 
With an Introduction by R. A. M. 
Stevenson, and Biographical and 
Descriptive Catalogue by J. L. Caw. 
London, 1902, Heineinann. New 
York, Dodd, Mead, & Co. ix, 121 
pp. ; pis. 4to. 

I. Beccadelli, Tre lettere inedite a 
Michelangelo Buonarroti publicate 
a cura di Adolfo Vital ed alcune 
notizie intorno ai carteggi Becca- 
delli della Palatina di Parma. Cone- 
gliano, 1901, G. Nardi. 16 pp. 8vo. 

Clara Bell, see W. Martin. 

Luca Beltrami, Leonardo e la 
sala delle Asse. Milan, 1902, Um- 
berto Allegretti. 70 pp. ; 68 figs. 
4to. - Elfried Bock, Florentin- 
ische u. venezianische Bilderrahmen 
aus der Zeit der Gotik und renais- 
sance. Munich, 1902, Bruckmann. 

1 43 pp. ; figs. Gr. 8vo. $2.00. W. 

Bode. Denkmaler der Renaissance- 
Sculptur Toscanas. Lief. LXXV- 
LXXIX (Nos. 361-366^: Benedetto 






RENAISSANCE, ETC.] BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1902 



227 



da Majano. Nos. 369 a -378 : Matteo 
Civitale. Nos. 379-385: Mino da 
Fiesole). Munich, 1902, F. Bruck- 
mann. Folio. Florentiner Bild- 
hauer der Renaissance. Berlin, 
1902, B. Cassirer. 350 pp. ; 147 figs. 
Gr. 8vo. .$4.50. 

Carlo Carnesecchi, Donne e lusso a 
Firenze nel XVI secolo. Cosimo I 
e la sua legge suntuaria del 1562. 

Florence, 1902, Fellas. Julia 

Cartwright (Mrs. Ady), Isabella 
D' Este, Marchioness of Mantua, 
1474-1539. A Study of the Renais- 
sance. Illus. Demy 8vo. G. 

Clausse, Les San Gallo, architectes, 
peintres, sculpteurs, me'dailleurs (XV e 
et XVI e siecles). Vol. II: Antonio 
da San Gallo (le jeune). Paris, 1901, 
Leroux. 437pp.; figs. 8vo. $3.00. 

Rowley Cleeve, Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds. (Bell's Miniature Series of 
Painters.) London, 1902, G. Bell & 
Sons. 67 pp. Small 8vo. $0.25. 

Maud Cruttwell, Luca and 
Andrea della Robbia and their Suc- 
cessors. London, 1902, J. M. Dent 
& Co.; New York, E. P. Dutton & 
Co. xix, 363 pp.; over 150 illus. 
Gr. 8vo Lionel Cust, A De- 
scription of the Sketch Book by 
Sir Anthony Van Dyke, used by him 
in Italy, 1621-1627. London, 1902, 
G. Bell & Sons. 29 pp. ; 47 pis. 
Folio. $10.50. 

Gerard David, Dit maitre Gerard de 
Bruges (1450 ?-1523). Haarlem, 1902, 
H. Kleinmann. 10 sheets. Text. 20 
pis. Gr. 8vo. 4 Lief, at $1.50. 

Prince d'Essling and E. Miintz, P- 
trarque, ses Etudes d'art, son influ- 
ence sur les artistes, ses portraits et 
ceux de Laure, 1' illustration de ses 
Merits. Paris, 1902, Gaz. B. A. viii, 

1291 pp. ; 21 pis. ; 191 figs. 4to. 
Exposition des Primitifs Flamands, 
Bruges. 1st section: Tableaux. Cata- 
logue. (Preface by W. H. J. Weale.) 
Bruges, 1902, Descle'e de Brouwer & 
Co. xxx, 155 pp. ; 1 fig. 8vo. 



Hubert van Eyck and Jan van Eyck 

(1366?-1426) (1370P-1440). Haar- 
lem, 1902, Kleinmann & Co. iv pp.; 
40 pis. Gr. folio. $12.00. 

C. v. Fabriczy, Die Handzeichnungen 
Giuliano's da Sangallo. Kritisches 
Verzeichniss. Stuttgart, 1902, O. 
Gerschel. iii, 132 pp. 8vo. $2.50. 

H. Baron v. Geymiiller, Die Bau- 
kunst der Renaissance in Frankreich. 
2. Heft : Struktive u. asthetische 



Stilrichtungen. Kirchliche Baukunst. 
(Handbuch der Architektur. Unter 
Mitwirkung v. Proff. Oberbaudir. 
Dr. Jos. Durm u. Geh. Reg. u. 
Baur. Herm. Ende hrsg. v. Geh. 
Baur. Prof. Dr. Ed. Schmitt. II. 
Tl. Die Baustile. Historische u. 
techn. Entwickelung. 6 Bd. 2 
Heft.) Stuttgart, 1901, A. Berg- 
strasser. viii, 333-676 pp. ; 155 figs. 

8vo. $4.00. A. Goffin, Giorgi- 

one. Durendal, 1901. 275 pp. 

G. Gronau, Aus Raphaels Florentiner 
Tagen. Berlin, 1902, B. Cassirer. 

53 pp. ; 18 pis. 4to. F.-A. 

Gruyer, Chantilly. Les Portraits de 
Carmontelle. Paris, 1902, Plon. 40 

pis. in heliogr. 4to. 100 fr. 

L. Guilbert, Anciens Dessins des 
Monuments de Limoges. Limoges, 

1902, Ducourtieux. 8vo. J. Gui- 

raud, L'Eglise et les origines de la 
Renaissance. Paris, 1902, Lecoffre. 
351 pp. 18mo. 

S. K. Hartmann, Moderne amerikani- 
sche Skulpturen. 1. Lief. Berlin, 
1902, Spielmeyer. 12 pis. 4to. 
Cecil Headlam, Handbooks of the 
Great Craftsmen. Peter Vischer. 
New York, 1902, The Macmillan Co. 
xl, 143 pp. 12mo. $2.00. 

L. Justi, Konstruierte Figuren und Kopfe 
unter den Werken Albrecht Diirers. 
Untersuchungen und Rekonstruktio- 
nen. Leipsic, 1902, K. W. Hierse- 
mann. 71 pp.; 8 pis.; 27 figs. Gr. 
4to. $5.00. 

M. J.-Ph. Van der Kellen, The Works 
of Michel LeBlond. Reproduced by 
Photogravure, and accompanied by a 
Biographical Notice and a Complete 
Catalogue of his Works. The Hague, 
Martinus Nijhoff. In cloth portfolio, 
$30.00 net ; in leather portfolio, 
$35.00. 

G. H. de Loo, Bruges, 1902. Expo- 
sition de Tableaux flamands des 
XlVe, XVe, et XVIe siecles. Cata- 
logue critique, pre'ce'de' d'une intro- 
duction sur P identit^ de certains 
maitres arionymes. Gand, 1902, 
Siffer. Ixvii, 124 pp. 8vo. 

Les Maitres de la Peinture, 40 Repro- 
ductions en Couleurs des Muse'es de 
Rome, Florence, Venise, Paris, Am- 
sterdam, Munich, Dresden,- Berlin, 
Londres, etc. Paris, 1902, A. Collin. 
35 pis. $7.00. W. Martin, Ge- 
rard Dou. Translated from Dutch 
by Clara Bell. (Great Masters in 
Painting and Sculpture.) London, 



228 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 



1902, G. Bell & Sons. 164 pp. 8vo. 
$1.25. Glasgow-School of Painting. 
Introduction by Francis H. Newbery. 
London, 1902, Bell. 98 pp. 8vo. 

$1.50. Ernesto Masi, Vita ita- 

liana in un novelliere del cinque- 
cento. Bologna, 1900, Ditta Nicola 
Zanichelli. - - Quinten Matsijs. 
Haarlem, 1902, H. Kleinmann & Co. 

36 pis. Gr. folio. $9.00. A. G. 

Meyer, Oberitalienische Friihrenais- 
sance. Bauten u. Bildwerke der 
Lombardei. Berlin, 1900, W. Ernst 
& Son. vii, 294 pp.; 14 pis.; 146 

figs. 4to. $6.00. H. Modern, 

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Vienna, 
1902, Artaria. 64 pp.; pi.; figs. 

4to. E. Molinier, La Collection 

Wallace. Meubles et objets d'art 
francos du XVIIe et du XVIII* 
siecle. Livr. I. Paris, 1902, E. 
Le"vy. 25 pis. 8vo. To be com- 
plete in 4 livrs. $30.00. Le Mobi- 
lier royal fran^ais aux XVII e et 
XVIII e siecles (Histoire et Descrip- 
tion). Paris, 1902, Manzi, Joyant, 
& Co. 10 pts. Gr. 4to. In 100 
numbered copies. Louis Mo- 
rand, Antime de Marcenay de Ghuy, 
peintre et graveur. Paris, 1902, 

Rapilly. 60 pp. 8vo. E. Miintz, 

see Prince d'Essling. 

F. H. Newbery, see W. Martin. 
M. C. Nieuwbarn, Leven en werken 
van fra Angelico (Giovanni da Fie- 
sole). Leyden, 1901. 172 pp.; 30 

pis. Folio. 30 fl. P. de Nolhac, 

Tableaux de Paris pendant la re"vo- 
lution franchise (1789-1792). Paris, 
1902, Le Livre & L'Estampe. 15 pp. ; 
64 pis. Folio. 

J. P. Richter, Catalogue of Pictures at 
Locko Park. London, 1902, Bemrose 
& Sons. 107 pp. 4to. $3. 13. 
M. Rooses, Antoine van Dyck. 
Paris, 1901. Folio. $20.00. Rubens, 
sa vie et ses oeuvres. Livr. 1-3. 
Paris, 1902. 4to. 



E. Sheppard, The Old Royal Palace 
of Whitehall. New York, 1902, 
Longmans, Green, & Co. 6 pis. ; 33 

figs. Medium 8vo. O. Smeaton, 

The Medici and the Italian Renais- 
sance. (World's Epoch Makers.) 
London, 1902, T. & J. Clark, vii, 

286 pp. 8vo. $0.75. E. Stein - 

mann, Botticelli. (Monographs on 
Artists, No. 6.) London, 1900, H. 
Grevel. 112 pp.; 90 figs. 8yo. 

$1.00. J. B. Supino, Fra Fi- 

lippo Lippi. Florence, 1902, Alinari 
Brothers. 

J. C. Van Dyke, Old English Mas- 
ters. Engraved by Timothy Cole. 
New York, 1902, The Century Co. 
Gr. 8vo. 

H. Wallis, The Art of the Pre- 
cursors. A Study in the History 
of Early Italian Maiolica. London, 
1901, Bernard Quaritch. 94 colored 
figs. Small 4to. $4.50. Les Car- 
reaux de pavement italiens du XV 
siecle. London, 1902, B. Quaritch. 

40 pp. ; 93 figs. 8vo. W. G. 

Waters, Piero della Francesca. 
(Great Masters in Painting and 
Sculpture.) London, 1900, G. Bell. 

x, 135 pp. ; illus. 8vo. $1.25. 

W. H. J. Weale, Hans Memlinc. 
(The Great Masters of Painting and 
Sculpture, edited by G. C. William- 
son.) London, 1901, G. Bell & Sons, 
xxiv, 110 pp.; 40 pis. 8vo. $1.25. 
Hans Memlinc. Bibliographic ; ta- 
bleaux conserve's a Bruges. Bruges, 
1901, L. de Plancke. viii, 56 pp.; 
2 pis. 8vo. See Exposition des 

Primitifs Flamands. Roger van 

der Weyden, Rogier de la Pas- 
ture (1400P-1464). Konigliches Mu- 
seum Antwerpen, National-Gallerie 
London, Louvre Paris, Mauritshuis 
Haag, Uffizi Galerie Florenz. Haar- 
lem, 1902, Kleinmann & Co. Gr. 
folio. 20 sheets in 4 Lief., at $1.50 
each. 






1902 
July December 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS 1 

SUMMARIES OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES CHIEFLY IN 
CURRENT PERIODICALS 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Von Sybel's Ancient Art. The second edition of LUDWIG VON 
SYBEL'S Weltgeschichte der Kunst is, like the original work, an attempt to 
give the history of ancient art divided according to epochs rather than by 
ethnological or technical considerations. The purpose of the book is not 
changed, but the execution is improved. The discoveries and the publica- 
tions of the past fifteen years are incorporated in the text and the biblio- 
graphical notes as well as in the illustrations. The work is thus entitled to 
a prominent position among the latest publications on the history of ancient 
art. (LUDWIG VON SYBEL, Weltgeschichte der Kunst in Altertum. Grundriss, 
2d revised ed., Marburg, 1903, Elwert, xii, 484 pp. ; 3 colored pis. ; 380 figs., 
large 8vo., 10 marks.) 

Collections of Anthropological Material. At the Bradford meeting 
(1902) of the Museums Association of the United Kingdom, HARLAN I. 
SMITH, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, presented a 
paper on ' Methods of Collecting Anthropological Material.' Three methods 
are employed aiming at the increase or the diffusion of anthropological 
knowledge. The first method is a systematic attempt to secure material 
for original research ; the second, an attempt at the systematic illustration 
of known facts ; the third, mere amassing of objects casually found or pre- 
sented for preservation. Research collecting can best be carried on by the 
large museums. Synoptic collecting may be done by any museum, and for 
this the duplicates from the research collections of the larger museums 
ought to be available. The third method, not being systematic, has only 
accidental value in preserving what might otherwise be lost. 

1 The departments of Archaeological News and Discussions and of Bibliography of 
Archaeological Books are conducted by Professor FOWLER, Editor-in-charge, assisted 
by Miss MARY H. BUCKINGHAM, Professor HARRY E. BURTON, Professor JAMES C. 
EGBERT, JR., Professor ELMER T. MERRILL, Dr. GEORGE N. OLCOTT, Professor 
JAMES M. PATON, and the Editors, especially Professor MARQUAND. In Professor 
Fowler's absence, these departments are conducted by Professor PATON. 

No attempt is made to include in the present number of the JOURNAL material 
published after December 31, 1902. 

For an explanation of the abbreviations, see pp. 145, 146. 

229 



230 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

Prehistoric Mounds of Eastern Turkey. In Records of the Past, I, 
1902, pp. 163-171 (8 figs.), ELLSWORTH HUNTINGTON describes the pre- 
historic mounds of Armenia, which he visited in 1899-1901. The mounds 
are conical or have the shape of truncated cones. They were evidently 
made as tombs. Some, at least, of the mound-builders were influenced by the 
Babylonians, as is evident from their methods of burying the dead in two 
jars "placed mouth to mouth. The mounds seem to be at least as early as 
2000 B.C. 

The Cults of Olbia. In a first paper on the cults of Olbia, G. M. HIRST 
establishes the worship of Apollo, Demeter, and Cybele from coins and liter- 
ary references, and discusses that of Achilles, which he regards as of purely 
Greek origin. (J.H.S. XXII, 1902, pp. 245-267 ; 6 cuts.) 

Hellenism in Bactria and India. In ' Notes on Hellenism in Bactria 
and India,' J.H.S. XXII, 1902, pp. 268-293, W. W. TARN concludes that the 
evidence of coinage for a Greek influence through Bactria upon India is not 
conclusive, and that all probabilities point to the absorption and disappear- 
ance rather than the extension of any Hellenic element left in that region. 

Graeco-Buddhist Sculptures. In Mon. Mem. Acad. Insc. VII, 1900, 
pp. 39-64 (2 pis. ; 9 figs.), A. FOUCIIEK publishes a series of sculptures from 
Peshawar, Bourier, and the valley of the Svat in northwestern India. They 
were brought to France by an expedition carried out in 1895-97 and are 
now in the Louvre. The statues represent Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ; the 
reliefs, subjects from the life of Buddha and other religious legends in addi- 
tion to purely decorative motives, such as tritons and cupids. The mixture 
of Buddhist religion and late Greek artistic training gives these works a 
peculiar interest. The sculptures belong to the first centuries after Christ, 
a time when sculpture was much practised in the whole Roman Empire and 
when sculptors from Egypt or western Asia might easily carry on their 
trade as far away as India. Some of the reliefs show qualities similar to 
those of early Christian work. The practice of representing Buddha and 
the sacred legends in sculpture seems to have been introduced into India 
by these Graeco-Roman artists. 

' Ancient Models of Buildings. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, 
pp. 175-195 (11 figs.), O. BENNDORF writes of ancient models of buildings. 
Such models were common in the period of the Renaissance, and their ex- 
istence can be traced back through the Middle Ages in uninterrupted tradi- 
tion to ancient times. Benndorf publishes several coins and reliefs on which 
models of buildings are represented, sometimes held in the hand of a person, 
perhaps as a votive offering. A part of a model of a building has been 
found at Ephesus. As extant it represents the roof and part of the entab- 
lature. It was carved in the round from the marble, but was evidently 
intended to be placed against a background and seen only from one side, 
like a relief. The article closes with a discussion of the grave relief of 
Attains, son of Asclepiodorus, from Cyzicus (FROHNER, Inscriptions gr^n/ues 
du Louvre, No. 170). The round object held by the handmaid is perhaps a 
model of a round building with columns. This is, however, not certain, and 
at any rate the model is not to be connected with the Arsinoeion. 

The Mithraic Liturgy. In The Open Court (Chicago), November, 1902, 
pp. 670-683 (3 figs.), FRANZ CUMONT describes the liturgy, clergy, and 
devotees of the cult of Mithra. The article is in a measure an abstract 




EGYPT] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 231 

of the author's Textes et Monuments figures relatifs aux Mysteres de Mitlira 
(Brussels), and describes, as far as the known material permits, the admis- 
sion of the worshippers to the seven degrees of advancement, the associa- 
tions of devotees, the forms of worship, and the important part played by 
the priests. 

The French Schools at Athens and Rome. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1902, pp. 509-521, is a report by MAXIME COLLIGNON on the activity of the 
French schools at Athens and Rome in the year 1900-01. The report 
mentions the theses and papers presented by the members of the schools 
and refers to the good results of the new regulations at the Athenian school. 

An Enamelled Fish-shaped Fibula. In Reliq. VIII, 1902, pp. 274- 
276 (3 figs.), F. W. READER publishes a fibula found in the bed of the Wall 
Brook, near the street known as London Wall. It has the form of a fish, 
is made of bronze, and inlaid with black and white enamel. An almost 
identical fibula was found at Rotherly. Other similar monuments of 
Roman art are cited. 

Monuments of Algeria. An important work has been published under 
the auspices of the general government of Algeria. It is written by the 
director of the Museum of Algiers a man who is thoroughly conversant 
with the ancient monuments of the country. The text exhibits a thorough 
study of the rapidly accumulating literature on this interesting branch of 
Roman and early Christian antiquities. The author has handled his material 
in a most systematic manner, treating of the military, religious, civil, and 
funerary monuments with a keen sense for distinctions of form and period. 
(S. GESELL, Les Monuments Antiques de L'AIgerie, Paris, 1902, Fontemoing. 
Vol. I : viii, 290 pp. ; 72 pis. ; 85 figs. Vol. II : 445 pp. ; 34 pis. ; 89 figs. 
8vo.) 

EGYPT 

A Tablet-case from Thebes. In Mon. Mem. Acad. Insc. VII, 1900, 
pp. 105-119 (2 pis.), GEORGES BENKDITE publishes a Ibronze tablet-case 
from Thebes, now in the Louvre. It is of bronze, with incrustation of gold, 
silver, platinum, and enamel. Besides a religious scene and symbols, it has 
two inscriptions showing that it is a gift from Horon, chief of the scribes, 
to the divine spouse Shapenonapit, adopted daughter of the divine adoress 
Ameniridis. Another similar case, a forged copy of which the author had 
seen, is cited in comparison. The adoption of princesses of the Tanite, 
Bubastite, Ethiopian, and Saite dynasties by princesses of the Ramesside 
dynasty gave those adopted the seal of legitimacy. The special occasion 
for which these cases, which contained ivory tablets, were made is not de- 
termined. Ibid. pp. 121-141, M. BERTHELOT describes the metals of the 
case in the Louvre and the methods of incrustation. 

The Worship of Serapis. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 420-421, is 
a summary of a paper by BOUCHE-LECLERCQ on the origin of the cult of 
Serapis. The conclusions reached are : (1) A distinction must be made 
between the institution of the cult of Serapis and the importation of his 
statue ; (2) the Alexandrian cult of Serapis is an adaptation of the Mem- 
phite cult of Osar-Hapi, accomplished under Ptolemy Soter ; (3) the 
" Babylonian Serapis " mentioned by Plutarch and Arrian is a Chaldaean 
deity not connected with Serapis nor with Sinope ; (4) the so-called Egyp- 
tian statue, made in the times of Sesostris by a legendary Bryaxis, is the 



232 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

Greek statue by the historical Bryaxis ; (5) the discordant traditions con- 
cerning the place from which the statue was imported are mere conjectures, 
as its real origin was intentionally concealed by the founders of the cult ; 

(6) of these traditions, that which makes the statue come from Sinope 
(Plutarch and Tacitus) is the latest, and its probable author is Apion ; 

(7) the statue by Bryaxis may have been a Hades from some Plutonium 
in Asia Minor, or the Asclepius from Cos (Pliny, N.H. XXXIV, 73) im- 
ported by Ptolemy Philadelphia ; (8) the story of the cast of a statue of 
Cora tends to show that the statue of Isis as companion of Serapis was made 
at Alexandria. By this addition, Serapis ceased to be exclusively the city 
god and became a part of the pair, Osiris-Isis, in Egyptian fashion. 

Disguised Inscriptions. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 26-101, SEYMOUR 
DE RICCI discusses a Coptic epitaph and an epitaph which he shows is Greek, 
both published by J. Cledat in the Bulletin de I'lnstitut Francais d'Archcologie 
Orientate, I, 1901, pp. 87 ff. He also shows that C.I.G. 4706, and C.I.G. 
IV, 9863, are Coptic. 

Alexandrian Grave Reliefs. The first attempt at a catalogue of the 
Alexandrian grave reliefs is made by E. PFUIIL, Athen. Mittli. XXVI, 1901, 
pp. 258-304 (1 pi. ; 18 cuts). The monuments of Ptolemaic times are found 
only in the great cemeteries of Alexandria, while the Roman reliefs are 
found also in other parts of Lower Egypt. Two forms are used : the 
simple stele with gable top and a sunk panel for the relief ; and the nais- 
kos, in all its gradations, from the stele on which the field is merely marked 
off by pillars to the fully developed shrine in relief. The material is seldom 
marble. Commonly the native limestone is used, and the defects of the 
stone filled with plaster and concealed by paint. The use of color, which is 
noted with great care, does not differ essentially from that found on the 
" Alexander sarcophagus." Inscriptions on the Hellenistic stelae are so 
very rare, that it is probable that they were usually painted, but on the 
Roman monuments are more common and contain at least the name and 
age, and often more. The monuments described are classified as follows : 
A. Hellenistic Types. I. Groups. () Earlier Series. Nos. 1-14. 
Noteworthy are No. 1, which is of Pentelic marble and evidently the work 
of an Attic artist, and No. 7, the death of a mother, which is marked by 
a pathos not found on the Attic reliefs, (ft) Later Series. Nos. 15-20. 
This series is characterized by the types and workmanship of the late Hel- 
lenistic time. II. Single Figures, (a) Seated. Nos. 21 and 22 of women ; 
No. 23 of a man, noteworthy, in spite of its small size, for the expressive 
likeness. (I) Standing. Nos. 24-28 of women ; Nos. 29-39 of men. In 
this series some of the reliefs are marked by strong Egyptian influence. 
III. Hero Reliefs. Of these Nos. 40 and 41 show a youth before an upright 
serpent, while Nos. 42 and 43 are funeral feasts. B. Roman Types. These 
are almost all of small size, and show only two designs : the standing figure 
en face, and the funeral feast. The chief varieties of the types are noted, 
but no catalogue of these numerous monuments is attempted. A brief 
review of the development of the types of sculpture in the Alexandrian 
grave reliefs concludes the article. 

The Orientalistische Litteratur-Zeitung. The R. Arch. XLI, 1902, 
pp. 336-342, contains a list of articles relating to Egyptology which have 
appeared in the Orientalistische Litteratur-Zeitung since its beginning in 1898. 






BABYLON, ETC.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 233 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 

The Cylinder A of Gudea. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 360-412, 
JULES OPPERT gives a transliteration and translation, with introduction 
and notes, of the cylinder A of Gudea. This records a vision of Gudea, 
in which he is admonished by the god Ningirsu to build a temple. Gudea 
relates also a dialogue between himself and the goddess Anunit, and records 
his piety toward the goddess Ban and the promises made him by the gods. 
The language of the inscriptions of Gudea shows no trace of Semitic (Assyr- 
ian) influence. The difficulty of reading Sumerian texts is great, partly on 
account of the different values given by the Assyrians to the same signs. 

The Code of Hammurabi. In the Independent, January 8, 1903, the 
first part of the code of laws issued by Hammurabi, king of Babylon, about 
2250 B.C., is published in an English translation of Winckler's German 
version. Some biblical parallels are added: Ibid., December 25, 1902, and 
January 1, 1903, the discovery by de Morgan, at Susa, of the stele containing 
the code is described and Hammurabi and his empire discussed. The publica- 
tion of the code is continued in subsequent numbers of the same magazine. 

Babylonian Statuettes with Incrustation. In Mon. Mem. Acad. 
Insc. VII, 1900, pp. 7-11 (1 pi. ; 2 figs.), LEON HEUZEY publishes a statuette 
of a recumbent man-headed bull of dark steatite and a bronze statuette of a 
bull. The former still has remains of incrustation with shell, the latter is 
incrusted with silver. Two fragments of similar work, which was known 
as early as the times of Gudea, are represented in cuts. 

The Mystic Squares of the Chaldaeans and 653. In C. R. Acad. 
Insc. 1902, pp. 457-468, J. OPPERT discusses two arithmetical inscriptions 
found at Sippara and published by V. Scheil. One of these offers the prob- 
lem to make a plan of a building, the surface of which shall equal the square 
of the sacred number G53, and shall be composed of four squares and a 
rectangle. The cyclic number 653, called the period of the phoenix, was 
composed of a Sothiacal period of 292 lustra and a lunar period of 361 lustra. 
The meaning of this mystic arithmetic when applied to buildings was to 
give them as many years of endurance as the mystic numbers denote. The 
chronology of Genesis is based upon the period of the phoenix. From the 
deluge to the birth of Abraham is 292 years, and from that time to the end 
of Genesis is 361 years, in all 653 years. 

Inscription of Sargon II. In the Catholic University Bulletin, VIII, 
1902, pp. 522-525 (2 pis.), JAMES F. DRISCOLL publishes an inscription of 
uncertain origin, now in the possession of Father Hyvernat. It records 
campaigns of an Assyrian king against Babylon, Elam, and other countries, 
the names of which are lost. It is dated in the year of a governor of 
Samaria, the fourteenth year of the king whose name is lost, but who can 
be no other than Sargon II (722-705 B.C.). 

Bilingual Greek and Cuneiform Tablets. In S. Bibl. Arch. XXIV, 
1902, pp. 108-119 (8 figs.), T. G. PINCHES publishes five bilingual tablets 
in the British Museum and one in Berlin. They are further discussed by 
A. II. SAYCE, ibid. pp. 120-125, and F. C. BURKITT, ibid. pp. 143-145. The 
Babylonian (Sumerian) text is accompanied by a transcription (not a trans- 
lation) in Greek characters, which gives the pronunciation current at a time 
between 140 and 80 B.C. (Cf. R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 132-134.) 



234 'AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

SYRIA AND PALESTINE 

The Ark of Jehovah. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, pp. 171-174 
(1 fig.), is a reprint of the last article by the late W. KEICHEL (from 
Theoiogische Arbeiten aus dem rheinischen wissenschaftlichen Prediyercereme, 
Neue Folge, Heft V, pp. 28 ft'.). The ark (Exodus xxv, 10 ff.) is explained 
as a chest, the top of which was finished to form a seat (the mercy seat), 
which was the throne of Jehovah. In the sides of the ark were rings, 
through which staves were passed by which the ark could be carried. 

False Shekels. In Reliq. VIII, 1902, pp. 233-242 (10 figs.), G. F. HILL 
discusses a number of false shekels after first describing and illustrating the 
genuine shekels ascribed to the time of the first revolt against liuine (spring 
66-67 to autumn 70-71 A.D.). 

Phoenician Stelae. In C. R. A cad. Insc. 1902, pp. 200-205 (2 pis.), 
LEON HEUZEY publishes two Phoenician stelae. The first represents the 
upper part of a draped female figure. The right hand is raised in adoration, 
and on the left hand is a small couchant sphinx with a little cup between 
its paws. This cup was no doubt a sort of censer or other utensil for a 
religious purpose. The stele shows strong Greek influence, mingled with 
Egyptian forms, and belongs to a time not much before Alexander the 
Great. The other stele is more decidedly Greek and is of somewhat later 
date. Its main relief represents a draped female figure whose head is now 
missing. Below this, two female figures in crouching posture are watering 
a plant from urns held in their hands. The watering of the sacred plant 
is a ceremony of Babylonian origin. The plant here represented resembles, 
however, the papyrus of Egyptian monuments. Translations of two dedica- 
tory inscriptions from Oum-el-awamid are added. 

A Mounted Syrian Deity. In C. R A cad. Insc. 1902, pp. 190-200 
(1 pi.), LP'ON HEU/EY publishes a Syrian relief of late Graeco-Roman 
times representing a mounted male deity holding a whip in his right hand. 
It is dedicated to the god Genneas, whom Heuzey identifies with a god 
Gennaios worshipped at Emesa under the form of a betyl, at Baalbek 
under that of a lion. The whip is a common attribute of the god called by 
the Romans Jupiter Heliopolitanus and of other solar deities. Another 
Asiatic mounted deity is carved in the rock not far from Baalbek. Ibid. 
pp. 472-473 (more fully in Recue'd d'Archeologie Orientate, V, pp. 154-163), 
C. CLERMOXT-GANNEAU discusses the inscription (0EQTEN N EATTATPQQ 
MAZABBANAC KAIMAPKOCYiOC AYTOY ANE0HKAN, etc.). 
He thinks Mazabbanus and his son were dependents or descendants of 
Genneas and made the offering to " the god of Genneas." 

A Relief from Emesa. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 235 f., Father 
RONZEVALLE publishes (pi.) a relief of Roman date found at Emesa 
(Horns). Three deities are represented: (1) A god with rays about his 
head, clad in a military costume resembling that of Roman emperors, (2) a 
draped goddess carrying a sceptre, and (3) a draped deity armed with a 
lance. The inscription gives the names of the deities larebolus, Aglibolus, 
and Sem . . . Above the second figure is, moreover, the name 'AOrjva and 
above the third Kepawco. 

An Expedition into the Syrian Desert. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, 
pp. 251-264, RENE DUSSAUD gives a summary report of an expedition into 



ASIA MINOR] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 235 

the desert of Syria in 1901, from which he brought back copies and squeezes 
of nine hundred new Safaitic inscriptions, sixteen Nabataean inscriptions, 
167 Greek and Latin inscriptions, and thirty-four Arabic inscriptions. 

A Nabataeo-Arab Inscription. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 409-421, 
RENE DUSSAUD discusses an inscription from En-Nernara, in the Syrian 
desert. The writing is closely akin to the Nabataean alphabet, but the 
language is Arabic. The date is 223, i.e. 328 A.D. The inscription marks 
the tomb of a conqueror, Imrou'lqais, who placed his tribes as cavalry at the 
service of the Romans. Both epigraphically and historically the inscription 
is interesting. 

Antiochus the Great. The epithet " Great " of Antiochus III is not 
a personal surname, but a reminiscence of the title Great King which he 
bore, as a rare exception among the Seleucidae, because of his eastern Baby- 
lonian dominion. This title, originally that of the Achaeinenid kings, always 
retained the pretence of a claim upon their territorial domain, which, in its 
late and very attenuated form, is paralleled by both continental and English 
copying of Greek and Roman imperial titles. The plain title of /?a<riAeus, 
borne by most of the Seleucids and other followers of Alexander, means 
king of Macedonia, no division of the empire of Alexander being recognized 
in theory. (E. R. BEVAN, J.H.S. XXII, 1902, pp. 241-244.) 

ASIA MINOR 

Troy and Ilium. The excavations and investigations at Hissarlik 
were finally completed by Professor Dorpfeld and his collaborators in 1894. 
The results, not only of the last season's work, but of all the previous exca- 
vations conducted by Dr. Schliemann and others, are now published in 
accessible and convenient form. This book does not claim to settle all 
questions connected with Troy and Ilium, but it gives all the material, so 
far as it is supplied by the site itself, and contains also not a little discus- 
sion of the questions at issue. It is henceforth the one indispensable work 
on the subject. \Troja und Ilion : Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen in den 
vorhistorischen und historischen Schichten von Ilion, 1870-1S94, VON WILHELM 
DORPFELD, unter Mitwirkung von ALFRED BRUCKNER, HANS VON FRITZE, 
ALFRED GOTZE, HUBERT SCHMIDT, WILHELM WILBERG, HERMANN WIN- 
NEFELD. Athens, 1902, Beck & Barth, 2 vols., pp. xviii, 1-428, 429-652 ; 
8 folded plans (Tafeln) ; 66 pis. (Beilagen) ; 471 figs.; 4to; $10.00.] 

Clazomeiiian Sarcophagi. In the mouldings and painted decoration 
of the trapezoidal sarcophagi from Clazomenae, M. MEURER finds proof that 
they were designed to be set up on end, uncovered, to hold the dead body in 
an upright position, probably during the funeral ceremony. This use seems 
to be derived from that of the Phoenician stone sarcophagi and through 
them from the Egyptian mummy cases, though both of these were closed 
and represented the dead by their own shape and painted decoration. The 
rectangular sarcophagi of Clazomenae indicate a quite different usage, 
whether contemporary or not. (Jb. Arch. I. XVII. 1900, pp. 65-68 ; 
3 cuts.) 

The Temple of Aphrodite Stratonicis at Smyrna. In the Revue 
des Etudes Anciennes, IV, pp. 191-193, ARISTOTE FONTRIER gives reasons 
for supposing that the site of the temple of Aphrodite Stratonicis at Smyrna 
was near the hospital founded by Baron Rothschild. In an appendix 



236 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

(pp. 193-195) he publishes six unimportant inscriptions from Smyrna and 
the neighborhood. Four other Greek inscriptions from Asia Minor are 
added, ibid. pp. 238-239. 

Dekaprotoi and Eikosaprotoi. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, 
pp. 197-207, E. HULA discusses the titles StKaTrpcuTos and ciKoaaTrpwros. 
He publishes an inscription from Ernez (Arneai), in which a certain Deme- 
trius is said to have been SeKaTrpwros until the establishment of ciVoo-aTrpwrot, 
after which he was eiKoo-aTrpwros. The change is found to have taken place 
in the early part of the second century after Christ. The Se/caTrpwroi, and 
presumably the ei/coo-aTrpwroi, had to do with the revenues. The office was 
not held for life, but the same person often* held it for many years. The 
results are obtained by the study of many inscriptions, among them that 
published in Athen. Mitth. XXIV, p. 232, No. 71, very imperfectly published 
in C.I.G. 3491. 

The Inscriptions from Akmonia. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 
IV, 1902, pp. 267-270, W. M. RAMSAY publishes remarks with corrected 
readings of the inscriptions from Akmonia and Erjish. (See Am. J. Arch. 
VI, 1902, p. 201.) 

GREECE 

ARCHITECTURE 

The Tholos at Epidaurus. In Hermes, XXXVII, 1902, pp. 483-485, 
W. DORPFELD states that the puteal in the tholos at Delphi is a hole made 
at a late date in the floor of the structure. The fact that the pedestal which 
once stood in the centre of the tholos is hollow does not show that it stood 
over a well. Other hollow pedestals are cited. There is therefore no longer 
any reason to suppose that there was a puteal in the tholos at Epidaurus. 
The centre of the building was occupied by a round altar. 

The Rooms of the Erechtheum Again. In Jb. Arch. I. XVII, 1902 
(pp. 81-85), A. MICIIAKLIS continues his controversy with E. Petersen as 
to the disposition of the objects seen by Pausanias in the west half of the 
Erechtheum. The double thickness of the floor and the narrow shape of 
the westernmost chamber D, he cites as proof that this was an antechamber 
or entrance hall with the cistern, tfaAao-cra, beneath it, and that the adjoining 
room C contained the three altars, the wall paintings, and the steps leading 
down to the trident mark. He adds, from a new fragment of an inscription, 
suggestions as to the priestess' name given in Pausanias manuscripts as 
and the basis which has been assigned to her statue. 



SCULPTURE 

The Rampin Head. In Mon. Mem. Acad. Insc. VII, 1900, pp. 143- 
151 (1 pi.), HENRI LECHAT publishes more accurately than any one has 
done hitherto the well-known head in the Louvre. In a brief discussion he 
shows that it is an Attic work of about the middle of the sixth century B.C., 
not later than 540 B.C. 

Ancient Heads of the School of Phidias. In Gaz. B.-A. XXVIII, 
1902, pp. 449-470 (22 figs.), S. REINACH shows that the sculptures of the 
Parthenon are evidently the work of one well-established school the 
school of Phidias. The relation of the master to these works was similar 
to that of Raphael to the paintings of the loggie of the Vatican. The head 



GREEK SCULPTURE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, -1902 237 

of the Nike from the western pediment of the Parthenon, now in the Laborde 
collection in Paris, forms the starting point for a study of the style of 
Phidias as seen in the human head. The eyes in particular, not staring, 
like those of archaic heads, nor languishing, like those of Praxitelian works, 
are characteristic. These are studied in detail. The representation of hair 
is also characteristic. These criteria compel us to attribute to the school of 
Phidias the following heads : Aphrodite at Oxford (Michaelis, Ancient Mar- 
bles, Oxford, No. 59); Aphrodite at Corneto ; bronze head with a tall mural 
crown, in the Cabinet des Medailles, Paris ; head of the so-called suppliant, 
in the Barberini palace (Mon. dell ' Institute, IX, 34) ; head of Zeus, in the 
Ny-Carlsberg Glyptothek. The siren in the museum at Athens (Baumeister, 
Denkm. Ill, p. 1644, fig. 1701 ; Arndt-Bruckman, Denhn. No. 549) stands 
between the school of Phidias and the time of Scopas and Praxiteles. The 
bronze bust of an Amazon in Naples is Polyclitan. The bronze statuette 
of Athena from Ettringen, now in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, 
though a Roman work, is a reduction of a copy of the Athena Promachos 
of Phidias. 

A Head of Athena Parthenos. In Mon. Mem. AcacL Insc. VII, 1900, 
pp. 153-173 (1 pi.; 6 figs.), ETIENNE MICHON publishes and discusses a 
marble head of Athena Parthenos found in 1895 near Civita Vecchia and 
now in the Louvre. The head was made to be set into a statue. The 
nose and many details of the ornamentation of the helmet are broken off. 
Enough remains to show that the front of the helmet was decorated with 
figures of animals carved almost entirely in the round. Other heads of the 
Athena Parthenos, especially the head of the Minerve au Collier and a head 
in Cologne, are discussed. 

The Bronze Statute from Ephesus. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, 
pp. 214-216 (1 fig. = Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 352), F. HAUSER suggests that 
the bronze Apoxyomenus from Ephesus is a work of Daedalus, son of 
Patrocles and grandson of Polyclitus. In Ephesus, an inscription (LoEWY, 
Inschr. gr. Bildh. No. 88) was found mentioning Daedalus, son of Patrocles ; 
the youthful Apoxyomenus was found at Ephesus ; Pliny (N.H. XXXIV, 76) 
mentions two bronze statues by Daedalus, son of Patrocles, p ue ros duos de- 
stringentes se. The second statue is represented by the statuette from Fras- 
cati, published by Hartwig, Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. 1901, p. 157. 

Bronze Statuette of a Hoplitodromos. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 
1902, pp. 165-170 (1 pi. ; 3 figs.), W. HARTWIG publishes a bronze statuette 
from Capua, now in the imperial collection in Vienna. It represents a nude 
youth on whose head is a helmet with a large crest. The feet are lacking. 
Although there is no trace of a shield, the figure is explained as a hoplito- 
dromos, and the posture shows that he is about to start in the race. The 
statuette was probably made in Campania. Two examples of running hop- 
litodromoi represented as bearings on shields are added to the six already 
known. The sign that looks like an A with oblique cross line, which is 
represented on some shields in vase paintings, is explained as a shield holder, 
not a number. 

A Relief representing a Poet. During the German excavations on 
the west slope of the Acropolis there was found a fragment of a small relief, 
representing a bearded man, wrapped in his mantle, seated on an arm-chair, 
and looking thoughtfully at some object or person which must have occupied 



238 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903' 

the missing left-hand portion of the relief. The style indicates a date near 
the end of the fourth century B.C. The figure shows a strong resemblance 
to the later typical group of a poet seated in contemplation before a large 
mask. The type is to be distinguished from the very similar one represent- 
ing a beardless actor holding or receiving a mask. The size of the fragim-nt 
and the curves in the folds of the curtain warrant the belief that the miss- 
ing portion contained the figure of a Muse holding the mask before the poet. 
The relief therefore belongs to that class of votive offerings in which the 
dedicator is represented with the object dedicated, which, in the case of a 
dramatist, might well be a mask. (E. KRUGER, Alhen. Mitth. XXVJ, 1901, 
pp. 136-142; 1 pi.; 3 cuts.) 

The Pothos of Scopas. In Sitzb. Miin. Akad. 1901, V, pp. 783-786, 
A. FUKTWANGLF.R explains the so-called Apollo with the water-bird as the 
Pothos of Scopas. A torso in Candia shows traces of wings, and the best 
of the replicas of the statue in Florence also shows such traces. The same; 
statue is represented on the Berlin gem published by Furtwangler, Antike 
Geminen, pi. xliii, 52. (Xr. 8199 in Furtwiingler's Beschreibung der geschnit- 
tenen Steine in Berlin.) 

Casts of Statues and the Serapis of Bryaxis. In R. Arch. XLI, 
1902, pp. 5-21. S. KEIXACH, starting with .a passage in Plutarch, De Sollert. 
Animal. 3(5, in which it is stated that a statue of Serapis at Alexandria was 
brought from Sinope and that a cast was made from a statue of Cora at the 
same place, discusses the making of plaster moulds in antiquity. The chief 
passage relating to the subject is Pliny, N.H. XXXV, 151 ff. Some words 
(from 153) have to be transposed to 151. Pliny (or his authority) intends 
to ascribe to Butades the modelling of portraits in clay (151), the use of ; 
clay models for statues (153), modelling in red clay, and making masks as 
tile-fronts (152). The remark that modelling in clay is earlier than casting 
in bronze is added to what is said of clay models for statues. To Lysi- 
stratus Pliny ascribes the first plaster moulds taken on the actual features, 
the first exact portraits, and the first casts of statues. The passages relat- 
ing to the Serapis at Alexandria are discussed. There were two statues 
of Serapis there : (1) a colossus of blue or green color attributed to the 
times of Sesostris and brought into connection with Sinope, a colony of 
Sesostris, and (2) a statue of Greek style, representing Hades with Cer- 
berus. This was brought from Seleucia under Ptolemy III, and was 
probably a work of Bryaxis. Beside it stood, probably, an Isis adapted 
from a Greek Cora. 

An Attic Grave Relief . In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, Beiblatt, 
coll. 137-138 (1 fig.), L. BURCHNER publishes an Attic grave relief similar 
to those published by Conze, Attische Grabreliefs, LV, 207 and LIX, 239, but 
later. A seated woman, Plathane, is holding the hand of a man, Manis, 
who stands before her. 

A Portrait of Antiochus Soter. In Jb. Arch. I. XVII, 1902 (pp. 72- 
80; pi.; cut), B. GRAEF discusses the proper use to be made of coins in 
identifying sculptured portraits, and in particular shows that the Vatican 
head of an elderly Hellenistic .prince, once known as Augustus, is that of 
Antiochus I. The heads, he says, should be studied in front as well as side 
view and compared with the coin portraits rather in their entirety than 
feature by feature. 






GREEK VASES] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 239 

A Gaiiymedes at Nimes. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 1-4 (1 pi.), 
H. LUCAS publishes and discusses the fragmentary group in the museum 
of the Maison Carree at Nimes, first published in outline by Reinach, 
Repertoire de^ la statuaire, II, p. 812, No. 1. A boy and a dog are repre- 
sented, but evidently the boy is not playing with the dog. The writer 
interprets the groups as Ganymedes about to be carried off by the eagle. 
He cites, in comparison, the Ganymedes of Leochares and the " Ilioneus " 
in Munich. The group is a Hellenistic work, perhaps of the Pergamene 
school. 

The Equestrian Statue from Melos. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 207- 
222 (2 figs.), S. REINACH discusses the equestrian statue found at Melos in 
1878 with other works. (See Am.. J. Arch. 1901, pp. 465-468.) The eques- 
trian statue w r as taken to Athens in 1901, and is probably now in a store- 
room of the museum. Of the rider the head, arms, and lower parts of the 
legs are gone, while the horse lacks his legs, neck, and part of his tail. His 
head has been found. The pedestal has a Greek inscription of the second 
century after Christ. (See /. G. Ins. Ill, p. 209.) The equestrian statue 
shows the existence of a school of sculpture at Melos in the second century 
after Christ. The Poseidon and the two female statues found in 1878 are 
probably works of this school. The base with the inscription of Theoridas, 
belonging to the fourth century B.C., may have been the base of a statue of 
Poseidon, but not of the Poseidon found in 1878. Nor is it the base of the 
headless male statue found at the same time. None of these works has any 
connection with the Aphrodite, nor has the youthful Heracles which Voutier 
saw on the lost base with the inscription of the sculptor from Antioch on 
the Maeander. This inscription belonged not to the Aphrodite, but to 
another statue which was grouped with a term of Heracles. 

The Praying Boy of the Berlin Museum. In Rom. Mitth. XVII, 
1902, pp. 101-106, A. MAU argues that this bronze, which he thinks is on 
the whole rightly restored, represents no attitude of prayer, but is a ball 
player depicted at the moment of catching a ball thrown to him by another 
player. 

The Venus de' Medici. At a meeting of the Academic des Inscrip- 
tions, August 1, 1902, S. REINACH tried to prove, by the aid of new docu- 
ments, that both arms and both legs of the Venus de' Medici are restored, 
that the head has been much worked over, that the dolphin is modern, and 
that the inscription is a somewhat modified copy of a genuine inscription, 
which was known in the sixteenth century, but was not the signature of 
the artist of the Venus. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, p. 440.) 

A Statue of Venus sent to Francis I. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, 
pp. 223-231, EMILE PICOT publishes several documents and epigrams of 
the sixteenth century relating to a statue of Venus sent by Renzo da Ceri to 
King Francis I of France in October, 1530. It was found probably in the 
kingdom of Naples, held an apple in one hand, and was evidently much 
admired. 

VASES 

Bronze-age Vases from Zakro. Three vases recently found at 
Zakro, Crete, are published by D. G. HOGARTH in J.H.S. XXII, 1902, 
pp. 333-338 (pi.; 3 cuts). Their remarkable naturalism in marine and 
floral subjects seems to show that Crete is the real home of this tendency 



240 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 

in Aegean art and that only the later and more conventionalized work is 
native at Mycenae and lalysus. 

Some Boeotian Vases. In Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 143-156 
(1 pi. ; 4 cuts), SAM WIDE discusses a local type of Boeotian vases, which 
is represented by five specimens, three in Athens and two in the British 
Museum. The place of discovery is not certainly known, but in three 
cases is said to be Tanagra, and the technique shows affinities to Boeotian 
ware. The clay is pale yellow passing into red ; the color is blackish brown 
and is applied with a coarse brush, the figures being drawn in outline. Of 
special interest is No. 5, a plate containing a representation of a seated god- 
dess, holding a torch in her right hand and poppies and wheat in her left. 
In front of her is an oblong rounded object, which seems to be an altar in the 
form of a tymbos. In the field behind the throne of the goddess is a bird. 
This seems to be the cult statue of a chthonic deity, either Demeter or Per- 
sephone. As the makers of these vases do not use ornaments merely to fill 
space, the bird must have some religious significance, and is to be referred 
to a conception common enough among other races, but of which only scanty 
traces are left in Greek literature the conception of the soul as a bird. 
Here the idea has undergone the same transformation as is seen in the case 
of the Sirens, and the bird no longer represents the soul itself, but is a 
daimon of the lower world, sent by the goddess to bring the souls to her 
kingdom. 

A Cantharus from the Factory of Brygos. In the Decennial Pub- 
lications of the University of Chicago, Vol. VI, pp. 7-9 (1 pi. ; 1 fig-)? FRANK 
B. TAKHKLL publishes a cantharus in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 
(See Annual Report of the Museum, 1895, p. 20, Xo. 24; Arch. Anz. 1896, 
p. 96, No. 24.) On one side a bearded male figure is in pursuit of a woman, 
on the other a bearded male is pursuing a boy who carries a hoop. The 
scenes are interpreted as the pursuit of Aegina and Ganymedes by Zeus. 
The workmanship, the use of brown for hair and anatomical markings, the 
representation of hair on the body, the dotted clothing, and other details 
show that the painting is the work of Brygos (or the man who painted the 
vases signed Bpvyos eTrot'^o-ev) . 

A Greek Vase found at Susa. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 428-438 
(2 figs.), E. POTTIER discusses a fragmentary vase found by de Morgan at 
Susa. The vase had the form of a horse. Under the horse and between 
his forelegs was a figure in Oriental costume, probably an Amazon. The 
vase is Attic, of fine workmanship, and evidently belongs to the times of 
Euphronios. It was probably made between the battle of Marathon and the 
taking of Athens by the Persians, and some Persian soldier carried it home. 
The conquered Amazon is symbolical of the Persian defeat at Marathon. 

Heracles in the Bowl of Helios. In Rom. Mitth. XVII, 1902, pp. 107- 
109 (1 pi.), P. HARTWIG publishes the second known representation of 
Heracles in the bowl of Helios. It is upon a black-figured Attic vase, 
acquired by the author in 1902 in southern Italy. Heracles sits balanced 
over the edge of a large bowl, with his legs dangling outside, floating over 
the waves to the right. He wears the lion skin and a short tunic, has a 
sword girt at the left side, and the bow and quiver slung over his back. In 
his right hand he grasps his club, while his left is raised in a gesture of sur- 
prise, while he looks backward, as if toward the sun god. (The other known 






GREEK INSC.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 241 



representation of the same subject is on a cylix in the Museo Gregoriano 
of the Vatican. Mus. Greg. II, 74, 1; Gerhard A.V. 109; Roscher Lex. 
Myth. I, 2201.) 

A Red-figured Vase from Eleusis. In Mon. Mem. Acad. Insc. VII, 
11)00, pp. 29-37 (1 pi. ; 1 fig.), A. SKIAS publishes a red-figured vase (skyphos) 
found at Eleusis and now in the National Museum at Athens. The vase is 
much broken and parts of it are lost. On the front Triptolemus is repre- 
sented seated on a winged chair. Demeter stands before him and holds out 
to him a few stalks of wheat. Behind him stands Cora with a torch. An 
inscription on each side of the vase reads A^/x^rpia AT/^T^I dve'0j rjKv. 
White and gilt are used sparingly. Little remains of the scene on the 
back of the vase, which may have been Triptolemus tilling the soil, but this 
is very uncertain. The vase belongs to the fourth century B.C. 

A Red-figured Amphora. In Mon. Mem. Acad. Insc. VII, 1900, 
pp. 13-28 (2 pis. ; 2 figs.), A. DE RJDDER publishes and discusses a red- 
figured Attic amphora in the Cabinet des Medailles, in Paris. (BABELON, 
Guide illustre au Cabinet des Medailles, p. 264.) The shoulder of the vase is 
adorned with a palmette pattern. Round the belly runs a broad band upon 
which are represented Dionysus, two Sileni (horse- tailed Satyrs), and eight 
Nymphs or Maenads. The drawing is fine and careful, but the action of the 
different persons is not properly related. The vase belongs to the time about 
470 to 460 B.C., when vase painters were advancing beyond the "severe style " 
under the influence of the dramatic and picturesque style of Polygnotus. 

Actor and Astyoche. An inscribed scyphus from the Bourguignon 
collection, now in Boston, has on one side "Nestor" and " Euaechme," 
whose name is new ; on the other " Actor " and " Astyoche," a young 
woman holding a child who appears to be the unwelcome grandson of the 
old man. Of the various Actors, the Orchomenian of Iliad, B, 513, suits 
the scene best, though as his daughter was the mother of twins, the vase 
and the poem have different versions of the story. The choice of Nestor 
for the companion piece may have been suggested by the story of his heredi- 
tary enmity with the twin Actoriones of Elis, Iliad, A, 750 ff. (R. ENGEL- 
MANN, Jb.Arch. Inst. XVII, 1902, pp. 68-71 ; pi. ; cut.) 

INSCRIPTIONS 

The System of Accounts at Delphi. In Hermes, XXXVII, 1902, 
pp. 511-529, BRUNO KEIL discusses the two inscriptions published in B.C.H. 
XXIV, 1900, pp. 463-483, with reference to the system of accounts. He 
finds that the term TraAcuoV, as applied to money, is equivalent to Aiyivcuov 
and Kdivov to 'A/X^IKTVOI/IKOV. The relations of these kinds of money to each 
other and to the Attic coinage are established, as are also several dates and 
less important details. 

The Inscription of Sotairos. In Hermes, XXXVII, 1902, pp. 631-633, 
F. BECHTEL discusses the beginning of the inscription of Sotairos, with 
special reference to an article by Hoffmann in PMologus, N. F. XV, 
pp. 245 ff. He concludes that Ni/a'as (1. 8), 'iTTTroKparets (1. 9), and' Xet/ias 
(1. 18), are not genitives, and that the word tfrjrwvioi at the beginning of the 
inscription has no connection with Qiq<s. 

The Inscription concerning Eugnotus. In Eranos, IV, 1901-02, p. 187, 
O. A. DANIELSSON gives notes on the reading and interpretation of the 



242 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

inscription concerning the Boeotian cavalry leader Eugnotus. (B.C.H. 
XXIV, pp. 70 if., 176 f.) 

Antonius Creticus. A degree of the Epidaurians in honor of their 
fellow-citizens Euanthes (C. /. G. Pel. I, 932) mentions a M. Antonius CTTI 
TTOLVTUV crrpar^yo?, who is identified by Friinkel with the triumvir. The 
inscription, however, certainly refers to the father of the triumvir, M. Anto- 
nius Crefcicus, and the title is the Greek version of the imperium infinitum 
conferred on him by the Senate. The seventy-four (not ninety-four) years 
of the inscription are reckoned from the Roman conquest, and it was in 
72 B.C. that Antonius held his extraordinary command, and made his dis- 
graceful failure. The published text of the inscription contains several 
other errors. (A. WILHELM, Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 419-421.) 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Italian Researches in Crete. In Atene e Roma, V, 1902, coll. 607-621 
(5 figs.) and 679-694 (7 figs.), A. TARAMELLI gives a brief discussion of the 
discoveries made by the Italians in Crete, the most important of which were 
at Phaestus. He describes the buildings and various objects unearthed at 
the different sites, and discusses their historical bearings. He believes the 
so-called Camares (Kamarais) ware to be a local variety of early Mycenaean 
ware. He finds that the palaces at Cnossus and Phaestus are the seats of 
peoples whose origin is in a remote period, who are important at the time of 
the twelfth Egyptian dynasty, are most flourishing in the Mycenaean epoch, 
about the fifteenth century B.C., at the time of the eighteenth dynasty, and 
come to a fall by violence about the ninth century B.C. He is somewhat scep- 
tical regarding Evans's identification of the palace at Cnossus with the Laby- 
rinth, and doubts some of his theories concerning the "Mycenaean" religion. 

Mycenaean Idols from Prinias. In Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 247- 
256 (1 pi. ; 5 cuts), S. WIDE discusses Mycenaean idols from Prinias, near 
Heraclion in Crete. These are of two classes. First, a goddess with 
upraised arms, the lower part of the body being replaced by a cylinder. 
Fragments show that in some cases a snake was represented in relief on the 
lower arm. Second, a hollow truncated cone, on the sides of which are also 
snakes in relief. The nature of these objects is made clear by the discovery 
of similar terra-cottas, by Miss Boyd, in the Mycenaean shrine at Gournia. 
The first figure probably represents a partly anthropomorphized goddess, 
while the second is a male divinity. Both are chthonic, as is indicated by 
the presence of the snakes. The Boeotian relief vase published by WOLTERS, 
'E<. 'Apx. 1892, pi. 8, 9, probably shows a similar goddess with dancing 
women on either side. The cylindrical form of the lower part of the Cretan 
figure finds analogies in the statue of Aphrodite at Delos, said to be a work 
of Daedalus dedicated by Theseus, the Apollo of Amyclae, a pre-Dorian, i.e. 
Mycenaean, god, and the Dionysus of the coins of Aenos. In conclusion it 
is pointed out that the importance of the discoveries at Gournia and Prinias 
lies in the similarity thus shown between the village communities and lower 
classes of the Mycenaean age, and the later Hellenic civilization, from which 
the life of the princes, like that of the Homeric aristocracy, often seems so 
far removed. 

Leucas, the Homeric Ithaca. At the July meeting of the Berlin 
Archaeological Society, W. DORPFELD explained fully the grounds for believ- 



GREEK Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 243 

ing that the Homeric Ithaca, Same, Dulichium, and Zacynthus were respec- 
tively the historic Leucas, Ithaca, Cephalic nia, and Zacynthus. Before the 
use of the compass, the coast north of the mouth of the gulf of Corinth was 
supposed to stretch on toward the west ; hence Homer's Ithaca (Leucas), 
beside being nearest to the mainland and farthest out of sight from Elis, 
was also the westernmost of the four islands. The transfer of names was 
caused by the Dorian migrations, when various tribes, carrying their names 
with them, were driven south and west, from island to island, and from 
the coast out, as in the case of the Cephallenians. (Arch. Anz. 1902, 
pp. 106-108.) 

Personal Ornaments in the "Greek Middle Ages." In Jh. Oesterr. 
Arch. I. V, 1902, pp. 207-213 (9 figs.), KARL HADACZEK gives examples of 
personal ornaments, chiefly fibulae of the post-Mycenaean period (eleventh 
to seventh century B.C.), called the " Greek Middle Ages." The examples 
are derived in great measure from terra-cottas discovered at the Argive 
Heraeum. Several fibulae represented have a straight bar upon which are 
several short cylindrical crossbars, between which are rosettes. Others have 
round plates. Alongside of fibulae common pins continued in use. 

Eileithyia. Vol. I, No. 4, of the University of Missouri Studies, is a 
translation and revision by PAUL V. C. BAUER, of his treatise on Eileithyia, 
published in Pliiloloyus, Supplementband, VIII, pp. 453-512. In it the 
primitive idols representing goddesses of childbirth and fruitfulness are dis- 
cussed, the list of sanctuaries, of Eileithyia is published with the evidences 
from which it is established, the votive offerings to deities of childbirth are 
enumerated and classified, and the representations of Eileithyia in art are 
described. [Columbia, Mo., 1902, published by the University ; 90 pp. 8vo. 
$1.00.] 

Pheneus and the Pheneatike". In J.H.S. XXII, 1902, pp. 228-240, 
J. W. BAKER-PENOYRE describes the fluctuations of Lake Pheneus in Arca- 
dia so far as they can be traced in the scanty allusions of writers. It is a 
natural mountain reservoir whose only outlet is by two underground chan- 
nels, one of which issues in the river Ladon. When these channels have 
been choked up, the water has filled the basin to a certain well-defined limit, 
and the sudden emptying of the lake through the southwest channel and the 
river Ladon has caused the mysterious inundation of Olympia, forty miles 
away. At present the water has shrunk to a mere thread, and the lake 
bottom is covered with corn-fields. No records exist between Pausanias and 
the nineteenth century. 

Paros. Athen. Mitth. XXVI (1901), pp. 157-222 (2 pis.; 12 cuts), con- 
tains the second part of O. RUBENSOHN'S account of Paros, which is devoted 
to the ancient topography, considered under two heads : (1) The island out- 
side of the capital. All places that show traces of habitation in antiquity 
are carefully noted, and the more important remains described. The most 
striking are a series of constructions which can be traced partly on shore, 
but chiefly under water in the bays of Naussa and Philisi on the northeast 
coast. At the latter place ther.e are three trenches less than 1 m. broad 
and deep, but at least 163 in. long, cut in the rock parallel to the shore, 
which they reach only at a small peninsula. Between these trenches and out- 
side tke outermost are three rows of square holes. These traces suggest the 
foundations of walls and columns, but no satisfactory explanation as to the 



244 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII. lin:j 

purpose of such structures has been made. (2) The capital, which certainly 
occupied the same site as the modern Parikia. The course of the ancient!; 
walls is traced, the Acropolis described, and the few remains of ancienM 
buildings noted. The article concludes with a discussion of the cults ofjj 
Paros and the probable sites of the several sanctuaries. A full account of 
a necropolis of Hellenistic and Roman times is reserved for a later article. 

Theraean Weights. In Hermes XXXVII, 1902, p. 630, C.F. LKHMAXN 
publishes with remarks a note from F. HILLER v. GAERTRINGEN, containing 
a drawing of a fragment found in the town of Thera, inscribed [e]vi/e'[a], 
sc. /AVCU; i.e. ^ = } Ty/uarar^p or raXavrov. A second note shows that the 
heavy gold mina of the common norm was used at Thera. 

The Clepsydra. In 'E<. 'Ap X - 1902, pp. 17-30, K. MALTEZOS discusses 
the clepsydra. He shows by quotations from Aristotle that " clepsydra " 
was the name given to utensils used for transferring liquids from one recep- 
tacle to another, in which the atmospheric pressure held the liquid as long 
as a hole in the top of the utensil was kept closed (by the finger). Several 
such utensils have been found, e.g. R. Arch. XXXIV, 1899, p. 7, A then. 
Mittli. 1897, p. 387. The clepsydra used in the courts was originally made 
so that its working depended upon the atmospheric pressure, but was after- 
ward simplified. The rapidity of the flow of water then depended solely 
on the size of the hole through which it flowed out. From passages in 
Aeschines and Demosthenes it appears that an amphora of w r ater (about 39 
litres) flowed from the clepsydra in about 51 minutes. 

A Greek Hand-mirror. In the Decennial Publications of the University 
of Chicago, Vol. VI, pp. 3-4 (1 pi.), FRANK B. TARBELL publishes a Greek 
hand-mirror said to have been found in Etruria, and now in the Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago. The edge of its disk is ornamented with a bead pattern. 
The handle is prolonged at the back into a palmette, which served to make 
the attachment to the disk secure. At the front it is adorned with a relief 
of a siren, flanked by volutes and palmettes. The bone handle, into which 
the bronze shank fits, is preserved. It had no ornamentation except a few 
incised rings. The style of the relief work points to about 450 B.C. as the 
probable date of manufacture. 

The Death of Orpheus. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 242-279, S.REINACH 
discusses the death of Orpheus. He compares the story of Orpheus with 
those of Dionysus-Zagreus, Osiris, etc., and finds that it owes its origin to 
the sacrifice of a totem animal in times before the gods had human form. 
In the case of Orpheus, the animal was the fox. Numerous parallels are 
cited and discussed. 

Athenian Naval Administration. Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 
377-418, contains a discussion of the Athenian naval administration, by 
W. KOLBE, who defends the views of U. Kohler against the recent criticism 
of Bruno Keil. He treats : (1) The Development of the Fleet in the fourth 
century, showing that C.I. A. II, 791, refers to the total number of Athenian 
ships, which was accordingly 106 in 377-76 B.C., while in 357-56 they were 
283, and in 353-52 B.C., 349. (2) The Replacing of old Ships and the Build- 
ing of additional Vessels. This chapter opens with a statistical examination 
of the inscriptions, leading to the conclusion that the average life of an 
Athenian trireme of the fourth century was about twenty years. .There 
follows a study of the regulations concerning the building of new ships. 



GREEK Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 245 

The v^es cgatperoi were a reserve squadron, annually selected from the best 
ships. The fleet must have required an addition of from fifteen to twenty ships 
yearly to replace the old boats, and about 330 B.C. the number of new ships 
to be added by the state seems to have been fixed at ten, while other addi- 
tions were made at the cost of trierarchs, who had failed to return their 
ships in serviceable condition. In Arist. 'A0. HoA. 46 (/ccuvas Se Terpr/peis), 
$ is for Se/ca. (3) The Officials. The decision of all important matters 
was in the power of the assembly, and the general superintendence was left 
to the Senate. This body elected from its own number the ten TpoypoTrotot, 
who supervised the ship-building, while the oversight of the docks and arse- 
nals was committed in the fifth century to the veeopot, and in the fourth to 
the CTri/xeA^rai TCOV vewpiW. The change in title is explained by the destruc- 
tion of the wharves and ship-houses by the Thirty, which rendered the office 
obsolete. With the revival of the naval power the old office was reestablished 
under a new name. 

The Attic Archons of the Third Century. In Hermes, XXXVII, 
1902, pp. 435-442, JOHANNES KIRCHNKR discusses the dates of Attic Archons 
in the third century, and criticises recent discussions by Beloch and Fergu- 
son. He assigns Antipatros to 265-64 B.C., Arrheneides to 264-63 B.C., 
Diognetos to 263-62 B.C. 

The Museia"at Thespiae. In R. fit. Gr. XV, 1902, pp. 353-356, 
PAUL JAMOT discusses, in the light of recent investigations, the date of the 
reorganization of the Museia at Thespiae, and concludes that it must be 
assigned to the second half of the third century B.C. 

Metrodorus the Periegete. A scholiast on Statins, Thebais, III, 478 f., 
cites Metrodorus the Periegete for the statement that a Ptolemy (probably 
the first) founded three temples, one of the Sun in Ethiopia, one of Jupiter 
Ammon inter Aethiopes Endios (sic ! ) et Libyas ultimos, and near Alexandria 
Branchidae, qui Jovem (Apollinem) Branchum colunt. The hymn of Calli- 
machus to Zeus and Apollo Branchus was probably connected with this 
temple. The date of Metrodorus is unknown. (E. MAASS, Jh. Oesterr. 
Arch. I. V, 1902, pp. 213-214.) 

The Pyramid of Cenchreae. In A then. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 241- 
246 (1 pi.; 3 cuts), TH. WIEGAND gives the results of a recent examination 
of the so-called Pyramid of Cenchreae, on the road from Argos to Hysiae. 
It is not a tomb, but a watch-tower, guarding the entrance of the plain 
against incursions from Tegea. The masonry points to a date shortly before 
the first century B.C. The tower seems to have replaced a Greek structure 
of polygonal masonry, whose ruins are not far away. Incidentally, attention 
is called to the inaccuracy of the new map of this region prepared by the 
Greek General Staff. 

The Water Supply of Corinth. In Berl. Phil. W. November 22, 1902, 
is an extract from an account by J. PARTSCH of a recent trip in the Pelopon- 
nesus (Jos. PARTSCH, Auf der Insel des Pelops, reprint from the Schlesische 
Zeitung, Breslau, Korn, 32 pp. 8vo). In it he describes enthusiastically the 
results of the excavations of the American School at Athens, with especial 
attention to the Corinthian water supply, with its conduits and fountains. 

Constantine Manasses. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, Beiblatt, 
coll. 65-94, LEO STERNBACH gives contributions to the history of art from 
the works of Constantine Manasses. He publishes several passages from 



246 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 



Manasses' Chronicle, which are probably repeated from his 
These contain references to monuments in Constantinople. Two Ecphrases 
by Manasses are also published with critical apparatus. The first is pub- 
lished on the basis of Hercher's edition (Nuoce Memorie dell' Institute, II, 
pp. 491 ff.) and a new collation of the Codex Marcianus, 412 (M), fol. 75 r ff. 
The second is published for the first time from Codex Barberinianus II, 
61 (B), fol. 107 r. Both contain interesting matter relating to monuments 
in Constantinople. 

ITALY 

ARCHITECTURE 

The Origin of the Italian House. In Rend. Ace. Lined, 1902, 
pp. 467-507 (4 figs.), G. PATROXI discusses the origin of the Italian house, 
attacking Xissen's theory that it is derived from the round thatched hut, 
which existed in northern Europe as well as in Italy. He argues that the 
general principle of the Italian domu* blank exterior walls containing an 
open court surrounded by small rooms must have originated in a warm 
climate, and he finds its source in the pre-Hellenic Orient. The earliest 
form is found at Thera, an enclosed court with a small house of several 
rooms built against the wall of the court on the side opposite the entrance. 
The next stage is represented by the palaces of Troy, Tiryns, and Mycenae, 
a principal room (/xeyapov) surrounded by others, with a courtyard in front. 
In the Italian house, best exemplified by the houses at Pompeii, the tablinum 
represents the /j.lyapov, the atrium is the successor of the open courtyard. 
The combination of tablinum and atrium is the nucleus of the primitive 
Italian house, and the tablinum is thus not an addition, but an essential and 
original part. This method of building was brought to Italy by the Etrus- 
cans. The writer suggests a new explanation of the passage from Varro 
quoted by Xonius, p. 83, which is considered in detail. 

SCULPTURE 

The Vestal Relief of Palermo. In Ri>m. Mitth. XVII, 1902, pp. 130- 
133, E. PETERSEX corrects his own published views (Am Pads Augustae, 
p. 75) of the constitution and interpretation of this relief, agreeing partly 
with the views of Samter (Rom. Mitth. 1894, p. 125), and in some details dis- 
agreeing with him. Vesta and her priestesses present themselves before 
Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, who extends to the foremost of them some 
as yet undetermined object. 

PAINTING AND MOSAIC 

Etruscan Wall-painting. In Rom. Mitth. XVII, 1902, pp. 149-157, 
E. PETERSEN argues (against G. Korte, Antike Denkmalcr, II, pi. 41 ; Rom. 
Mitth. 1898, p. 96) that the representation of Achilles and Troilos in the 
tomba del tori at Corneto is merely the last representation of heroic Greek 
myths in the older Etruscan wall-painting, which then passed on to realistic 
subjects from contemporary life. 

Mosaic of Aristo. In Rom. Mitth. XVII, 1902, pp. 122-129 (cut), 
H. LUCAS points out that the mosaic of a bacchic scene in the Antiqua- 
rium of the Berlin Museum with the inscription ARISTO FAC(e&0 
(C.I.L. VI, 4, 29825) is one of several found in January, 1823, in the bath, 






ITAL. Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 247 

probably belonging to some villa, on the Via Appia, about half a mile from 
the monument of the Servilii. In connection therewith he supplements 
Brunn (Gesch. d. yriech. Kiinstler, II, 331 ff.) by giving a complete list of 
the artists in mosaic examples of whose signed work have come down to us. 

INSCRIPTIONS 

Fragments of the Fasti Saliorum Falatinorum. In Rom. Mlttlt. 
XVII, 1902, pp. 158-165, CHR. HUELSEN publishes two small but new 
fragments of these Fasti, one of the year 184 B.C., and another which he 
ascribes to the year 74 or 75 A.D. MOMMSEN, however, in an appended 
note, completes the fragment quite differently, and ascribes it to the year 
40 A.D. 

The Death of the Emperor Decius. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, 
Beiblatt, coll. 139-140, SEYMOUR DE RICCI republishes the inscription C.I.L. 
VI, 3743 ( = Supp.L 31,130). Lines 2 and 3 he reads : Divo Decio tertium et 
Divo Herennio co(n)s(ulibus). The date is June 24, 251 A.D. As Decius 
and Herennius appear as Divi, both must have died before that date, perhaps 
early in June, 251 A.D. The stone, which had disappeared, was rediscovered 
in the collection of Emile Zola. It was formerly in the Villa Borghese. It 
is published and discussed also by CHR. HUELSEN, Rom. Mitth, XVII, 1902, 
pp. 165-171. 

Inscriptions Relating to Roman Antiquity. In R. A rch. XLI, 1902, 
pp. 343-368, R. CAGNAT and M. BESNIER republish from various sources 
one hundred inscriptions (Nos. 42-141) relating to Roman antiquities 
which appeared in periodicals and monographs from February to June, 
1902. Several of the inscriptions are in Greek. The publication is con- 
tinued for July-December, ibid. 432-462 (Nos. 142-256), with indexes, 
pp. 463-476. 

COINS 

The Coins of the Ara Pacis. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. /, V, 1902, pp. 153- 
164 (1 pi. ; 3 figs.), W. KUBITSCHEK discusses the coins on which the Ara 
Pacis of Augustus is represented. A table of the two groups of middle 
bronzes of Nero is given, and a second table is devoted to the middle 
bronzes of Domitian. The Ara Providentae and the Ara Salutis Augusti 
had the same form as the Ara Pacis. 

Portraits of Roman Emperors on Coins. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 
1902, pp. 169-174, JULES MAURICE discusses the heads on coins of the 
Roman Empire. He finds that some of these are portraits of the emperors 
whose names they bear, but that only those heads are to be regarded as 
authentic portraits which are found on coins struck in mints which be- 
longed at the time when the coins were issued to the emperor whose like- 
ness is sought. The reason is that when the empire was divided, each 
emperor might issue coins in the name of his colleagues, but allowed his 
own likeness to be used upon them. Examples of such use are given. 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Palaeolithic and Neolithic Civilization. In B. Paletn. It., 1902, 
pp. 158-183 (1 pi. ; 14 figs.), L. PIGORINI discusses stone implements of 
palaeolithic type found in neolithic centres. He reaches the following con- 
clusions : That the palaeolithic civilization is represented by two entirely 



248 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

distinct groups of objects, probably originating in two different migrations. 
That the neolithic civilization was brought into Europe by another distinct 
migration. That before the end of the neolithic period the central part of 
the continent was occupied by the inhabitants of the pallafitte. That the 
palaeolithic peoples were not destroyed by the newcomers, but, having at : 
first scattered in various directions, were finally more or less completely 
incorporated with them. The civilization called magdale'nienne corresponds 
to the neolithic and is not connected with the preceding or following civil- 
izations ; it did not reach Italy, and is to be regarded as a temporary appear- 
ance of a northern population, which later returned to its former home. 

The Stone Age in Italy. In his Storia di Roma Antica MOMMSEN 
stated that there was in Italy no trace of the stone age. In his recent 
annotated edition of Mommsen's work, ETTORE PAIS has allowed the state- 
ment to stand without comment. To prove that the assertion was entirely 
unjustified in the original work, L. PIGORINI gives in B. Paletn. It. 1902, 
pp. 147-158, a bibliography of statements on this subject published from 
1541 to 1859. 

The Necropolis of Remedello Sotto and the Eneolithic Period. 
In B. Paletn. It. 1902, pp. 60-103 (31 figs.), G. A. COLINI continues his 
work on the necropolis of Remedello Sotto and the eneolithic period in 
Italy (see Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 218), treating in this section the following 
classes of objects : the vertebrae of fish and the teeth of animals (especially 
boars' tusks) used as ornaments, and beads of stone, shell, or bone. 

Pelasgic Walls near Amiternum. X. PERSICHETTI, in Rom. Mitth. 
XVII, 1902, pp. 134-148 (3 cuts), describes and discusses the character 
and purpose of certain imposing walls in a ravine near Amiternum, and] 
concludes that they formed part of a system of dams for controlling the 
flow of the mountain torrent, which might injure the cultivated fields 
below. 

Norba founded in Roman Times. In B. Paletn. It. 1902, pp. 134- 
140, L. PIGOHINI, speaking briefly of the excavations at Xorba, calls atten- 
tion to the fact that nothing of a prehistoric nature has been found, and that 
everything indicates that the town was founded in the Roman period. 

Ancient Fire-shovels. In B. Paletn. It. 1902, pp. 120-134 (2 pis. ; 
3 figs.), G. GHIRARDINI describes several ancient bronze fire-shovels. 
Their use is determined by the discovery of three in Etruscan tombs of 
the seventh century B.C., in conjunction with terra cotta braziers. 

Ancient Lamps as Memorials. In A tene e Roma, V, 1902, September, 
coll. 673-679, R. PARIBENI has a brief article on ancient lamps in their 
character as illustrations and memorials (castoline illustrate) of contemporary 
events and persons. Their inscriptions and plastic adornment frequently 
refer to current events and the like. 

The Roman Road from Aquileia to Emona. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. 7 t 
V, 1902, Beiblatt, coll. 139-160, OTTO C.UNTZ studies the Roman road from. 
Aquileia to Emona as depicted in the Tabula Peutingeriana and elsewhere, 
and describes from observation the existing vestiges of the road, its stations, 
and its fortifications. 

The Island in the Tiber. The eighty-seventh volume of the Bibliotlieque 
des ecoles fran$aises d' Athenes et de Rome is an elaborate treatise on the Tiber 
Island in antiquity, by MAURICE BESNIER. The history of the island, the 






ITAL. Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 249 

introduction of the worship of Asclepius, the bridges over the Tiber, the 
cult of Asclepius in general and on the island in particular, the secondary 
cults of Jupiter Jurarius, Vejovis, Semo Sanctus, Fauuus, and Tiberinus, 
and the topography of the island in antiquity are discussed in detail. In 
appendices the author gives a bibliography, an iconography, a list of ancient 
objects still in place on the island, a list of the principal excavations on the 
island, a list of figured monuments found on the island, and a chronological 
table of interesting historical events that took place there in ancient times. 
(MAI-RICE BESNIER, Vile Tiberine dans I'Antiquite, Paris, 1902, Fontemoing, 
359 pp. ; 1 pi. ; 31 figs. ; Svo.) 

The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna. In the 
Papers of the British School at Rome, Yol I, 1902, pp. 127-285 (8 maps ; 
1 key map ; 23 figs.), T. ASHBY, Jr., publishes the first part of an investiga- 
tion of the ancient roads in the Campagna and the monuments that mark 
their courses. The present paper treats of the Via Collatina, the Via Prae- 
nestina, and the Via Labicana. The remains of the roads are described 
and their courses determined as accurately as the existing indications permit. 
The ancient settlements along the roads are also carefully described. The 
increasing cultivation of the Campagna tends to make the remains of the 
ancient monuments disappear, and this fact adds to the importance of 
Mr. Ashby's paper. 

The Date of Vitruvius. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 39-81, VICTOR 
MORTET discusses passages in Vitruvius de Architectura, especially the 
introduction, and maintains that the author lived under Vespasian, to 
whom, and not to Augustus, the work is dedicated. Vitruvius himself 
probably came from Africa and had travelled in various regions. 

Mars and Rhea Silvia. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1902, pp. 150-152 
(pi.), A. HERON DE VILLEFOSSE publishes a fine silver patera found in 
Syria. The flat handle is adorned with reliefs. At the end is a female 
bust above four rosettes ; below is a youth with helmet, shield, and lance, 
floating downward toward a sleeping woman, whose clothing is drawn aside 
by a winged cupid. The scene is interpreted as the visit of Mars to Rhea 
Silvia. 

A Bronze Tablet with Astronomical Representations. In Jh. 
Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, pp. 190-191 (1 pi.), ERNST MAASS publishes a 
fragment of a round plate of bronze found near Salzburg. On one side are 
two rows of Latin names. Those extant are : 



(Pfysces 
(M)artius 



Aries 
A prills 



Taurus 
Malius 



Ge(jnini) 
Iu(nlus) 



On the other side are parts of representations of the signs of the zodiac and 
of other constellations. The tablet was probably intended for school use. 

Sallustius-Salutius and the Signum. In Hermes, XXXVII, 1902, 
pp. 443-455, TH. MOMMSEN distinguishes between Flavius Sallustius, prae- 
fectus praetorio of Gaul under Constantius and Julian, consul in 363 A.D., 
and Saturninus Secundus, with the added name (signum) Salutius, praefect 
of the Orient under Julian, Jovian, and Valens. He discusses the use of the 
signum. This does not occur in inscriptions before the middle of the second 
century after Christ. It was chiefly used by the upper classes. It regularly 
ends in -ius, has nothing to do with family names, is usually masculine in 



250 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

form, even when women are mentioned, and was originally used to desig- 
nate groups rather than individuals. 

Permits to export Antiquities in the Sixteenth Century. In 
R. Arch. XLI, pp. 102-116, S. REINACH publishes a number of permits tcj 
export antiquities from Rome. They are dated about the middle of tha* 
sixteenth century. The antiquities specified are insufficiently described, 
but the documents the originals of which are in the Vatican are of* 
some value in tracing the history of museums and collections. 

FRANCE 

The Earliest Gallic Religion. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 
IV, 1902, pp. 217-234, CAMILLE JULLIAN continues his discussion of early 
Gallic religion. (See Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 486.) He maintains the existence 
of a Pan-celtic Teutates and gives evidence regarding the worship of Vulcan, 
Belenus, Minerva, Bellona, Victory, Diana, The Mother of the Gods, Ceres, 
groups of divinities, and heroes. Ibid. pp. 271-286, the worship of sacred ani- 
mals, plants, and rivers, the cult of fetiches, the existence of temples, sacred 
woods and lakes, the property of the gods, the use of altars and statues, and^ 
" effif/ies and sif/na," are discussed in a continuation of the treatise. 

The Moreau Collection at Saint Germain. In A*. A rch. XLI, 1902, 
pp. l()7-20(j (34 figs.), II. HUBKKT begins a description of the Moreau col-{ 
lection of antiquities now in the Museum of Saint Germain-en-Laye. The] 
collection was formed by the late Frederic Moreau and is derived from 
numerous excavations carried on by him from 1873 to 1893 at various: 
places in the valley of the Ourcq and elsewhere between the Marne and] 
Aisne. The inventories and publications of the collector are discussed and 
the contents of thirty graves in different places described. The illustrations 
represent personal ornaments, weapons, and some specimens of pottery. 

A Bronze Knife. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 82-84 (fig.), L'Abbe 
BKEUIL publishes a bronze knife handle found in 1886 at Essomes (Aisne), 
and now in the collection of the discoverer, M. de Laubriere, at .Nantes. 
The handle is a rudely formed draped human figure. Whether the work 
belongs to the Bronze Age or to Gallo-Roman times is uncertain. 

A Horseman in Conflict with a Snake-footed Man. In the Revue 
des Etudes Anciennes, IV, 1902, pp. 287-297 (3 figs.), GEORGES GASSIES pub- 
lishes and discusses a stone group about 0.50 m. high, in the cabinet of 
Mr. Dassy, at Meaux. A mounted warrior is overcoming a snake-footed 
giant. The warrior carries a shield adorned with a star. His hand passes 
through the shield and grasps its rim. His costume is German or Gallic 
rather than Roman. Similar monuments are discussed. The monument 
does not represent or symbolize the conquest of barbarians by a Roman 
emperor, but has a religious meaning. Perhaps it is a sepulchral monument. 

The Minerva of Poitiers. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 161-166 (1 pi.), 
ARTHUR MAHLER publishes the statue of Athena found at Poitiers. (Cf. 
Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 369.) He finds that the head is a copy of a work 
of about 480 B.C., while the torso and drapery show later elements treated in 
an archaic manner. The whole is a work of the late archaistic school. Inci- 
dentally it is shown that the head in Berlin (Furtwangler, Neuere Fdlschun- 
gen von Antiken, fig. 1) is not a modern forgery, as Furtwangler thinks, but 
an archaistic work. 






MEDIAEVAL ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 251 

CHRISTIAN ART 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 
On the Changes in Color in Paintings. E. DURAND-GREVILLE has 

made a special study of the chemical changes in the color of paintings 
and especially of the greens. He read a paper on this subject before the 
Congress of the History of Art in Amsterdam .in 1898, and has recently 
published another article on the same subject. He has also written upon 
the changes of color in pen drawings. The latter changes are ascribed to 
the effect of oxygen in the air. The change of colors in paintings he ascribes 
to sulphydric acid, also contained in the air. It would seem, therefore, to 
be dangerous to base an attribution of a painting upon the color of the 
landscape, without taking into account the degeneration of such colors 
which may be due to chemical changes. (Chron. d. Arts, 1902, p. 251.) 
Jesus and St. John. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, pp. 130-131 (1 fig.), 
CECIL TORR, replying to a question, argues that the birth of Jesus and the 
dvaSa|is of St. John date between September 6, 6 A.D., and September 6, 
7 A.D., that Jesus was eighteen years old at the beginning of his teaching, 
and that Luke iii, 23, relates really to the age of St. John, not to that of 
Jesus. (See Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 488.) He publishes a fragment of gilt 
glass with a portrait of Jesus as a youth, now in the British Museum. The 
date is about 250 A.D. 

BYZANTINE AND MEDIAEVAL ART 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

A Byzantine Mosaic Picture. In Mon. Mem. Acad. Insc. VII, 1900, 
pp. 95-103 (1 pi. ; 3 figs.), Dom E. ROULIN publishes a Byzantine mosaic 
tablet in the museum at Vich, in Spain. The picture represents St. Nicholas 
as a hardly legible inscription attests. The saint holds up one hand in a 
gesture of blessing, with the tips of the thumb and the fourth (ring) finger 
joined, while the other fingers are extended. The frame is decorated with 
an intricate filigree pattern. The picture belongs probably to the thir- 
teenth century and is relatively well preserved. It was probably brought to 
Vich from Italy by Cosmo de Montserrat in the second half of the fifteenth 
century. 

The Barberini Ivory. In Mon. Mem. Acad. Insc. VII, 1900, pp. 79- 
94 (1 pi.), G. SCHLUMBERGER publishes and discusses at some length the 
carved ivory acquired by the Louvre from the Barberini collection. It was 
originally composed of five pieces, one of which is lost. It was not a diptych, 
but part of the binding of a book. Its date is not earlier than the sixth 
century. On the back are the names, in Merovingian writing, of some of 
the kings of Austrasia in the sixth and seventh centuries. The mounted 
emperor in the central panel, who is being crowned by a winged victory, 
is Justinian. On the left-hand panel is a warrior. Perhaps a similar figure 
occupied the lost right-hand panel, in which case the two might be Belisarius 
and Narses. The upper panel is occupied by a bust of Christ and two 
angels. In the lower panel barbarians leading wild beasts indicate the 
great extent of the imperial power. 

Illustrations of the Gospel of St. Matthew. In Mon. Mem. A cad. 
Insc. VII, 1900, pp. 175-185 (pis. xvi-xix), H. OMONT publishes four 



252 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

paintings from a Greek manuscript of the Gospel of St. Matthew copied in ! 
gold uncials on purple parchment now in the Bibliotheque Rationale. The 
manuscript was bought in 1899 at Sinope, in Asia Minor. It belongs to the 
sixth or seventh century after Christ. The scenes represented are : (1) The 
daughter of Herodias with the head of St. John the Baptist, (2) the Second 
Miracle of the Loaves (Matthew xv, 32-38), (3) the Miracle of the Two Blind 
Men of Jericho, (4) the Miracle of the Withered Fig-tree. A fifth painting, ; 
representing the first Miracle of the Loaves (Matthew xiv, 15-21), is par- 
tially destroyed. The composition and execution of these miniatures are 
remarkably good, and this manuscript deserves a place beside the Vienna 
Genesis and the Gospels of Rossano as one of the earliest monuments of] 
Christian painting. 

The Church at Kaisariane. - In 'E<. 'Apx- 1902, PP- 51-96 (supple- 
mentary pi. ; 23 figs.), JOSEPH STRYGOWSKI publishes a detailed study of 
the church at Kaisariane, on the slope of Mt. Ilymettus. The existing 
church was erected probably in the tenth century. An earlier structure 
was built probably in the fourth or fifth century on the site of a pagan 
temple. An additional narthex and a vestry or chapel are later than the 
body of the church. The walls of the church are of alternating courses of 
stone and brick, a mode of construction common in Greek churches. In' 
plan, the church shows a combination of the square domed building and the 
basilica. It has a central dome over the crossing of the nave and the tran- 
sept and it has also two side aisles. Nave and aisles end in apses. The 
dome rests on a drum supported by four columns. These are ancient. The 
use of octagonal pillars beside the doors is a peculiarity of Athenian archi- 
tecture about the tenth century and later. Lintels adorned with anthemia 
inspired by those of the Erechtheum, but marked as Christian work by 
crosses enclosed in circles, are Athenian work of the fourth century. Some 
slabs of Proconnesian marble with Byzantine ornament were probably con- 
nected with a rebuilding of an earlier church under Justinian. The paint- 
ings of the narthex date from the latter part of the seventeenth century 
and represent the Trinity surrounded by saints, scenes from the life of the 
Virgin, and parables. Those in the church proper are hardly earlier. They 
represent in the dome the Deity, saints, and angels, surrounded by prophets, 
in the apse the Virgin with the angels Michael and Gabriel, and about the 
walls scenes from the life of Christ. 

The Queen of Sheba in the Byzantine Chronicles. Georgios 
Monachos, who lived in the time ot Michael III (842-867 A.D.), seems to 
have been the first of the Byzantine historians to identify the Queen of 
Sheba as a sibyl, and thus mingle biblical and Pagan traditions. Georgios 
Kedrenos and Michael Glykas seem to be the only B3^zantine historians 
who accepted this identification. In the Byz. Z. 1902, pp. 120-121, 
SAMUEL KRAUSS believes that this identification may be traced back to 
Pseudo-Josephus, who recognized in the Queen of Sheba, Nikaule, Queen of 
Ethiopia, who propounded problems to Solomon and was known as a sibyl 
by the Greeks. 

On Mediaeval Archaeology. In assigning any work of art to its 
school and period, considerable importance is usually attached to the 
provenance of the object. In the Rep. f. K. 1902, pp. 9-40, GEORG HUMANN 
shows that provenance alone is a very uncertain guide, especially in the case of 






MEDIAEVAL ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 253 

early mediaeval objects. He has gathered a very large amount of evidence 
from mediaeval writers, showing how frequently objects were ordered from 
a distance or changed hands, or the artists themselves travelled from place 
to place. He shows also that the usual criteria of style are not always to be 
relied upon. 

ITALY 

Italian Bell Towers. ALFREDO MELAXI writes for the American 
Architect, July 5, 1902, an article upon Italian bell towers, in which he 
distinguishes the various types of towers which have been associated witli 
the churches of Italy from early Christian times. Such towers are repre- 
sented upon the celebrated wooden doors of Santa Sabina at Rome (422- 
432 A.D.) and upon the mosaic of the triumphal arch of Santa Maria 
Maggiore (430-440 A.D.). In their decoration the bell towers exhibit the 
successive changes of style. In treating of the Campanile of Florence, 
which is usually assigned to Giotto, he brings out the fact, not generally 
known, that Giotto only laid the foundations of the tower in 1334 and on 
his death, in 1336, he was replaced by Andrea da Pisa, to whom the sculp- 
tural decoration may be in great measure assigned, while the completion 
of the tower, comprising the greater part of it, is the workmanship of 
Francesco Talenti, one of the most distinguished and most forgotten of 
Italian architects. The article terminates with historical data concerning 
the Campanile of S. Marco, at Venice, the fall of which took place on 
July 14. 

The Liberal Arts. Under the title ' Le Kappresentazioni delle Arti 
Liberali nel Medio Evo e nel Rinascimento,' PAOLO D' ANCONA publishes 
an important monograph on representations of the liberal arts. Two instal- 
ments of this monograph have already appeared in L' Arte, 1902, pp. 137- 
155 and 211-228. In the first, the author considers the literary sources of 
his subject in the early and later Middle Ages. In the second, he considers 
the allegorical representations of the liberal arts, as found in miniatures, 
textiles, sculpture, and painting. The articles are abundantly illustrated 
with photographs taken from the works of Nicola, Giovanni, and Andrea 
Pi san o and Luc a della Robbia. 

Italian Town Halls of the Middle Ages. In the American Architect, 
October 4, 1902, pp. 3-4, ALFREDO MELANI writes of the Italian town halls 
of the Middle Ages. With characteristic breadth of view he treats of the 
town halls in all parts of Italy, and publishes a number of examples. 

The Castello di Santa Croce at Cremona. The fine castle of Santa 
Croce at Cremona, founded by Barnabo Visconti in 1369, is the subject of 
an historical article bv Cav. L. LUCCHINI in Arte e Storia, 1902, pp. 104- 
106 and 110-111. 

Santa Maria Antiqua. In the first volume of Papers of the British School 
at Rome (London, Macmillan, 1902), pp. 1-114 (7 figs.), G. McN. RUSH- 
FORTH gives a minute description of the church of Santa Maria Antiqua and 
its paintings. The church appears to have been founded not far from 600 A.D. 
The paintings are of four dates, the earliest about 600 A.D. or rather before, 
the second about the middle of the seventh century, the third at the begin- 
ning of the eighth century, and the last in the second half of the eighth 
century. The building was originally not a church, but had the form of a 
house. Perhaps it served as a state entrance to the palace on the Palatine. 






254 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

The paintings, which represent the crucifixion (twice), scenes from the Old 
and the New Testaments, and various saints and martyrs, show the decora- 
tion of a Roman church in the eighth century, when Rome was a Byzantine 
city. The inscriptions are partly in Greek, and the Byzantine character of 
the church is evident, though somewhat modified by-local influences. An 
appendix (pp. 114-119, 5 figs.) discusses the presentation in Byzantine art 
of the 'Descent into Hell.' An index is added. 

Santa Maria in Aurona at Milan. The Church of Santa Maria in 
Aurona, now destroyed, ranks as one of the earliest Lombard experiments in 
ribbed cross-vaulting. The remains of one of its clustered piers and a num- 
ber of sculptured capitals of columns are published by LUCA BELTRAMI in 
Rassegna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 56-59. This church was founded by Aurona, 
the sister of Theodorus, archbishop of Milan, in the year 740 A.D. Cattaneo 
in his L' architettura in Italia dal secolo VI al mille circa assigns the church 
to the twelfth century. In the present article Beltrami shows that Cattaneo's 
arguments are inconclusive. 

The Church of San Angelo at Perugia. The early Christian circular 
church of San Angelo at Perugia, dating from the fifth century, is published 
by O. SCALVANTI in Rasxeyna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 53-56. 

The Nativity represented by Niccola and Giovanni Pisano. In 
the Museum of the Vatican there is an ivory of the eleventh century, which 
in composition bears a striking resemblance to the relief of the Nativity 
in the pulpit of the baptistery at Pisa by Niccola Pisano, and, also, to the 
relief of the same subject in the pulpit by Giovanni Pisano at Pistoia. In 
Arte e Storia, 1902, pp. 85-8(5, ALFREDO MELANI infers that the Pisani were 
thus furnished with the traditional repetition of this subject from which they 
made but slight variations. 

The Reliquary of St. Nazarius at Milan. In Man. Mem. Acad. Insc. 
VII, 1900, pp. 65-78 (3 pis. ; 5 figs.), F. DE MELY publishes the silver reli- 
quary of St. Nazarius, which he was permitted to examine at the church of 
St. Nazarius at Milan in 1899. The relief on the lid represents Christ seated 
and eleven disciples standing. On the front is the Judgment of Daniel con- 
demning the two old men ; on the right side the Adoration of the Magi ; on 
the back the Judgment of Solomon ; on the left side the Annunciation to 
the Shepherds. The relics contained in the casket were brought to Milan 
in 382 A.D. Comparison of the work with the few dated works of about 
that time shows that it stands between the disk of Valentinian (370) and 
the diptych of Honorius (406), but nearer the former; 382 A.D. may be 
accepted as its approximate date. The illustrations of the manuscript of 
the Iliad in the Ambrosia Library are shown to be about contemporaneous 
with the diptych of Honorius, but very slightly later. 

The Reliquary of Jacopo at Pistoia. In the Cathedral of Pistoia 
there is a fine reliquary known as that of the San Jacopo Apostolo. Ser 
Nicolao di Ser Guglielmo, a goldsmith of Pistoia, is credited as its author. 
In Arte e Storia, 1902, pp. 69-70, ALFREDO MELANI shows that this reliquary 
cannot have been the workmanship of a single artist, but is a work by 
several hands at different periods. 

Frescoes at Campione. The works of the Maestri Campionesi, cele- 
brated especially as architects and sculptors from the thirteenth to the fif- 
teenth century, have been well known. Few, however, have visited the little 






MEDIAEVAL ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 255 

town of Campione. In the Church of the Madonna dei Ghirli has been 
recently recovered a series of frescoes representing the life of the Virgin 
and of John the Baptist. In L' Arte, 1902, pp. 161-167, E. GERSPACH 
attributes these frescoes to Lippo Mernmi. The north portico of the 
church is adorned with frescoes, the authorship of which is made known 
by Gerspach, who publishes for the first time an inscription showing that 
they were painted in the year 1400 by Maestro Lanfranco and Filippo de 
Veris. 

Cosmati Mosaics. The Cosmati mosaics, which played such an impor- 
tant part in the decoration of doorways, pulpits, altar-fronts, tombs, and 
pavements in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in Rome and Southern 
Italy, form the subject of a copiously illustrated article by CARYL COLEMAN 
in the Architectural Record for January, 1902, pp. 202-220. The artistic 
character and the historic Byzantine origin of this type of decorated orna- 
ment are made evident. 

The u Liber Caiionum " of the Biblioteca Vallicelliana. In the 
Biblioteca Vallicelliana of Rome, Codex A-o is an important Liber Cano- 
num of the ninth century. In L' Arte, 1902, pp. 229-239, PIETRO TOESCA 
publishes an account of this manuscript, which he believes was written in 
Italy, and adorned with miniatures by a painter of the School of Rheims. 

A Treatise on Glass Painting by Antonio of Pisa. Antonio of Pisa, 
who in 1395 made the beautiful window over the two doors on the south of 
the Cathedral of Florence, and who also worked at Assisi, wrote a treatise 
on glass painting which is published and translated by ROBERT BRUCK in 
Rep.f. K. 1902, pp. 240-269. This treatise is not based upon that of The- 
ophilus, presbyter, but seems to be the expression of his own experiences. 
He gives direction for the making and application of glass of various colors, 
for soldering and breaking glass, for polishing it, and for other details con- 
nected with the art. 

Petrarch's Laura. The Annales de la Faculte des Lettres de Bordeaux, 
Bulletin Italien, 1901, pp. 85-91, published an article by EUGENE MUNTZ on 
the iconography of Petrarch's Laura. This was an extract from the volume 
on Petrarch subsequently published in collaboration with Prince d'Essling. 
In this article Miintz assumes that Laura was the daughter of Audibert de 
Noves and the wife of Hugues de Sade. This assumption is called in ques- 
tion by HENRI HAUVETTE, Ibid. 1902, pp. 15-22. The evidence upon which 
it is based is inconclusive, and extracts from Petrarch's poems seem to show 
that Laura was unmarried. Her identity, therefore, must be for the present 
left unknown. 

Simoiie Memmi. In studying the paintings of the fourteenth century 
at Avignon, E. MUNTZ finds that Avignon possesses but one painting by 
isimone Memmi: the fresco of the front of Notre-Dame-des-Doms. Sienese 
documents and an inscription prove that the painter's name was really 
u Memmi." A painting at Liverpool with the inscription " Simon de Senis 
me fecit " and the date 1342 leads, by comparison, to the assurance that the 
series of scenes of the passion now divided among the museums of the 
Louvre, Antwerp, and Berlin, is by Simone Memmi. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1902, p. 237.) 



256 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903J 

FRANCE 

Mont St. Michel. In the Architectural Record, January, 1902, pp. 10- 
36, MONTGOMERY SCHUYLER begins a series of articles entitled ' Architec-3 
tural Days.' The first article treats of Mont St. Michel, is interestingly^ 
written and well illustrated with plans and photographic reproductions. 

The Cathedral of Chartres and its Origin. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, 
pp. 232-211, RENE MEKLET gives an account of the so-called Puits des] 
Saints-Forts, Prison of St. Savinian and St. Potential!, and Druidic Grotto 
in the crypt of the Cathedral of Chartres. In the Grotto was an image of 
the Virgin, of the twelfth century, which was destroyed during the Revolu- 
tion. The Grotto itself and the Puits des Saints Forts were destroyed in 
the seventeenth century, when the Prison was hidden behind a wall. The 
traditions of the Virf/o paritura and of SS. Savinian and Potentian are dis- 
cussed. The writer has found the Puits des Saints-Forts, and hopes by 
further excavations to find the Grotto and the Prison. 

ENGLAND 

Pre-Norman Crosses. In Rdiq. VIII, 1902, pp. 243-256 (12 figs.), 
J. ROMILLY ALLEN discusses a font at Dolton, in Devonshire, which is made 
from the remains of a pre-Norman cross-shaft. This was a product of the 
Saxon school of Wessex, and presents analogies with early ivory carvings in 
Gaul, and ecclesiastical sculpture in Yorkshire and Germany. Its date is 
probably toward the end of the pre-Xorman period. Ibid. pp. 272-274 
(3 figs.), W. G. COLLINGWOOD discusses fragments of pre-Xorman carving 
built into the parish church at Lancaster. 

Croscombe Church. About three miles from Wells, in the little village 
of Croscombe, is an interesting old church of the perpendicular Gothic style. 
The church is described and well illustrated in the Architectural Record, 
June, 1902, pp. 195-201. 

The Churches of Hayling Island. In Reliq. VIII, 1902, pp. 257-271 
(2U figs.), J. RUSSELL LARK BY describes the churches of Xorth and South 
Hayling, on Hayling Island. At South Hayling the church is Early English 
and Early Decorated in style, and contains a Saxon and a Norman font. 
At Xorth Hayling the church is Xorman and Early English, with later 
additions. 

RENAISSANCE ART 

ITALY 

A Renaissance Leaning Fagade at Genoa. In the Memoirs of Art and 
Archaeology, published by the museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Sciences, Vol. I, Xo. 1 (22 pp. ; 13 figs.), W. H. GOODYEAR describes the 
facade of the church of S. Ambrogio, at Genoa, which shows a noticeable 
departure from the vertical. This is evidently constructive, not accidental. 
The part of the facade which shows this peculiarity w r as built near the end 
of the sixteenth century. This is the only known example of a leaning 
facade in Renaissance architecture. The examples to be found in mediaeval 
architecture are mentioned with some description and discussion. 

Monumental Doorway and Reliefs from an Arch at Cremona. In 
the Museo Civico at Cremona is a fine doorway known as the Porta del mar- 




RENAISSANCE ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 257 

cAe.se Filippo Ala Ponzoni. In Arte e Storia, 1902, pp. 62-63, Cav. LUIGI 
LUCCHINI describes the doorway and assigns it to the architect and sculptor 
Benedetto Brioschi, who made for Cremona the reliquary of SS. Marcellino 
and Pietro. Ibid. p. 63, LUCCHINI describes some finely sculptured reliefs 
from a triumphal arch, now in the same museum, and ascribes them to 
Cristoforo Solaro. 

The Architects of the Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome. The 

question as to who was the architect of the Palazzo della Cancelleria is 
again discussed by E. BERNICH in Rassegna d' Arle, 1902, pp. 69-71. In 
Napoli Nobilissima, Vol. VII, fasc. 12, he published a document showing 
that the miniature painter Gaspare Romano was employed as an architect 
and painter on that building. He now holds that the general design was 
very likely furnished by Alberti, arid that probably Bernardo Rossellino 
was employed in its execution. He also suggests that Alberti may have 
designed the Ducal Palace at Urbino, and that his design was executed by 
Luciano da Laurana. 

The Loggia del Consiglio at Verona. Fra Giocondo has long been con- 
sidered and by many writers to have been the architect of the beautiful loggia 
del Consiglio in Verona. This attribution has been disputed by Gaetano Da Re, 
the librarian of the Biblioteca Comunale at Verona. He suggests that it might 
have been the work of Antonio Rizzo, without, however, definitely assigning 
the building to him. His arguments are discussed, and the traditional attri- 
bution upheld by L. MARINELLI in Rassegna d' Arle, 1902, pp. 59-62. 

Lombard Artists at Rome. In the Rep. f. K. pp. 49-64, FRANCESCO 
^IALAGUZZI VALERI publishes some new documents concerning Cristoforo 
Solari, Bramante, and Caradosso. The documents are of importance in 
relation to the activity of these Lombard artists at Rome. 

The Tabernacolo del Verrocchio in Or San Michele. InZ,'.4rte, 
1902, pp. 185-189, and 254, I. B. SUPINO, B. MARRAI, and GERSPACH write 
concerning the Tabernacolo del Verrocchio, at Or San Michele. Fabriczy 
in L' Arte, 1902, p. 46, held that this tabernacle was made by Donatello for 
the statue of St. Louis. This view is now disputed by the three writers 
mentioned, who show that the tabernacle could not have been made until 
long after the date of that statue, also that the statue would not look well in 
the tabernacle, unless placed upon a small pedestal, and, if so placed, would 
be too high to stand in the tabernacle ; and, again, that the tabernacle is 
considerably wider than the tabernacles designed for single figures, and, 
consequently, must have been made for the group by Verrocchio, which it 
now contains. 

Bas-reliefs of Castel di Sangro. In L' Arte, for November-December, 
1901, ANTONIO DE NINO published some interesting bas-reliefs from Castel 
di Sangro, Abruzzi. These reliefs he thought resembled the works of Bene- 
detto da Majano. In L' Arte, 1902, pp. 112-114, MARCEL REYMOND shows 
that these reliefs are somewhat free copies of Ghiberti's celebrated * Gates 
of Paradise ' in the Baptistery in Florence. 

A New Bernini Document. In L' Arte, 1902, pp. 109-111, S. FRA- 
SCHETTI publishes a painting by Guidobaldo Abbatini, which represents the 
bust of Francesco I d' Este by Bernini. This bust was finished Septem- 
ber 16, 1651, and sent shortly afterward to Modena. The bust excited con- 
siderable attention, and the painting is believed to have been ordered by 



258 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 



Bernini for the purpose of preserving a record of this masterpiece. The 
painting was preserved in his house as late as 1706. 

An Altar-piece in the Museum at Palermo. In the Museum at 
Palermo is a fine marble altar-piece from the church of San Giorgio del 
Genovesi. It has been ascribed by Galeotti to Antonio Gagini. This 
ascription is now verified by a document preserved in the Archivio di Stato 
at Palermo. The altar-piece is published together with the document in 
L'Arte, 1902, pp. 180-185. 

The Life and Works of Niccol6 d' Arezzo. In the Rep. f. K. 1900, 
p. 85, C. vox FABRICZY began an article on the life and works of Xiccolo 
d' Arezzo. This is continued ibid. 1902, pp. 157-169. The study of docu- 
ments has enabled him to present here a chronological list of the works 
of Niccolo, extending from 1388 to the date of his death, December 11, 1456. 
A similar list is given of the Avorks of his son, Pietro. 

Andrea del Castagiio's Famous Men. In the Rep.f. K. 1902, pp. 170- 
177, KMIL SCHAEFFER gives an account of Andrea del Castagno's frescoes 
of Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Farinata degli Uberti, Filippo Scolari, and 
Niccolo Acciaiuoli. These frescoes were made for the room in the villa at 
Legnaja, owned by the Strozzi family. 

The Painting by Leonardo at Affori. The painting representing the 
Madonna of the Grotto at Affori, which has attracted recently so much 
attention, is discussed again by DIEGO SANT' AMBKOGIO in Arte e Storia, 
1902, pp. 57-59. In this article the author is especially concerned with the 
date of the painting, which, on various grounds, he assigns to the period 
from 149(5-1 500. 

Decoration by Leonardo in the Castle of Milan. Antonio Volpi has 
furnished funds for the restoration of the vault and upper portions of the 
walls in the Sala delle Asse in the Castle of Milan. The restoration has 
been most successful. On the walls were represented oak trees, whose 
branches spread so as to cover the entire surface of the vault. Thus was 
produced an unusual impression of height, and a sensation similar to that 
which would be produced by a lofty pergola. Amid the branches were some 
coats-of-arms of Ludovico il Moro. According to the plan of the Museum, 
this room will be utilized for works of fifteenth-century sculpture. In 
L' Arte, 1902, p. 122, G. CAKOTTI proposes that it be used for objects of the 
time of Leonardo. These frescoes are published with illustrations by LUCA 
BELTKAMI, in Rasser/na d' Arte, 1902, pp. 64-68 and 90-92. He shows that 
interlaced designs had become well known to the Italians through Byzantine 
reliefs and Mediaeval miniatures, and had assumed complicated forms by the 
time of Leonardo da Vinci. Xo more elaborate examples can be found than 
those of these extraordinary frescoes at Milan. 

Two Works of Art in the Municipal Museum at Milan. In U Arte, 
1902, pp. 65-70, GUSTAVO FRIZZONI publishes two works of art in the Muni- 
cipal Museum of Milan. One of these is a painting of St. Jerome by Ambro- 
gio Borgognone. A second is a terra-cotta relief ^presenting a saint and a 
worshipper in the presence of the Madonna and Child. On the ground of its 
resemblance to the lunette at Certosa di Pavia, this relief is attributed to 
Amadeo. 

Frescoes by Bramante. Some doubt has been expressed as to the 
provenance of the frescoes of armed men recently acquired by the Royal 



RENAISSANCE ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 259 

Gallery of Milan. These interesting frescoes are published by LUCA BEL- 
TUAMI, in Rassegna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 97-103, together with diagrams of 
the room in the Casa dei Panigarola from which the frescoes were taken. 
Beltrami furnishes decisive proof that the frescoes originally adorned this 
room. 

Giovanni Francesco da Rimini. Giovanni Francesco da Rimini, a 
little-known painter of the fifteenth century, is the subject of an article by 
CORRADO RICCI in Rassegna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 134-135. Here are published 
a Madonna painted in 1458, now in the Church of San Domenico di Bologna, 
and a Madonna painted in 1461, now in the possession of Achille Cantoni in 
Milan. From various details in his style of painting, Ricci infers that 
Giovanni Francesco was trained under Benedetto Bonfigli and Fiorenzo di 
Lorenzo. 

Two Pictures ascribed to Vincenzo Foppa. Two pictures bearing 
the name of Vincenzo Foppa, the one in the Berlin Gallery, the other in a 
private collection in Paris, have long been confused with one another. Both 
represent the Pieta, and both came originally, it is said, from the Church of 
San Pietro on Gessate at Milan. In the Rep. f. K. pp. 65-81, C. JOCELYN 
FFOULKES argues that the Berlin picture is a strikingly characteristic work, 
and one of Foppa's masterpieces, and that the painting in Paris cannot be 
attributed to the same master. 

The Portrait of Biaiica Maria Sforza, by Ambrogio de Predis. In 
the Rassegna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 93-94, FRANCESCO MALAGUZZI publishes a 
portrait of Bianca Maria Sforza, in the Visconti Collection at Paris. This 
portrait was painted for the Duke of Saxony in 1492. A finer portrait of 
Bianca Sforza, also by Ambrogio de Predis, w r as published by W. BODE in 
the Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. X, 1889, p. 75. 

Frescoes by Luini at Lugano. In the Church of Santa Maria degli 
Angioli at Lugano, there are notable frescoes painted by Bernardino Luini 
in 1529 and 1530. These comprise a large 'Crucifixion,' a series of the 
Passion, a 'Last Supper,' and a ' Madonna and Child.' There are also fres- 
coes by Gaudenzio Ferrari and Bramantino. The frescoes by Luini, although 
painted at a late period of his life, show dependence upon Leonardo da 
Vinci and earlier masters. The beauty of these frescoes, as well as their 
lack of originality, is well appreciated by EMIL JACOBSEN in a brief article 
published in V Arte, 1902, pp. 156-160. 

The Birth of Titian. The date of Titian's birth is discussed by HER- 
BERT COOK in the Rep. f. K. 1902, pp. 98-100, and assigned to the year 1489. 
See Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 498. 

Paintings by Pietro Novelli. The paintings by Pietro Novelli, 1603- 
1647, are little known outside of Sicily. A number of them were recently 
exhibited in an exposition held at Palermo. His style seems to have been 
inspired by Van Dyck and Caravaggio, as may be seen in the reproductions 
published by E. MAUCERI in L J Arte, 1902, pp. 194-196. 

Shield attributed to Benvenuto Cellini. In the Royal Armory at 
Turin there is a beautiful shield of the sixteenth century generally consid- 
ered to be the workmanship of Benvenuto Cellini. A copy of it is found in 
the Royal Collection at Vienna. In Rassegna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 81-85, 
JACOPO GELLI follows M. Plon in the belief that the shield was not made 
by Benvenuto Cellini. Gelli attributes it to Filippo Xegrioli. 



260 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 



FRANCE 

Bust of D'Aiitoine Arnaud de la Briffe. In the Gaz. B.-A., 
Vol. XXVIII, pp. 388-394, DE M. publishes a bust of Antoine Arnaud 
de la Briffe, former president of the Parliament of Brittany. The bust, 
which is apparently a speaking likeness of President de la Briffe, was 
executed by J.-B. Lemoyne in 1754 and is now in the private collection 
of M. Emile Peyre. 

The Fountain of the Rue de Grenelle in Paris. The fountain of 
the Rue de Grenelle, popularly considered the masterpiece of the sculptor, 
Edme Bouchardon, executed between 1739-1745, is the subject of an article 
by ALPHONSE ROSEKOT (Gaz. B.-A. XXVIII, 1902, pp. 353-372), who pub- 
lishes the contract for the monument, its commemorative inscriptions, and 
appreciations of it by contemporary and other critics. 

A French Renaissance Fainting. In the exhibition of Flemish 
painting recently held at Bruges, there was exhibited by the Corporation 
of Glasgow a painting representing a donor protected by a saint. This 
painting, as shown by SALOMON REINACII in the Chron. d. Arts, 1902, 
pp. 231-232, has been attributed to various Flemish painters, but has 
recently been reclaimed by Friedlaender and others as a French work. 
The donor represented in this picture is now thought to be one of the 
Dukes of Cleves and probably Jean II. 

Benvenuto Cellini at the French Court. In R. Arch. XLI, 1902, 
pp. 85-95, L. DIMIKK publishes a letter from Giulio Alvarotto to his master, 
the Duke of Ferrara, dated January 29, 1545, in which the presentation of 
Benvenuto's Jupiter to Francis I of France is described. The letter is 
in the archives of Modena. It serves to correct some statements in Ben- 
venuto's Memoirs and to fix the date of the presentation of the Jupiter 
between December 10, 1544, and January 29, 1545. 

Guido Mazzoiii and the Death of the Virgin at Fe'camp. In Mon. 
Mem. Acad. 7/j.sv. VII, 1900, pp. 187-204 (pi. xx ; 4 figs.), PAUL VITRY 
publishes a group in the Abbey church at Fecamp representing the death 
of the Virgin. lie compares it with the works of Guido Mazzoni, who 
went to France with Charles VIII in 1496, and finds in it the traits of 
realism peculiar to Mazzoni. In some details, however, French qualities 
are evident. The work may therefore be due to the school of Mazzoni 
or may have been executed by Mazzoni himself with the assistance 
of French workmen. Its date is not earlier than 1507 nor later than 
1510. 

Italian Paintings in the Louvre. In the Rep. f. K. 1902, pp. 178- 
197, 270-295, EMIL JACOBSEN contributes critical notices of the Italian 
paintings in the Louvre. This work is similar to that which he published 
concerning the Italian paintings in the National Gallery, London, in the 
Rep. f. K. 1901, and is a valuable contribution, especially to one who is 
interested in the attributions of Italian paintings. 

Two Paintings by Ercole de' Robwti in the Louvre. Among 
the paintings of the Rothschild collection, recently left to the Louvre, are 
a figure of St. Michael and one of Sant' Apollonia, described in the new 
catalogue under the general title of School of Ferrara. In L'Arte, 1902, 
p. 178, VENTURI ascribes these paintings to Ercole de' Roberti. 




RENAISSANCE ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1902 261 

The Portrait of Henri III in the Chateau de Chantilly. There is 
a portrait which has been frequently reproduced and which is known as 
that of Prince Frai^ois-Hercule, Duke of Alencon, brother of Henri III. 
In the Gaz. B.-A. Vol. XXVIII, 1902, pp. 405-411, L. DIMIER shows that 
this portrait represents Henri III and was by the painter, Jean Decourt, 
who succeeded Frai^ois Clouet as court painter in 1572 and whose works 
are known as late as 1585. 

The Town of Richelieu. The town of Richelieu was founded in 1631 
by Cardinal Richelieu. It was laid out on a simple rectangular plan, the 
houses being all alike, except that the buildings on the street corners were 
higher than the rest. The church and market are the most conspicuous 
buildings. As a city, however, Richelieu was a failure, as it was not 
situated on the lines of travel, and hence already is known as the Pompeii 
of France. A brief description of it is given by W. J. PARTRIDGE in the 
American Architect, August 16, 1902, pp. 53-55. 

BELGIUM 

The Ghent Altar-piece. In . 4 then. November 1, 1903, ALFRED MARKS 
discusses the Ghent altar-piece and argues that the landscapes of the central 
panel and of four wings of this altar-piece, and also the landscapes of four 
other pictures, are by Jan van Eyck, since they contain southern plants, 
which Jan necessarily saw in Portugal after Hubert's death. W. H. JAMES 
WEALE replies, ibid. December 6, and MARKS replies in turn, ibid. Decem- 
ber 13. Here he lays stress upon the idealism of Hubert and the success in 
landscape painting of Jan van Eyck. 

GERMANY 

The Name of the Master D*V. In the Jb. d. Kunsth. Samml. d. 
Allerhochst. Kaiserhauses, 1901, pp. 1-34, GUSTAV GLUCK begins a series of 
contributions entitled, * Beitrage zur Geschichte der Antwerpner Malerei 
im XVI Jahrhundert.' The first of these treats of 'The Master D*V,' 
who is known by a number of copper plates, etchings, and woodcuts. 
Hitherto the star has been supposed to contain an indication of his name, 
and he has been known as Dirck van Staren. Many reasons, however, 
combined to indicate that the true name of this master was Dirick Vellert, 
a glass painter of Antwerp and contemporary with Josse van Cleve. 
Although not a master of first rank, he was known to Albrecht Diirer. 
Gliick here publishes a medallion in glass signed by Dirick Vellert, 
April 21, 1517, also a series of drawings which are dated and bear his mon- 
ogram. These drawings were evidently intended for studies for a series of 
medallions in glass. In the same monograph is published a triptych by the 
same master, now in the possession of Herr Lippmann in Berlin. A second 
triptych by this master is in the Prado at Madrid. 

The Kaufmann Gallery in Berlin. In U Arte, 1902, pp. 197-210, 
G. FRIZZONI gives a series of articles entitled, ' Ricordi di un Yiaggio 
Artistico Oltralpe.' The first of these concerns the Kaufmann Gallery in 
Berlin. This gallery is rich in paintings of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, and contains examples of Flemish, Dutch, and German, as well 
as Italian, paintings. Amongst those noted by Frizzoni in this first article 
may be mentioned a striking portrait of a man by Van der Weyden, an 






262 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII. ll3 



interesting ' Deposition ' by Memling, and an important composition of 1 
St. Anne, the Madonna and Saints,' attributed to Jean Perreal (?). 

A Doubtful Diirer at Frankfort. There is in the possession of] 
Georg Freiherr von Holzhausen at Frankfort an old German portrait 
ascribed by Henry Thode to Albrecht Diirer. In the Rep. f. K. l!0l. p. :}76, 
F. HAACK rejected this attribution and assigned the painting to Hans Bal-j 
dung Grien as the true author. The authorship of this painting is again] 
called in question by II. WEIZS ACKER in Rep. f. K. 1902, pp. 82-88, who 
holds that it could not have been painted by Baldung, but that its author-l 
ship must, for the present, be considered unknown. 

SWITZERLAND 

The Painters of Geneva of the Eighteenth Century. The painters 
of Geneva of the eighteenth century are not well known. The article, there-] 
fore, of DANIEL BAUD-BOVY in the Gaz. B.-A. 1902, pp. 101-113, 33.1-:J45, 
will be especially welcome. This article treats of Jean-Etienne Liotardl 
(1702-89), a figure painter who emulated La Tour; Jean Huber (1721-86),' 
surnamed Huber- Voltaire because of his keen observation and satirical] 
character; De La Rive (1753-1817), an interesting painter of Alpine landJ 
scapes; Finnin Massot (1766-1819), a figure painter; J.-L. Agasse (1767-j 
1819), an animal painter; and A. W. Topffer (1766-1847), who painted] 
landscapes and groups of peasants. 

The attention of the public has recently been called to these painters^ 
by the expositions at Geneva, and the wish is expressed that some of their.] 
paintings might be permanently gathered in the Municipal Museum. 

BOHEMIA 

Miniature Painters of Bohemia. In the Jb. d. Kunsth. Samml. 
Allerlwchst. Kaiserhauses, 1901, pp. 35-126, is a monograph entitled, ' Die 
Illuminatoren des Johann von Neumarkt,' by MAX DVORAK. Johann VOQ| 
Neumarkt, chancellor of the Emperor Charles IV, employed many illumina- 
tors in Briinn, Olmiitz, Kremser, and elsewhere. The work of these illu-, 
minators shows marked Italian influence which seems to have been! 
received chiefly from Avignon. Simone Martini's influence at Avignon 
was very strong, consequently these miniatures were painted in the Sienese 
spirit. The immediate successors of these miniature painters continued to< 
paint in very much the same style. 



IJERicAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. SECOND SERIES 



CAVE AT VARI 



iiniiiiiii i i i f i i 




THE CAVE AT VARI: GENERAL PI 



VOL. VII (1903) PLATE I 



N 




-AN 






AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VII (1903) PLATE II 




CAVE AT VAR 

5CCTIOM 




CAVE AT VARI . 

SECTION B 



THE CAVE AT VARI : SECTIONAL DRAWINGS 



American ScJjooI 
of Classical Studies 
at 



THE CAVE AT VAEI 1 
I 

DESCRIPTION, ACCOUNT OF EXCAVATION, AND 

HISTORY 



[PLATES I, II] 

THE cave of which the excavation is described in the follow- 
ing pages is situated about an hour's walk to the northeast of 
Vari, a village of some thirty houses close to the ancient deme 
of Anagyrus, in Attica. The cave is almost three hundred 
metres above the sea, and near the top of one of the southern 
spurs of Mount Hymettus. 

The various names that have been given to the elevation in 
which the cave lies are all of modern origin, and furnish no 
clue to any ancient appellation. Dodwell states that at the 

1 A full account of the excavation of the Cave at Vari is given in the first of 
the following six articles, and need not be recapitulated here. These facts, how- 
ever, should be stated : Mr. Weller supervised the actual work of excavation, 
and in this task was aided by Professor Dunham, Miss King, and Miss Thallon, 
the two ladies having been present not quite all the time. These three persons, 
together with Miss Baldwin and Mr. Bassett, have collaborated with Mr. Weller 
in the publication of the antiquities which were uncovered by the excavation. 
Mr. Weller, as general editor, has offered suggestions, and with the consent of 
the writers has made changes here and there mainly with a view to securing 
uniformity in the articles. In general, of course, each contributor is responsible 
for the matter printed above his name. 

Thanks are due to Professor E. D. Perry for his interest and financial aid, 
and to Professor Richardson for his counsel and encouragement, as well as to 
a number of friends who have assisted in preparing the material for publi- 
cation. ED. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 263 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VII (1903), No. ?,. 



264 CHARLES HEALD WELLER 

time of his visit (1805) the hill was known as Rappsana for 
what reason he does not suggest. Some of the present vil- 
lagers at Vari declared that until recently the name had been 
Kapsala l (/ca^dXa for /cavcrdj; u\a, firewood), because of the fuel 
there collected, but that now the name ^TnjXaiov is given to 
the hill as well as to the cave. As a matter of fact, the peak, 
while somewhat more isolated than a few of the others, may be 
said to be so thoroughly a part of a group of foothills as hardly 
to deserve a distinct name. 

The rock of which these hills are almost wholly composed is 
a gray limestone, nearly, sometimes quite, crystalline in char- 
acter. There are numerous other caves in the vicinity, one or 
two being larger than the one here described, but none of the 
others seem fitted by nature or art for human occupation. 

Our cave was rediscovered in modern times by Chandl< 
who made a tour through Attica in 1765, and who has giv< 
us an extended account of his observations. Since his visit, 
the same general appearance seems to have been preserved up 
to the time of our excavation. The other important accounts 
given by visitors to the cave are enumerated below. 2 

Without the aid of a guide, the stranger finds it difficult to 
discover the mouth of the cave. There is nothing to mark the 
spot, and one might easily pass even now (though at present 
the heap of earth below the entrance attracts the attention) 
within a score of metres and not know of its existence. 

The opening (Fig. 1, and the dotted line near the bottom of 

1 Can Dodwell have misunderstood the name that the " Calogeros" gave him? 

2 Chandler, Travels in Greece, II, chap. 32 ; visited the cave in 1765. Dod- 
well, Tour through Greece, I, pp. 550 ff. ; visited the cave in 1805. Words- 
worth, Athens and Attica, chap. 25 ; visited the cave in 1832. Leake, The Demi 
of Attica (2ded.), pp. 56 ff. Aldenhoven, Itineraire Descriptif de VAttique et 
du Peloponnese, p. 55. Ross, Griechische Konigs-Reisen, II, pp. 74 ff. Brough- 
ton, Travels in Albania, I, pp. 354 ff. Vischer, Erinnerungen aus Griechen- 
land, pp. 59 ff. Welcker, Tagebuch einer Griechischen Reise, I, pp. 146 f. 
Felton, Familiar Letters from Europe, pp. 366 ff. Stenersen, En Reise i Graek- 
enland, pp. 184 ff. Curtius und Kaupert, Atlas von Athen, Bl. viii, 1 and 2. 
Milchhofer, in Curtius und Kaupert, Karten von Attika, Text, Heft III- VI, pp. 
16 f. Roscher, Lexikon der Griechischen und Romischer Mythologie, III, p. 531. 
The various Guide Books to Greece. 






THE CAVE AT VAEI 



265 




PLATE I) descends vertically in the gently sloping surface 
of the mountain. Its greatest length is less than four metres ; 
its greatest breadth is but two metres. Thrusting its topmost 
branches above the opening rises a small fig tree, which must 
be the same or a lineal descendant of the one mentioned by 

Chandler nearly a ^^m^^^^^^^m __ ______ 

century and a half ' HflH^ 4 

ago. Its roots are 
four or five metres 
below the surface of 
the mountain in shal- 
low earth on the first 
landing place. 

Clinging partly to 
the branches of the 
fig tree, partly to the 
rock, one descends 

FIGURE 1. THE CAVE AT VARI : ENTRANCE. 

over the dozen or so 

of broken steps, rudely cut in the ridge at the western end of 
the opening, down to the landing just mentioned (p in PLATE I). 
From here, as the eyes become accustomed to the dim light, it is 
possible to see down into either of the two rooms of the cave, 
which are separated by a massive rock partition. Here one 
may decipher two inscriptions which he saw from above. From 
the first (p. 299 and TT in PLATE I) we learn that one " Arche- 
demus, the Therean, a nympholept, at the Nymphs' counsel 
wrought out the cave." The second (p. 299 and <f> in PLATE I) 
in larger letters repeats in the Doric dialect the legend, " Arche- 
damus the Therean." What Archedemus really did will become 
evident as we go on. 

From this point the floor of the cave slopes away rapidly in 
both rooms to the inner end. The contour lines in PLATE I, 
the sections in PLATE II, and the accompanying photographs 
show accurately the degree of declination. Leaving the posi- 
tion on the landing, one descends, at first abruptly, by the 
ancient stairs to a position at the upper side of the larger 



266 



CHARLES HEALD WELLER 



room. Here the light from the entrance is still sufficient to 
allow of the examination of various objects of interest. Imme- 
diately to the left (a in PLATE I) is the largest shrine of the 
cave. It is dedicated to Pan, as we learn from the inscription 
beneath it (p. 295), and is in form a rough imitation of the 
fagade of a temple. 1 

Its general shape may be seen near the centre of the interior 
view shown in Figure 2, where the inscription may also be read. 




FIGURE 2. INTERIOR VIEW AFTER THE EXCAVATION. 

As nearly as we could determine, the relief representing a 
youthful Pan (p. 310 and PLATE IX) fitted in the niche at the 
back of the shrine, while other reliefs were no doubt set up on 
either side of this. It is worth noting that the bottom of the 
marble relief of PLATE III fitted reasonably well into the fur- 

1 Dimensions : total width, 1.08 ni. ; depth from front edge to back wall, 
0.21 m. (av.) ; height to horizontal cornice, 0.71 m. ; total height to top of 
gable, 1.13 m. (top broken) ; total depth to back of curved niche, 0.86 in. ; 
width of curved niche, 0.38 m. (av.) ; furrow in floor, left side, 0.44 in. by 
0.07 m. (av.). 






THE CAVE AT VARI 267 

row in the floor of the shrine, though it is not certain that 'here 
was its original position. 

At the right (8 in PLATE I) is a less elaborate but somewhat 
similar niche, 1 which also may have held reliefs or other votive 
offerings. One of the steps in the flight running from here 
nearly to the bottom of the cave is cut in the very floor of the 
niche itself. Here, too, is an interesting imitation of a pedi- 
ment, with cornice in relief. 

At the apex is an acroterium in the form of a theta (with point) 
(Fig. 3). This, in fact, seems to be the location of the illegi- 
ble inscription mentioned by 
Dodwell (op. cit., p. 555). 
The back wall of the niche 
is horizontally divided some- 
what more than halfway up, 
and a slight change of level 
is made. This and the slope 
of the back make the exact 
use of the shrine a matter of 
doubt. 




More interesting than FlGURB 3 " ~ STEI>S 

t THE LARGER ROOM. NICHE WITH 

either of these niches is the PEDIMENT AND ACROTERIUM. 

headless seated figure hewn 

from the solid rock just beyond the main shrine (/> in PLATE I 
and Figs. 2 and 4). This figure has been frequently described, 
with various conjectures as to its identity, which even after the 
excavation must remain in dispute. The head was made sepa- 
rate from the body, probably of some nobler material (marble 
or bronze) than the rest of the figure. The mortise by which 
it was fastened to the body is clearly discernible. 

The figure is a little less than life-size and very crudely 
wrought. The proportions are incorrect, the body being too 

1 Dimensions : total width, 1.26 m. ; height to horizontal cornice, 1.12 m. ; 
height of deepened portion below cornice, 0.38 m. (only apparent at sides); width 
of cornice, 0.10 m. ; height of pediment, 0.23 m. (inside) ; width of platform or 
floor, 0.52m. ; length of step in platform, 0.42 in. ; width, 0.38 m. ; depth, 0.19 m. 



268 



CHAELES HEALD WELLEE 



small for the long legs, while the arms are ungainly and con- 
fused with the arms of the chair. The forearms originally 
projected and have been broken off. The feet stand close 
together, and are pointed straight toward the front. The figure 
is now too mutilated to let one be sure whether they were shod 
or even whether they were modelled in detail. Nor is any 

certain indication of 
sex remaining. Ex- 
crescences on the 
upper breast are per- 
haps the ends of locks 
of hair, and may indi- 
cate the femininity of 
the statue. An un- 
successful attempt is 
made to show the 
folds of the gown 
which fall over the 
knees, a shallow per- 
pendicular furrow be- 
tween the lower legs 
marking slightly their 
individuality. 

The Opdvos on 
which the figure sits, 

FIGURE 4. SEATED FIGURE HEWN IN THE ROCK. and of which it IS at 

the same time a part, 

is made somewhat elaborately. The sides are panelled; the 
seat is cut under deeply ; the back rises above the shoulders 
of the figure, and has a projecting strip on the end of the cross- 
bar. The whole rests on a platform which helps to give it a 
commanding position. 

The identification of the figure has proved very puzzling. 
As has been said, the needful data are mostly wanting. Most 
visitors have assumed it to be feminine. Chandler's conjecture 
that it is Isis, the " Egyptian Ceres," has deservedly received 







THE CAVE AT VARI 269 

little favor. Ross saw in it the Greek Demeter. Milchhofer 
in the Karten von Attika calls it " Rhea (?)," and perhaps the 
most generally received interpretation is the one given by him 
in another article 1 that it is the figure of Cybele. In confir- 
mation of this view he calls attention to the lion's head found 
in another part of the cave (f in PLATE I). No external tes- 
timony has been found to any of these identifications. Abso- 
lute certainty is therefore impossible, and it is useless to 
multiply conjectures, though one might suggest other divini- 
ties or even Archedernus (p. 272 : so Broughton, I.e., and others). 

Just beyond and a little higher than this seated figure is a 
curious rock-hewn object (7 in PLATE I and Figs. 2 and 4), 
omphalos-like in shape and resting on an elevated base. It is 
larger than the seated figure, and the top shows signs of a 
horizontal breakage which has deprived us of the upper por- 
tion. Below the present summit is a series of corrugated ele- 
vations resembling locks of hair and going quite around the 
free sides. At the bottom of the omphalos, on the side nearest 
to the seated figure, is a low elevation in the form yy. Other 
than these the surface shows no cuttings save those that have 
produced the ovoidal form. The nature of the figure is prob- 
lematical. What has already been said proves that Chandler's 
conjecture of an ithyphallus is impossible, even had it not been 
antecedently unlikely. The clue to its true identity probably 
lies in the markings above mentioned. The hairlike ridges 
near the summit were actually intended to represent hair, and 
what is lost is a head with beard or flowing locks or both. 
The prominence on the side is ithyphallic. The omphalos 
becomes, then, a schematic torso in a form remotely like that 
of a herm, though perhaps Pan rather than Hermes is the 
god represented. This appears to be the view taken by some 
earlier travellers mentioned by Vischer (I.e., p. 60). 

Behind these two figures, and starting from the back' of the 
0/ooVo?, is a steep and irregular bank of shelves. They seem 
to have been receptacles for small avaOijfjLara rather than for 

1 Ath. Mitth. V (1880), p. 217 ; cf. Roscher, op. cit., 4Qste Lieferung, p. 531, 0). 



270 CHARLES HEALD WELLER 

ascent. In the lowest is a mortise, apparently for the reception 
of the tenon of a marble relief (cf. PLATES III-V). 

Above these shelves is another niche with the inscription 
Havds (p. 295 and 9 in PLATE I) beside it, the easier approach 
to which is from the entrance landing. So far as can be judged 
from measurements, none of our reliefs fitted there. 

Descending the steps toward the bottom of the cave, one 
comes to another shrine (e in PLATE I and Figs. 5 and 6). 
This, too, is hewn from the living rock. It has two levels, 




FIGURE 5. FIGURE OF ARCHEDEMUS AND SHRINE OF APOLLO HERSUS. 

each being divided into two parts by a low partition. 1 In the 
floor of the upper niche are two D-formed concavities, perhaps 
designed for holding libations or small votive gifts. The lower 
divisions lack these receptacles, but may have had fitted into 
them two similarly concave stones of a different material which 
were uncovered, though the one of these which is intact does 
not fit very accurately. The drip at this portion of the cave is 
almost constant in wet weather, and one is led to think that 
the two small holes seen at the left of the upper level, together 

1 Dimensions : upper level, width, 0.80 m. ; depth, 0.35 m. (broken in front) ; 
height of back, 0.19 m. ; diameter of left hole, 0.13 m. ; right, 0.19 m. by 0.11 m. ; 
lower level, width of left section, 0.41 m. ; right, 0.35 m. (broken in front). 






THE CAVE AT VARI 



271 



with their mates on the opposite side, assisted in supporting a 
roof or other covering. It is possible that the two fragments 
of small fluted columns found in the excavation served for this 
purpose (or they may have been pedestals for statuettes or the 
like ; no place could be found where they precisely fit). Un- 
fortunately this shrine has suffered serious mutilation within 
the last few years, and a valuable inscription has been lost. 
The former position of this inscription is shown in the accom- 







FIGURE 6. FIGURE OF ARCHEDEMUS AND SHRINE OF APOLLO HERSUS. 
(From Curtius und Kaupert, Atlas von Athen, Bl. viii, 2.) 

panying reproduction of a drawing (Fig. 6), published in Cur- 
tius und Kaupert, Atlas von Athen, 1 which at the same time 
gives the most authentic reading, 'ATroXXtwo? "Epcrov, "Of 
Apollo Hersus" (p. 296). No other indication of Apollo- wor- 
ship has been found in the cave. 

Next to this shrine is one of the most interesting features of 
the cave the image of a man cut in low relief in the side 
wall (f in PLATE I and Figs. 5 and 6). The figure is that of 

1 Bl. viii, 2 ; also in Th. Schreiber, Kulturhist. Bilderatlas, I ; Alterthum, 
Taf. viii, 5 ; and in Bliimner, Tech. u. Term, der Gewerbe u. Kilnste bei Gr. u. 
Rom., fig. 25. 



272 CHARLES HEALD WELLER 

a stonecutter bearing the tools of his craft, the hammer or pick, 
and the square. The word Archedemus, cut twice in the back- 
ground before his face (p. 299), seems to be his name. The 
figure is a little above natural size l and is dressed in an 
exomis. It is mostly in one plane, and the workmanship is so 
crude and ineffective as to be ludicrous, though the artist, if he 
may be so termed, has apparently done his best to impart a 
lifelike aspect to his creation. The head of the figure is set 
back on the right shoulder, and is in profile and facing the 
entrance. The skull is much too wide for its height, and pro- 
jects in front of the neck rather than rests upon it. The 
sculptor has succeeded, however, in bringing the head over the 
centre of the body, bad as is his system of articulation. Nose 
and forehead are run together into a balcony-like projection 
over the lower face. The eye is full front, and is set in the 
very middle of this projection, well down toward the region of 
the nostrils. The ear is but slightly indicated, at least in the 
portion intact. The mouth is a straight groove, starting from 
the lower angle of the nose. Arms and shoulders are much 
deformed. The right arm is attached to a protuberance from 
the body, rather than to the body, and the forearm is too long 
for the upper arm. On the left side an attempt to indicate the 
conformation of the shoulder and the swelling of the deltoid 
muscle has lowered the attachment of the arm, which is con- 
siderably smaller than the right, while this time the ratio of 
the lengths of the upper and lower arms is reversed. No 
further modelling of the muscles is attempted, but the fingers 
of the right hand are roughly indicated by two intersecting 
grooves. The cross on the right shoulder has as yet found no 
explanation; it may even be of Christian origin. The feet 
are large, ungainly, and directed away from the entrance. The 
sculptor has tried to give them the appearance of motion, but 

1 Dimensions : vertical height, 1.81 m., but figure slopes back nearly a metre 
from the vertical ; total width of head, 0.33 m. ; across shoulders, 0.565 m. ; 
across skirt at bottom (8 folds), 0.72 m. ; square, horizontal arm, 0.55 m. ; 
vertical arm, 0.42 m. ; hammer, handle, 0.512 m. by 0.09 m. ; head, 0.39 m. by 
0.115 m. 






THE CAVE AT VARI 273 

lias not had the courage to cut away the block from beneath 
the uplifted foot. One cannot surely distinguish which foot is 
right, which left. At the waist a transverse groove marks the 
girdle, below which drop the stiff folds of the fustanella-like 
skirt to the region of the knees. 

The tools which the man bears are portrayed with some 
clearness. 1 In the right hand is a sharp pick, such as the one 
with which much of the cutting in the cave was made. (The 
background of this relief manifests clear evidence of pick- 
dressing.) Owing to a break in the stone near the angle of 
the square which he holds in his left hand, this instrument lias 
been taken to be a chisel-pick, 2 with which the workman is hew- 
ing away something near the shrine. This view, however, does 
not give an adequate explanation of the vertical branch of 
what is here called the square, and is finally excluded by the 
consideration that the other tool is a pick, not a mallet. The 
upper part of the man's body does indeed appear somew r hat as 
if he were driving on a chisel, but most of this posture is due 
to the sculptor's inexperience. The position of the legs makes 
it certain that the artist meant the ensemble to be merely the 
form of a man walking along and carrying his tools, one in 
either hand. 

A smaller but perhaps important shrine lies directly across 
this part of the cave. It consists of two simple shelves cut in 
the sloping rock of the floor, in the position shown in the 
drawing (y in PLATE I). Why this spot was chosen does not 
appear until we observe that the upper cutting is just at the 
outlet of a natural channel, which is now always dry, but which 
once must have had flowing water. Whether or not this water 
was caught in a reservoir is not clear, though the presence of 
an overflow channel leading .to the lower shelf favors this infer- 
ence. At any rate, the natural chasm in the rock may well 
have been regarded as the veritable retreat of the nymphs, and 
so a shrine have been dedicated here in their honor. So 
steep is the floor of the cave below this spot that it is almost 

1 Cf. Bliimner, op. c., Ill, p. 217. 2 Cf. Wordsworth, op. cit., p. 193. 



274 



CHARLES HEALD WELLER 




FIGURE 7. PORTION OF THE WALL UNCOVERED. 
A view is also given into the small side cave (p. 279). 



impossible to stand upon it. For this reason apparently the 
wall which we uncovered (77 in PLATE I ; cf. Fig. 7) was built. 
It leads from near the bottom of the entrance steps across the 
cave, furnishing a level walk and a fairly large platform below 
this shrine. The theory thus advanced is favored by the pres-. 

ence of a curious 
backing of the wall 
at this level by means 
of a thin layer of the 
crushed and disin- 
tegrated crystalline 
stone found in the 
cave. With this sub- 
stance every inter- 
stice behind and upon 
the upper stratum 
of the northern half of 
the wall, was filled, 
and if the same material was originally strewn over the whole 
pathway, it must have made an attractive and substantial walk. 
The passage from the larger into the smaller room of the 
cave is over the threshold (0 in PLATE I), cut between the 
dividing mass of rock on the right and the partial partition 
(about 2 m. high) on the left. Near this doorway the floors 
of the two rooms are on about the same level. This smaller 
room receives far less light from the entrance than the other 
and is always dark. The shepherds who visit the cave for 
water kindle fires with a bunch of wild thyme, and the smoke 
from such fires has blackened the sides and ceiling. 

The water just mentioned is dipped from the spring (t in 
PLATE I) in the lowest part of this room. The spring is about 
a metre in diameter, and half a metre deep. Though the cave 
is so near the summit of the mountain, the spring does not run 
dry. Usually it is cool and potable, but at the time of a visit 
in June it was brackish and thronged with mosquito larvae. 
Among the people of Vari it has the fame of possessing medici- 



THE CAVE AT VAEI 275 

nal properties (" KaOapn/co "), but in all probability it contains 
no other mineral ingredients than the carbonated water usual 
in such caverns, though Glauber's salts are said to be some- 
times held in solution in subterranean waters. Unfortunately 
the water in the cave has not been analyzed. 

The stalactitic formation in this section of the cave (Fig. 9) 
is more perfect than in the larger room, where the walls have 
been partially smoothed and the stalactites broken away. In- 
deed, we are told by Dodwell l that M. Fauvel, French consul 
at Athens, carried off some of the stalactitic material, " but it 
was found to be of a friable quality and unable to resist the 
sculptor's chisel." 

The nature of a rectangular pit halfway up this room (/Lt in 
PLATE I) was not discovered until after the excavatidn 
(p. 282). 

A little farther toward the entrance a very illegible inscrip- 
tion is cut in the carelessly smoothed wall at about the height 
of the eye (o in PLATE I). The surface is so irregular that it 
proved impossible to make a " squeeze," but an attempt to deci- 
pher the letters is reported in a later paper of this series (p. 296). 
Just above the floor-level, and almost beneath this inscription, is 
an apparently unimportant niche roughly hewn in the side wall. 
It may, however, have some connection with the inscription. 

Directly across the room from these is yet another niche 
(y in PLATE I) similar to one of Pan previously mentioned 
(p. 270). It contains a D-formed receptacle in its floor like 
those before described. A careful examination of its sides dis- 
covered what has not been noted heretofore, the back portion 
of a head, presumably feminine to judge from its flowing hair. 
(For location see blackened spot at v in PLATE I.) Not 
enough is preserved to allow a study of its features, but the 
knowledge of its presence is valuable. Underneath the niche 
is cut the word Xa/otro? (for the last letter see p. 295). The 
singular number of the word seemed strange at first, but the 
discovery of this head explains its presence, the inscription 

1 Op. '., I, p. 552. 



276 CHARLES HEALD WELLER 

having been cut without doubt after the carving of the head, 
which very likely was the amplification of some natural pro- 
tuberance of the rock. 

A few steps farther is another projection of the rock, a metre 
or so above the floor, this time wrought into .the form of a 
lion's head (f in PLATE 1). This was mentioned in connection' 
with the " Cybele " statue of the large room. Time has treated 
it so harshly that it is almost unrecognizable except for the 
conventional rolls of hair behind the ears, and for the general 
outline of the face. 

With this the circuit is completed, and one stands again on 
the landing, looking out from the entrance. Before leaving 
the description, however, a word may be said with regard to the 
sectional drawings in PLATE II. The first is made along the 
line AA' of the plan of PLATE I, passing by the side of 
the seated figure, which is shown in perspective. The other 
is made along the line BB' , and reveals the depth of the cave 1 
below the surface of the mountain, the relative levels of the; 
two rooms near the entrance, the end of the rock partition 
dividing the cave, and the wall crossing near its bottom. Thd 
shaded portions above the sloping floor in each section show 
the earth removed in course of the excavation. 

The impression made upon the visitor by the cave and its 
simple sanctuaries is very profound. Many expressions of it 
might be cited, and it may conduce to a better understanding 
of the environment to read Ross's appreciatory comment. 1 " Ich 
kenne," he says, " in ganz Griechenland, von neueroffneten 
Grabern abgesehen, keinen Ort, wenigstens kein Heiligthum, 
wo sich der heutige Beschauer so unrnittelbar mit clem Alter- 
thum in Beruhrung gesezt empfindet wie hier. Seit drittehalb- 
tausend Jahren ist Alles in dem alten Zustande geblieben : der 
Fels, seine Reliefs, und Inschriften sind unverandert, es fehlen 
nur die frischen Krauze, der Opferduft, und die Gebete und 
Gesange der Opfernden urn uns ganz in das Leben des alten 
Cultus zuriickzuversetzen." 



1 Op. cit., p. 76. 






THE CAVE AT VARI 277 

It is to a remark of Milchhofer, 1 coupled with the personal 
impression gained upon a visit to the cave, that the decision to 
attempt the excavation was due. 2 

The work was begun at the close of the rainy season, 
February 20, 1901, and continued until March 1. Ten men 
were employed in the work all that could be used to advan- 
tage. The fact that the work was under ground limited our 
operations within set boundaries, and at the same time inter- 
posed a number of difficulties. It was impracticable to con- 
vey to a spot so far from Athens and so high up the 
mountain the windlass which was desired, even if such appa- 
ratus had been easy to procure. This lack forced us to have 
the earth drawn from the cave by hand ropes in baskets through 
a narrow space in the opening. An artificial source of light 
had to be used for most of the work. All the earth that was 
removed was carefully examined within and without the cave, 
while that which had to be left inside was inspected repeatedly 
before it went to the dump. The same exigencies of light 
rendered it difficult to secure satisfactory photographs of the 
interior, and those presented with this article were taken by 
"flashlight." 

The work was begun just in front of the seated figure 
(pp. 267 ff.) without much notion of what depth of earth would 
be found, but with some expectation that here it would be 
greatest, this region being near the entrance whence the earth 
seemed likely to have fallen. Such anticipation proved to be 
unfounded, for the depth was but a quarter of a metre, and 
increased from here to the bottom of the cave. 

The earth first moved was of comparatively recent deposit, 
and contained no antiquities. Three and a half metres in front 
of the statue, however, a number of red-figured vase fragments 
were uncovered, together with one or two complete aryballi 

1 Karten von Attikn : Tc-jct. I.e. "Welter abwarts 1st der Boden mit Sclmtt 
erftillt, welcher einer Durchsichtung wohl werth ware. 1 ' 

2 The expenses of the excavation were defrayed by Professor Perry, Professor 
Dunham, Miss King, and Miss Thallon. See Am. Journ. Arch., V (1901), Suppl., 
pp. 21 and 26 f. 



278 CHARLES HEALD WELLER 

and a small piece of a relief (the feet of the figures in relief 
No. I, PLATE III). Here, too, as in other parts of the cave] 
a small number of bones of various animals none human 
were found. These were nowhere in heaps or in large quan- ; ! 
tities, and probably were for the most part brought into thej! 
cave in flesh used for sacrifice or food, or were the bones of 
animals that accidentally died in the interior. No further sig-i 
nificance seems to attach to them. A score or so of goats' 
horns were scattered through the cave. While frequent signs 
of burned wood and small piles of ashes were observed, these 1 
were in no wise so placed as to hint at their time or at any] 
special function. 

While the work was progressing near the entrance a trench 
was begun at the bottom of the cavern, where, after the re- 
moval of the first layer, consisting mostly of stones, the constant , 
discoveries of potsherds and terra-cotta lamps soon made it 
evident that we had most to expect in this quarter. One of 
the earliest finds was the largest piece of No. VI of the marble 
reliefs (PLATE VIII) which lay close to the surface of the soil. l 

The trench from above was continued past the Archedemus- 
relief and joined with the trench below, the earth being drawn 
up and reexamined outside the cave. In this region no strati- 
fication was found. The soil was a dark loam, often charged 
with water, easy to dig but heavy to handle. In this numerous 
potsherds were found, a few statuettes, a few lamps, and a 
number of copper coins. These were completely intermingled, 
a basketful from one spot often containing representatives of 
several of these varieties in such a way that no chronological 
differentiation could be made. As soon as the trenches were 
connected, the whole force of workmen was set at work clearing 
the lower one where the depth was proving greater. At the 
northern end near the partition the soil was entirely without 
antiquities and the depth was not more than a metre. Toward 
the outer end, however, the finds were frequent. Pieces of 
marble, vases, statuettes, and many lamps were collected, the 
different kinds being mixed. 



THE CAVE AT VARI 279 

As the level was gradually lowered, at the extreme southern 
end we were surprised to find that the mouth of yet another 
room of unknown dimensions was being uncovered. The 
entrance of this had never been entirely closed, but the col- 
lected debris had kept it from observation. As soon as the 
space permitted, this room was entered, and upon the very 
surface of the heap of stones within, pieces of pottery, part of 
a relief, and the inscription No. 9 (p. 293) were found. The 
length of this room proved to be but five metres, yet as the 
amount of material to be removed appeared to be considerable, 
work here was postponed until the main trench was cleared. 
As this was gradually widened the men came upon the northern 
extremity of the wall already mentioned (p. 274). The work 
was then continued below this wall, which was of assistance in 
supporting the earth and stones above. 

In this region below the wall and before the mouth of the 
small room the only stratification was noticed (see PLATE II, 
lower part of section A). Even here the strata were not 
clearly defined, and, save in the two lowest, were only distin- 
guished by the variation in the character of the finds. In the 
stratified region the upper and stony layer (Fig. 8) shaded off 
into a less rocky soil, the whole being in front of the small 
room about 0.50 m. in depth. In this were great numbers of 
lamps a single pull of the mattock often uncovering several 
together with fragments of pottery of widely differing varieties, 
pieces of marble reliefs, and coins. Upon digging deeper it 
became evident that a stratum of an earlier period had been 
entered, whereupon the work in that stratum was stopped until 
the upper layer was cleared away, after which the " Hellenic 
layer " was removed. In this the objects found were uniform 
in kind, for the most part Greek vases and terra-cottas. The 
space they covered was that embraced between the wall and 
the west side of the cave ; the depth was about 0.30 m., 
becoming thinner as it approached the northern end of the 
wall. Immediately below, a distinct demarcation was seen 
between this and the next level, which was of firmly packed 



280 



CHARLES HEALD WELLER 



yellow earth resembling virgin soil, hard and difficult to pene- 
trate. This formed a level platform a little smaller than the 
area just defined, and about 0.25 m. thick. Beneath this was- 
the lowest stratum, a mass of small stones a metre and less- 
in thickness, 1 and with no intermingling of soil. Absolutely 
no antiquities were present in either of these lower layers, 
and so definite were the lines of demarcation that it is clear 




FIGURE 8. INTERIOR VIEW AS THE EXCAVATION WAS BEGINNING. 
One of the laborers' baskets is visible near the centre. 

that the work was in its original form as constructed by some 
occupants of the cave. A possible use for it is suggested on. 
the next page. 

After this area was cleared, it was possible to continue the 
work in the small room. The stratification ceased at the en- 
trance ; indeed, there were some indications that it had been 
originally bounded by a curbing of stones. The objects found 
were mostly of Roman date, but with some Greek pottery and 
statuettes. The most important discoveries here were the 
fragments of the reliefs, which were more numerous than else- 
where. These with other stones were so closely packed to the 

1 This layer was thicker near the entrance to the small room than at the spot 
where section A in PLATE II crosses. 



THE CAVE AT VARI 281 

ceiling that there can be no doubt of their having been thrown 
in, as into a refuse heap. 

Since so much earth had been found in the lower part of 
the cave, the question as to where it should be dumped had 
become serious. To have lifted out the mass of stones and 
earth with the inadequate apparatus at our command would 
have trebled the duration and cost of the excavation without 
any important gain. It was thought best therefore to leave in 
the cave much of the earth excavated below the wall. A stone 
enclosure was built (see dotted lines in PLATES I and II), and 
into it the earth after repeated examination was thrown. 

The dirt that had been left just above the wall was now to 
be removed. The objects found here were of little value, and 
their mixed character continued as before. 1 The wall, contrary 
to what had been expected, was not a retaining wall and had 
little earth behind it (see PLATE II), but followed the contour 
of the floor. From the structure of the wall (Fig. 7) no pre- 
cise judgment is possible as to its date. A portion of the north 
end was torn down for the purpose of examination ; the re- 
mainder was preserved intact. The photograph shows the 
spur projecting to the west. 

It is certain that there was some occupation of the cave prior 
to the building of the wall, for behind, and sometimes partly 
covered by it, were a number of shallow and crude niches in 
the steep floor. These may be supposed to have been in use, 
perhaps for votive offerings, when the earth platform below 
was constructed. This platform would have been a suitable 
place for the stately dance, possibly past the altar of Pan as 
portrayed in several of the reliefs. The darkness of the grotto 
with its flickering lights would have made such worship weird 
and impressive in the highest degree. At that time the 
" shrine of the nymphs," if it existed, must have been reached 
by climbing over the rocks ; later the path along the wall was 

1 The following are among the things taken from baskets filled here : a few 
fragments of terra-cotta lamps, a quantity of pieces of black-glazed pottery, han- 
dles of scyphi or cylixes, aryballi, etc., a moderate amount of coarse red ware. 



282 CHARLES HEALD WELLER 

built and the old niches abandoned. This was probably done 
toward the end of the Greek occupation. 

In the smaller division of the cave the depth of soil was 
everywhere very slight and no antiquities were discovered. 
The only evidence of human handiwork in the lower end of 
this room is a rude stairway (visible in Fig. 9) leading over 
the steepest part of the slope. The pit near the side of the 
room (p. 275), on being cleared, was seen to have been a cis- 
tern or reservoir. Vestiges of a plaster lining are extant, and 




FIGURE 9. INTERIOR OF THE SMALLER DIVISION OF THE CAVE. 

an inlet drain is cut at one end. This pit was thought by 
Chandler to have contained the " garden " mentioned in one of 
the inscriptions (No. 17, p. 298), but doubtless as its posi- 
tion in the darkness should attest incorrectly. The signifi- 
cance of a square depression at the bottom, in whose centre isj 
sunk a circular hollow, we could not ascertain. 

The antiquities discovered in the cave are of several different 
varieties reliefs, coins, inscriptions, statuettes, vases, lamps. 
Their more detailed treatment is taken up in the following 
papers of this series. It is therefore unnecessary to enumerate 
or to comment upon them here. 






THE CAVE AT VAEI 283 

The evidence being now in hand, an attempt may properly 
be made to sketch the history of the cave. From the character 
of the material, it will be manifest that relative and not absolute 
chronology is alone possible. 

The excavation failed to reveal prehistoric remains, which 
might have been expected, and which are often found in 
similar situations. 1 The occupation would seem therefore to 
have begun during the historic period. 

The earliest artificial construction in the cave is undoubtedly 
the level area at the very bottom. Being below all the other 
strata, it must have been prior to them in time, though no 
exact date can possibly be assigned to it. It has already been 
described, and the total lack of antiquities in it has been 
remarked as well as the niches which were used in connection 
with it. It is not impossible that these remains were syn- 
chronous with one or both of the oldest inscriptions. The first 
of these is an unhewn triangular stone bearing the legend " Of 
Epicharides," and dating from about the beginning of the sixth 
century B.C. (No. 7, p. 292). The inscription is probably 
sepulchral, but was not found in situ. 

If the similarity to the Branchidae statues may offer a sug- 
gestion, we might assign as next in order of time the carving 
of the seated figure (pp. 267 ff.), that is, at about 550 B.C. But 
as we have seen, the crudeness of the work in question makes it 
difficult to have confidence in such an assumption. As in the 
case of the Arcliedemus relief, this may be the product of igno- 
rant and unskilled hands of a much later date. 

The date for the dedicatory inscription of AtVoXo?, " Scyron's 
son " (if the reading be correct ; see p. 293) may be set not 
much later than this, perhaps 475 B.C. Again we are left to 
guess the exact meaning of the inscription, and are unable 
to determine the nature of the object (roV8e) which was^dedi- 
cated to the nymphs. The personality of all the individuals is 
utterly lost to us. 

From the comparative abundance of references to " Archede- 

1 E.g. in the cave at Miamn, Am. Journ Arch., 1807, pp. 287 ff. 



284 CHARLES HEALD WELLER 

mus the Therean," we are forced to believe that his time was 
the heyday of the earlier worship in the cave. We shall see 
that there are serious difficulties in the way of determining the 
date or dates of the inscriptions which bear his name (p. 300). ' 
Since the relief is not more easily dated, it is best to be content 
with indicating his floruit as 400 B.C. The material evidences-] 
of his work in the cave are the relief, the deeds detailed in the] 
inscriptions, with perhaps the construction of the steps. These 
were very likely accompanied by a revival of the worship of 
the Nymphs. 

The fourth and third centuries are well represented by the 
excellent series of marble reliefs with their dedicatory inscrip-. 
tions in the completed Ionic alphabet, as also by the numerous 
vases and statuettes. The closing relic of Hellenic habitation 
is the coin of Athens of the second century B.C. (p. 335). 

This brief resume is sufficient to make it apparent that there 
was a more or less continuous occupation of the cave for more 
than four hundred years from about 600 B.C. to about 150 B.C. 
(The coin of Athens is to be dated 220-86 B.C., and the statu- 
ette of Pan, PLATE X, 7, is also of this period.) It is with 
surprise, then, that we now encounter a break of four or five 
centuries. At least, we have no material that seems to have 
had its origin during this long period. If we may judge from 
the dating of the other coins, of which 147 were found in vari- 
ous parts of the cave (pp. 335-337), the next important occu- 
pation began at about the time of the reign of Constantine the 
Great (307-337 A.D.), while if mere numbers permit us to- 
make an inference, the cave became a more popular resort dur- 
ing the time of his successor, Constantius II (337-361 A.D.) r 
forty-six of whose coins are in our collection. From this time 
the cave seems to have been frequented continuously down to- 
the reign of Arcadius (395-408 A.D.), coins having been found 
of most of the emperors who reigned during this period - 
Eastern and Western alike. This makes it patent that after 
the long time of abandonment, the cave began at the beginning 
of the fourth century of our era to be put to a new use that 






THE CAVE AT VARI 285 

of a Christian shrine. Testimony to such occupation is found 
further in the large number of lamps (pp. 338-349), belonging 
almost exactly within the century just denned, a large part of 
them being of Christian manufacture, or at least adapted and 
stamped (with the chrism on) for Christian use. A small iron 
seal-ring bearing the image of the cross was also found. It seems 
not unlikely that the old votive offerings, the reliefs, the terra- 
cottas, the vases, etc., had remained up to this period compara- 
tively intact, and that this was the time of their demolition. 
Particularly in the case of the reliefs, we shall see that the 
breakage is entirely too thorough (p. 302) to permit the sup- 
position that it was accidental especially when we recall that 
so many of the pieces were found in the " refuse heap " in the 
small room (p. 279). 

The cave was probably always the resort of poorer people. 
While some of the offerings bear evidence of painstaking care 
and enthusiastic worship, there are none of real intrinsic worth. 

There remains one question to which it is hard to give a sat- 
isfactory answer. How can so large a quantity of earth have 
found its way into the cave ? One would be inclined at first 
thought to say that, in the course of the fifteen centuries since 
the end of the active use of the cave, the earth had fallen in 
through the opening and washed down over the floor. This 
cannot have been the case to any considerable extent. Had 
the earth entered in this manner, a large part of it must have 
fallen directly into the smaller division, which, as we have seen, 
was almost empty, while what fell into the larger room must 
have remained in greater quantity near the entrance, where in 
fact the depth was least. Furthermore, the surface of the 
mountain above the mouth of the cave is of bare rock (Figs. 1 
and 10), and probably was in antiquity. Finally, we must 
remember the thorough commingling of the various finds and 
the character of the " refuse heap " in the side room. In view 
of these facts it is necessary to conclude that the earth was 
conveyed into the cave by human agencies. When, why, and 
whence this was done are matters for conjecture. The follow- 



286 



CHARLES 1IEALD WELLER 



ing is suggested as a partial explanation. Upon the wall which 
crosses the cave we found a number of more carelessly placed 
stones, furnishing some evidence of a later Christian addition, 
raising its height to an unknown extent. This may constitute 

the remains of an 
attempt to build 
up the wall into a 
real terrace wall, 
behind which 
earth and stones 
were thrown in 
order to create a 
level space in the 
upper part of 
the room. The 
accidental or in- 
tentional over- 




FlGUKE 10. Gl 



OF LABORERS NEAR THE ENTRANCE 
TO THE CAVE. 



turning of this 
upper wall and 

platform would in part account for the quantity of earth and 
debris at the bottom of the room, as well as for the other 
phenomena mentioned. 

There seems to be no ancient literary mention of the cave. 
Some (as Chandler, I.e., p. 167) have tried to see such a refer- 
ence in Strabo IX, 398 : Trepi e ' Avd<f>\va-Tov ecrri KOI TO liavelov 
Kal TO TT)? KoXtaSo? ' A.<f>poBiTijs iepdv, KT\. This, however, is 
very doubtful. Anaphlystus is located with much certainty 
near the southernmost point of Attica, 1 and not far from it is 
the large cave on Mt. Elymbo which appears to have kept a 
distinct trace of the old name in the modern appellation for its 
eastern peak, Pani. 2 Since Strabo also mentions so distant an 
object as the temple at Colias (whether Colias be at Phalerum 
or at "Ayios Koo>ia? ; cf. Frazer, Pausanias, II, 35 f., V, 478) 

1 Loper, Ath. Mitth., XVII (1892), p. 331; Milchhofer in Pauly-Wissowa, 
Real-Encycl., s.v. 

2 See Leake, op. cit., p. 61 ; Vischer, op. cit., p. 68 ; Ross, op. cit. r p. 77 j etc. 






THE CAVE AT VAEI 287 

as near Anaphlystus, it may be that his Paneion is this one 
at Vari. 

But of far more interest to us is the inference which would 
connect Plato with our cave, as first suggested by Curtius. 
This conclusion is based on the testimony of Aelian and Olym- 
piodorus, whose words are as follows : Aelian, Varia Historia, 
10, 21 : OTI TOV H\aT(ova rj Tlepi/cnovrj efyepev ev rals a 
OVOVTOS Be rov 'ApiaTcovos ev "TfjLrjTTw TCU? Movcrai? 7) rat? 
<ai?, 01 fiev Trpo? TTJV iepovprytav rjaav, rj Be /ca,Te/c\ive TlXdrcova ev 
TCU? 7r\rjcrLOV nvpivais Bao-eiais ovcrat? KOL Trv/cvais /caOevBovTL Be 
eV/x-o? fJLe\irrwv ev rot? %et\e<riv avrov KaOiaao-ai vTryBov, rqv TOV 
H\aT(0vo$ evj\ci)TTLav pavTevo^evai evTevOev. Olympiodorus, Vita 
Platonis, p. 1 : TOV H\dTcova XayQoWe? ol yoveis reOeticaa-iv ev TW 
'T/JLTJTTW {3ov\d/jLevoL vTrep avTOV rot? e/cel 6eols Havl KOI 'ATT^XXcow 
Kal Nu/Lt(/>ai9 Bvaai. The sum of what these passages which 
are late and derived from a source of unknown authenticity 
relate is, that the infant Plato was once carried by his parents, 
Aristo and Perictione, to some spot on Hymettus, and that 
sacrifices were there performed in the young Plato's behalf to 
Pan and Apollo and the Muses and the Nymphs ; that while 
the religious ceremonies were in progress Perictione placed the 
child in some myrtle thickets near at hand, where a swarm 
of bees rested on and hummed about his lips, prophesying his 
future mellifluence. 

From this statement it is certainly too bold to assert with 
Curtius (Atlas von Atlien, I.e.) that Olympiodorus says, that 
Plato "zu einer Grotte des Hymettus getragen sei," no cave 
being mentioned by either Olympiodorus or Aelian. We have 
seen that in the cave at Vari, Pan, Apollo, the Nymphs, and 
Graces were the chief of the divinities honored. The fact that 
this list is so nearly identical with the combined list of Aelian 
and Olympiodorus, and that no other spot on Hymettus is 
known to have been sacred to these gods, composes the basis 
for assuming that the action of this most interesting scene took 
place if indeed it did take place, wholly or in part at our 
cave. Obviously, the evidence is too frail to permit us to esti : 



288 



CHARLES HEALD WELLER 



mate with certainty its value. Yet one has pleasure in subscrib- 
ing with one modification to Curtius's further comment, 
"So lange also nicht eine zweite Athen benachbarte Hymet- 
tosgrotte [he might more exactly have said Hymettosort] 
gefunden ist, wo dieselben Gottesdienste bezeugt werden, 
diirfen wir immer zuerst an die Grotte bei Vari denken." 



CHARLES HEALD WELLER. 



NEW HA VEX. 



American School 
of Classical Studies 
at 



THE CAVE AT VAEI 

II 

INSCRIPTIONS 



TWENTY inscriptions have been found in the cave at Vari. 
Of these the first ten as here published, and two fragments of 
the stone containing Nos. 16 and 17, were uncovered during the 
recent excavation. The others have been repeatedly published, 
notably, of course, in the Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum 
(I, 423-431), but are here given again with all possible 
accuracy and with facsimile copies from photographs and 
"squeezes." 1 With the exception of No. 7, which remains 
in the cave, the inscriptions on detached stones are now in 
the National Archaeological Museum at Athens. 

For the inscriptions on vases, see below, pp. 325 ff. 

I. SIX DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS CUT OX THE MARBLE 
RELIEFS (pp. 301-310 and PLATES III-VIII) 

1. At the top of relief No. I (p. 302 and PLATE III). Height of letters, 
0.0175 m. to 0.025 m. The stone is much encrusted, and the part containing 
the last letter or letters is broken off. 



H P E A I A 



2. At the bottom of relief No. II (p. 304 and PLATE IV). The inscrip- 
tion is cut on a surface 0.51 m. long and 0.025 m. to 0.03 m. wide. Length 
of inscription itself, 0.425 m. Height of letters, 0.010 m. to 0.015 m. The 
work is careless and the letters are hard to decipher, but the reading is sure. 

1 Most of the facsimiles and photographs are reproduced to scale, as follows : 
Nos. 1-10, i natural dimensions; Nos. 11-13, 18, 19, ^ natural dimensions; 
Nos. 16, 17, 20, -^ natural dimensions ; Nos. 14 and 15 are not drawn to scale. 

289 



290 



MAURICE ED WARDS DUNHAM 



EYKAH 



None of the persons can be identified. It seems not improb- 
able that this Eu/cXr)? is the same as the one in No. 6. Perhaps, 
therefore, all the men mentioned in these two inscriptions are* 
from the deme of Halae, which was but five or six kilometres 
from the cave. 

3. At the bot- 
tom of relief No. 
Ill (p. 306 and 
PLATE V). The 
inscription is cut 
on a surface 0.70 m. 
long and 0.11 m. 
wide. The original 
surface has been 
roughly chiselled 
away, probably to 
erase a previous 
inscription. The 
present letters are 
very shallow, and in 
some places illegi- 
ble. Height of let- 
ters, about 0.01 m. 

For the omis- 
sion of fji in 
Nu/i<cu9, see 
Meisterhans, 
Grram. d. Att. 
Inscr?, p. 84, 2. 
The name"E7ro- 
/3o? is found 
nowhere else, 
and seems not 
to be Attic (cf. 
Pape-Benseler, 
Worterbuch d. 







THE CAVE AT VAEI: INSCRIPTIONS 291 

Grr. Eigennamen; Fick-Bechtel, Crr. Personennamen ; Kirch- 
ner, Prosopograpliia Attica; etc.). The reading of the third 
name in the second column is very doubtful. For 2am}/jt9 
(nmsc.), see C.I.Gr. IV, 6999. None of the persons can be 
identified. Worth noting is the fact that several of these 
names are common names for slaves. 

4. At the bottom of relief No. IV (p. 307 and PLATE VI). Both ends 
of the inscription are broken so that the termini cannot be defined. Height 
of letters, 0.010 m. to 0.015 m. 

i n E ioi oY> ' 



The second iota is engraved over an erasure. IIet0ta? can- 
not be identified, though the name is found several times in 
inscriptions. 

5. At the upper right-hand corner of relief No. V (p. 307 and PLATE VII). 
Length of inscription, 0.09 m. Height of letters, about 0.01 m. 

4> l T 



6. At the bottom of relief No. VI (p. 309 and PLATE VIII). The inscrip- 
tion is cut in a surface 0.69 m. long and 0.03 m. wide. Length of inscription 
itself, 0.32 m. Height of letters, 0.01 m. . 



( i AA 



Al E V * 

Aa/c\ov 



Neither of the persons mentioned can be identified. For 
see also No. 2. The name Aa/eXe?;? or Aa/eX?}? (cf. 
s) is not found elsewhere. For the form of the geni- 
tive Aa/cXeou, see Meisterhans, op. cit. p. 133, 8, with remark 
on date there given (" Seit 350 v. Ch. begegnen vereinzelte 
Formen auf -/cXeou, die aber nicht durchdringen und spater 
wieder verschwinden "). 



292 



MAURICE EDWARDS DUNHAM 



II. FOUR INSCRIPTIONS ON DETACHED BLOCKS 

7. Across the shorter side of an unhewn and irregular slab of limestone, 
triangular in form, and about 0.40 m. long, 0.35 in.- wide, 0.10 m. thick. J 
Height of letters, 0.025 m. to 0.050 m. 




Retrograde. The style and the letter forms are very similar! 
to those of the well-known 'EwaXov inscription (C.LA. I, 407 a 
Roberts, Introd. to Gr. Epiy. p. 76. No. 37 ; Conze, Die Att.j 
Grdbreliefs, I, p. 10), the shapes of the stones being also some-j 
what alike. The date of the 'EwaXov inscription is set bJ 
Roberts near the beginning of the sixth century. The stone? 
probably served for a tombstone. 

8. On a slab of brownish sandstone about 0.18 m. high, 0.30 m. wide, 
0.14 m. thick. Height of letters, 0.015 m. to 0.040 m. 




THE CAVE AT VARI: INSCRIPTIONS 



(The differences in color are due to faulty development of the photo- 
graphic plate.) 




The syllable Sov was already on the stone when this inscrip- 
tion was cut, the slab having been inverted for the later use. 
For the omission of the ? in rat? before v, see Meisterhans, 
op. cit. p. 91, n. 826. For the omission of /-i in vv^aiorLv, 
see note on No. 3. Another inscription, in which the cus- 
tomary order of name and father's name is reversed as here 
(unless we should read hauroXos, the goatherd), is published 
by Mylonas in the Bull. Cor. Hell. Ill (1879), p. 179 (C.I.A. 
IV, 477, 1), an inscription of the sixth century B.C. The 
names ^/cvpcov and AtVoXo? are each known from one previous 
source (respectively, Messeniaii and Thessalian, not Attic ; see 
Pape-Benseler, op. cit., s.v.*). The inscription is cast in a crude 
metrical form, as follows : 



9. On a slab of limestone broken off at the right. Height, 0.28 m. ; 
greatest width, 0.36 m. ; thickness, 0.08 m. Height of letters in second and 
third lines, 0.04- m. to 0.055 m.; height of Q> 0.08 m. 



294 



MAURICE EDWARDS DUNHAM 




pucov (or piicov) 



One is at first tempted to restore 0EOI in the first line, but 
this formula belongs to Attic decrees, its use in these beginning 
in 433 B.C. (Larfeld in Miiller's Handbuch, I, p. 560), while our 
inscription is manifestly of a much earlier date but perhaps 
the first character is not a letter. 

1Q. On a fragment of a white marble slab, the left and bottom edges of 
which are whole, the others broken. Height on the left, 0.075 m. ; greatest 
height, 0.11 m. ; width at bottom, 0.15 in. ; thickness, 0.04 m. On the back, 
which is rough, is a raised margin along the bottom 0.04 m. high, 0.0075 m. 
thick. Height of letters, 0.012 m. to 0.018 m. 






THE CAVE AT VAEI : INSCRIPTIONS 295 




The letters are carefully cut. The third line 
may read e<pv<yov, the letters of the first and second lines belong- 
ing to names which are the subject ; but -SoXoo- can scarcely be 
a nominal suffix. 

III. FIVE INSCRIPTIONS CUT IN THE WALLS OF THE CAVE 

11. In the living rock below a niche in the smaller division of the cave 
(p. 275). Length of inscription, 0.715 m. Height of letters, 0.12 m. to 
0.16m. (C J.A.I, 428.) 




The 5 at the end is certain, instead of v (cf. C.I. A. I.e.). 
See p. 275 for a possible explanation of the singular number. 

12. In the living rock below a niche in the larger division of the cave 
{p. 266). Length of inscription, about. 0.60 m. Height of letters, 0.10 in. 
{C.I.A. I, 429.) 



The inscription is visible in the photograph on p. 266 (Fig. 2). 
The long interval between the v and the o is due to inequalities 
in the rock. This inscription and the one following must, from 
the forms of the letters, be dated not far from the time of the 
introduction of the worship of Pan into Attica. 

13. In the living rock below a niche above No. 12 (p. 270), and a repeti- 
tion of it. Length of inscription about 0.485 m. Height of letters about 
0.10 m. (C.I.A. I, 429.) 



P 



296 MAURICE EDWARDS DUX HAM 

14. In the living rock below a niche in the larger division of the cave. 
The inscription has now disappeared. Its former position is shown ii 
Fig. 6, on p. 271. (C.I.A. I, 430.) 



The inscription had not entirely disappeared in 1887-88, at 
the time of the visit of Milchhofer (cf. Karten v. Attica, Text, 
I.e.), who remarks that it was then " f revelhaft verstiimmelt." 

15. In the living rock, nearly opposite the Xaptros inscription (No. 11), 
in the smaller division of the cave (p. 275). The inscribed area is partially 
smoothed along the left margin over the space occupied by the first two or 
three letters in each line ; the remainder of the surface is exceedingly uneven 
and is blackened by smoke. The right-hand limit cannot be determined. 
In the following copy an attempt has been made to reproduce the letter 
forms and their relative positions as accurately as possible, but several of 
the characters are very obscure. In some places it is impossible to differ- 
entiate natural depressions from artificial. No squeeze could be made. 
(C.I.A. I, 431.) 



ITA.N EFEX 




The reading is so doubtful that no transliteration is attempted. 

The first character in the first line appears like a natural hol- 
low, being deep while the other markings are shallow, but its 
position relatively to the ^ of the second line would argue for 
its literal nature. The letter after A, in the same line, has 
'usually been read N ; there are now, however, no decisive traces. 
Following this is room for another letter, which may have read 
T (so O.I. A. I.e.), but this too is now illegible. The X forms 
the end of this line, and beyond it is a natural cavity several 
centimetres deep and showing no signs of letters. In the second 
line the sixth letter may possibly be I, instead of T. After the 
E of this line is an irregular ridge about a centimetre high and 
extending down into the next line. All the letters to the right 
of this ridge are especially defaced and illegible, so much so 






THE CAVE AT VAllI : INSCRIPTIONS 



297 



that their existence is unnoticed in earlier copies. Natural and 
artificial markings are scarcely distinguishable. In the fourth 
line the first three letters seem to me sure. They were so read 
by Milchhofer (I.e.; cf. C.LA. IV, 1, p. 155), in contradis- 
tinction to the reading in the C.I. A. I, 431. 



IV. FIVE INSCRIPTIONS RELATING TO 
THE THEREAN" 



ARCHEDEMUS 



16. On a block of shaly rock broken into fragments, of which four 
remain. The largest has been for a number of years in the National 
Museum at Athens (cf. C.I. A. IV, 1, p. 45). The elliptical fragment 
split off together with a part now lost since the publication in the 
C.LA., was rediscovered during the excavation, when the large piece at 
the right end (left in No. 17) was found also. The original surface has 
chipped off in spots so that part of the letters are hard to decipher. 
Length of complete block, about 0.70 in. ; height, 0.35 m. ; thickness, 
0.15 m. Height of letters, 0.04 m. to 0.06 m. (C.I. A. I, 424.) 




ato? Kal %o\ovo8 
ret vvv(f)ai e'^ 



MAURICE EDWARDS DUNHAM 



298 



The ^oXoi/o^l^e? has not been explained. Strange as the word 
(or words) seems, it is apparently in its original condition. 
A small bit of the stone is gone at the end of the second line, 
but hardly enough to have contained an additional letter ; fur- 
thermore, as the inscription now stands, each of the first three 
lines has the same number of letters (fourteen), and this is prob- 
ably an intentional uniformity. The first letter of the third 
line is certainly X ; not A, as in the C.LA. It is evident that 
the time-honored association of Archedemus with the deme of 
Cholleidae, according to Chandler's emendation of this inscrip- 
tion, is wrong. In the third line the reading ret (for rat) is 
probable, but not absolutely sure, owing to breakage of the 
stone. For the v in vvvfyai, see Meisterhans, op. cit. p. 113, 8. 
The 9 at the beginning of the fourth line is seen to be part of 
%cr (for ), and not of w/i(at?, as had been thought. 



17. On the reverse side of the stone last described. (C.LA. I, 425.) 




The fragment bearing the letters e/o was broken off and 
carried to Athens after the stone was first read. Following a 






THE CAVE AT VARI : INSCRIPTIONS 299 

suggestion of Milchhofer (Karten v. Attika, Text, Heft III- VI, 
p. 17, " einen Rest davon vermuthlich bildet das in dem Besitz 
der archaol. Gesellschaft gelangte Fragment mit den Buchstaben 
<H)EPato? Invent, no. 304 "), this piece has recently been found 
since the accompanying photograph was made and fitted 
to its original place as reproduced on the facsimile. 

18. In the living rock near the edge of the first landing (p. 265). The 
left end is broken away. Length of inscription, about 0.70 m. Height of 
letters, 0.055 in. to 0.105 m. (C.LA. I, 426.) 



19. In the living rock over the left hand of the "Archedemus relief" 
(p. 272). Length of upper line, 0.58 m. Height of letters, 0.055 m. to 
0.105m. (C.LA. I, 427.) 



20. In the perpendicular surface of the living rock, upon a depressed 
area smoothed for the purpose (p. 265). Length of inscription, 0.63 m. ; 
height, 0.31 m. Height of letters, 0.040 m. to 0.055 m. (C.LA. I, 423.) 




0\777TT09 

1 T- 



Upr 
A-ATO - rnr| 



v. There is no sign for the rough breathing. H is 
used for y, but for <w. The f in the last line is certain. The 
second half of the inscription is u-nmistakably metrical (Kaibel, 
Epig. G-r. 762 ; Allen, ' On Greek Versification in Inscriptions,' 
Papers of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 
IV [1885-86], p. 169, cf. 65, 125), and it seems possible that 



300 



MAURICE EDWARDS DUNHAM 



the first half is an attempt at versification (so Wordsworth, j 
Athens and Attica, p. 199, who calls it choriambic), the scheme! 
being somewhat as follows : 

_w I -^'w | 1_ II -w w | _w | _> 

w : _w I _ >|_w|_>|_w|_A- 

Lyric metres, however, are rare in inscriptions (Allen, op. cit.). 

Little, if any, new material has been added by the excavation 
to help in dating, either relatively or absolutely, these five in- 
scriptions concerning Archedemus, and the question is still open 
to the considerable differences of opinion indicated in the 0. LA. 
The evidence from the forms of the letters is very contradictory, 
as will be seen most easily from the accompanying table, which 
is presented without analysis. 



mo . 


a 


6 


e 


n 


e 


X 


X 


u 












u 


o 


X 


u 


h 


IB 


AA 


AA 





E 


G 


K 


L 


N 


rr 


+^ 


- 


fr 


^^ 


V 





+ 





H 


17 


A 


A 





E 





K 


- 


/AM 


/^ 


- 


p 


/? 


^ 


V 





-f 


- 


H 


18 


A 





E 


E 





- 


- 


m 


- 


- 


- 


p 


_! 


- 


- 


-1- 


- 


f-p 


19 


A 


A 


E 


H 


- 


- 


- 


pj/*) 


- 


- 


- 


pp 


$ 


- 


- 


Hh 


- 


- 


20 


A 


A 


E 


H 





- 


A 


/MM 


M/V 


^ 


p 


s 


^z 


Y 


< 


X 





J 



There are corresponding inconsistencies in the employment of 
Dorisms : No. 16 has 'ApxeSapos (probably) and vvvfyai, but 
ret; No. 17 has 'A/o^eSa^o? and tcairov, No. 18 has 'ApxeSapos ; 
No. 19 has 'Apxe r ?7/uo? ; No. 20 has 'A/o^eS^/xo? and WIL^OV, but 



It may be, then, that considerable time elapsed between the 
various inscriptions, and especially before the latest which is 
pretty surely No. 20 ; it is, however, possible that they all were 
cut by one man, whose foreign birth (Sypafa) and, perhaps, 
archaizing proclivity caused the confusion of dialectal and 
literal forms which is met even in the same inscription, but 
the material in hand is too contradictory to allow a positive 
decision as to which alternative is correct. 



MAURICE EDWARDS DUNHAM. 



EDGARTOWN. 






AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VII (1903) PLATE JII 







MERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES 



VOL. VII (1903) PLATE IV 




AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VII (1903) PLATE V 




THE CAVE AT VARI : MARBLE RELIEF III 






AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VII (1903) PLATE VI 




AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VII (1903) PLATE VII 




THE CAVE AT VARI : MARBLE RELIEF V 



RICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VII (1903) PLATE VIII 




AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VII (1903) PLATE IX 




American School 
0f Classical Studies 
at 



THE CAVE AT VARI 

in 

MARBLE RELIEFS 



[PLATES III-IX] 

ALTHOUGH the cave at Vari has long been known as sacred 
to Pan, the Nymphs, and Apollo, 1 no one had anticipated the 
good fortune which befell us of discovering fifty marble frag- 
ments which fit together into five nearly complete reliefs with 
parts of two others, and which belong to the familiar class of 
votive reliefs, representing Hermes, the Nymphs, and Pan. 
Pottier's list, published, in 1881, 2 which included all the reliefs 
of this class known up to that date, is supplemented by Roscher's 
Lexikonf so that there are about thirty reliefs, including frag- 
ments, which can positively be identified as parts of such votive 
offerings. The fact that these, as a rule, have come to light one 
by one in Athens, Eleusis, Megara, Peloponnesus, the Aegean 
islands, etc., makes it all the more interesting that so many 
were found together at Vari. 

In accordance with the Greek spirit, which preferred types to 
portraits, no exact representation of this cave was attempted. 
In each relief the cave with its rocky border is depicted, but 
in widely differing shapes. . It is interesting, however, to notice 
that the conventional border (cornice or gable) which is found 
on some reliefs is not seen here. The cave represented in the 

1 See pp. 287 f., above, and C.I.A. 423-431. 

2 Bull. Corr. Hell. V (1881), pp. 349 ff. 

3 s.vv. ' Nymphen,' ' Pan.' 

301 



302 IDA CABLETON THALLON 

relief numbered V, with its deep overhang and pointed rocks, 
resembles the stalactite cave of Vari more closely than the other 
reliefs do, but this is due to the general style of that relief, 
which combines picturesqueness with careful working of details. 

It is very noticeable that in many of the reliefs, otherwise 
practically intact, the heads alone are missing. Moreover, their 
destruction is manifestly not due to natural causes, but they 
seem to have been deliberately broken off by means of some 
instrument, probably during the Christian occupancy of the 
cave (see above, p. 285). Unfortunately, the efforts to destroy 
the heads were most successful, for no trace of those broken 
has been found. 

The two points chiefly to be noted in a brief study of these 
reliefs are, first, their superiority in point of style to most of the 
reliefs of this class, and second, the appearance of a figure un- 
familiar on such reliefs ; namely, the young god Pan. 1 

A catalogue of the reliefs follows : 

I (PLATE III). Nearly complete relief composed of six frag- 
ments; height, 0.30 m. ; width, 0.42 m. ; highest relief of the 
figures, 0.025 m. ; greatest depth of the cave, 0.035 m. Mate- 
rial, probably Pentelic marble of fine texture, badly encrusted 
at the left end of the relief. The upper part and sides are 
slightly curved to represent the shape of the roof of the cave, 
and are worked into irregular depressions to resemble the rough 
rocks. 2 In the top of the relief is a small hole for the insertion 
of a pin, probably to hold the relief firmly in place in its niche 
in the rock. (For the inscription, see p. 289.) 

There are five figures in the composition. Pan, who is usually 
a subordinate figure, is here as large as Hermes and the Nymphs. 
Hermes and the Nymphs hold hands, and are moving from right 

1 He appears on a relief from Megara, Furtwangler, Samml. Sab. pi. xxvii. 

2 Compare Furtwangler, Samml. Sab. pis. xxvii and xxviii ; Pettier, I.e. nos. 
2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, and Bull. Corr. Hell. V (1881), pi. vii. ; Vienna Hof. 
Mus. no. 86. Cave with cornice above in Pettier, I.e. no. 1 (Athen. Mitth. V 
(1880), pi. vii), Berlin, 709 a ; and an unnumbered relief in a side room of the 
National Museum, Athens. 






THE CAVE AT VAEI : MARBLE RELIEFS 303 

to left, as is the case in all of our reliefs where the figures are in 
motion. 1 Hermes is clad in a short chiton and a chlamys. 2 It is 
impossible to tell whether he wore anything on his head. 3 The 
right forearm, disproportionately long, is awkwardly bent, the 
fist being clenched as though holding something. No trace of 
any attribute remains ; it is, however, probable that he held the 
Icerykeion.^ He leads the Nymphs in a sedate walk. 5 

The first nymph wears a long garment reaching to the ground, 
and a chlamys thrown about the upper part of the body. 6 In 
the chiton the folds are straight but not deep, and the skirt is a 
plane surface with several little parallel grooves, but with no 
rounded modelling. The hair is drawn back in a knot without 
ornaments or fillets. 7 The face is young and girlish, with an 
upturned nose. The next figure is dressed in a single garment 
reaching from neck to feet, and held in by a high girdle. The 
form shows through the garment, and the arrangement of the 
folds is clumsy and unnatural. The hair is arranged with a soft 
roll around the head. 8 The third nymph, whose left arm rests 

1 It was the usual direction, with two exceptions, Pettier, I.e. nos. 9 and 12. 
See also Furtwangler, op. cit. I, p. 40, description of pi. xxviii. 

2 The two-garment costume is usual for Hermes, although in our reliefs III, 
IV, and V he wears only a chlamys. Compare Pettier, I.e. nos. 3, 8 ; Berlin 
Museum, 709 a ; Athens relief (see above, p. 302, note 2). 

8 Generally he is bareheaded, although he wears a petasos slung at the back of 
his head in Berlin Museum 709 a ; a fillet in Pettier, I.e. no. 8 and Samml. Sab. 
pi. xxviii ; and a pointed cap in Vari V. 

4 Compare Pettier, I.e. nos. 8 and 9. His arm is similarly bent in Samml. Sab. 
pi. xxviii ; Pettier, I.e. nos. 3, 8, 9, 15, 16 ; Vari V and VI. In the cases where 
the kerykeion is not sculptured, it may have been painted on the background. 

5 In general, the dance of the Nymphs is not spirited ; with the exception of 
Pottier, I.e. nos. 9 and 12, it is little more than a slow procession. 

6 The Nymphs usually wear two garments, although occasionally they appear 
in only a long chiton usually of the diploidion type. Compare Pottier, I.e. nos. 
2,6; Vari I, III, V, VI. 

7 Compare Pottier, I.e. nos. 5, 11, and Bull. Corr. Hell. V (1881), pi. vii ; but 
this is not the most usual style. 

8 This is the most common style not only in reliefs of this kind, for example 
Pottier, I.e. no. 1 (where the hair is parted) ; Hermes in Pottier, I.e. nos. 2, 5, 
etc. ; but also in the Attic grave stelae of the fourth century, in which examples 
are very numerous. Among them are National Museum at Athens, nos. 743, 819, 
820, 870, etc. 



304 IDA CARLETON THALLON 

on her hip, has the dress of the first together with the coiffi 
of the second. 

In the lower right corner on the rocks sits Pan, full fronl 
playing the syrinx. As is usual in these reliefs he is beard( 
and has goat's-legs. 

At the lower left corner is a profile head of Acheloos, the 
river god, father of the Nymphs, who is so constant a figure in 
such reliefs. 1 The head is very roughly done, and is little 
more than scratched on the stone. This relief resembles ini| 
composition Nos. 1445-48 in the National Museum at Athens, 
as do Vari II and III, but this has no altar. 2 

II (PLATE IV). Relief of five fragments. The heads of three 
figures and the faces of two more are lacking. Height, 0.385 m. 
(without the bottom projection); width, 0.505 m. ; height ofj 
relief of figures, 0.04 m. ; cave depth, 0.035 m. Material, Pen- 
telic marble. The shape is similar to Vari I, but in addition it 
has a projection 0.11 m. x 0.09 m. x 0.09 m. at the bottom to fit 1 
into a hole cut to receive it in the rock. 3 The rocky character 

1 On the complete reliefs, so far as I know, he is lacking only in Pettier, 
I.e. nos. 1,0, 12 (in which Hermes also does not appear). His head is used 
with a lion's head as a water-spout in a well-house on a red-figured hydria from 
Vulci (Bullftino delV Institute, 1883, p. 166). On the reliefs he is generally in 
profile, but sometimes three-quarters, compare Pettier, I.e. no. 14 ; or facing, com- 
pare SammL Sab. pi. xxvii ; Pettier, I.e. no. 4 ; Athens, Nat. J/MS., unpublished 
relief ; Vari II. There seems to be no preference as to whether he looks toward 
the procession or away from it. In all of our reliefs he is an elderly bearded 
man; cf. Berlin Museum, 709, 710, 711, 603; Pettier, I.e. nos. 2, 7, 10, 11, 16. 
He is a draped standing figure of a bearded man with small horns in'E077/x. 'Apx- 
1803, pi. x. On the reliefs he is beardless in Pettier, I.e. no. 8 ; beardless also at 
a later date on the coins of Leucas (250-167 B.C.), which are an adaptation of the 
head of young Alexander. The type of man's head and bull's body becomes the 
common one on coins of Lower Italy and Sicily, and we should perhaps imagine 
all our heads as belonging to such bodies. The only relief on which the body is 
represented other than that of a bull, is the one above mentioned, *E0?7/z. 'Apx- 
I.e. A few bronzes repeat the familiar elderly type with ox's horns and ears. 
(Babelon et Blanchet, Catalogue des Bronzes Antiques de la BiUiotheque 
Nationale, p. 35, nos. 73-78, and no. 1448.) 

2 Compare Pettier, I.e. nos. 12, 16 ; Berlin Museum, 709 a. For the inscrip- 
tions on the reliefs, see pp. 289 ff. 

3 Compare Vari III, IV; Pettier, I.e. nos. 1, 9, 16; SammL Sab- pis. xxvii 
(now entirely broken off) and xxviii. 






THE CAVE AT VARI : MARBLE RELIEFS 305 

of the setting is shown not only by the working of the border, 
but also by the background with its irregular depressions. 1 

Hermes stands full-faced, instead of in the customary profile 
position. 2 He is muscular, energetic, and stocky, thus differing 
from the usual slender Hermes. 3 His right hand rests on the 
horn of Acheloos. The first nymph strides forward in an ener- 
getic fashion, with the drapery drawn in horizontal folds across 
the upper part of the body and streaming out behind. The sec- 
ond nymph wears her chlamys thrown back like a shawl, and the 
Long chiton has a high girdle. 4 She is nearly en face, and holds 
with her right hand the flying end of the drapery of the first 
nymph. Her hair is elaborately arranged, with waves and a high 
knot. Of the third nymph merely the part below the waist is 
preserved. The shallow treatment of the folds of her long chiton 
showing beneath her cloak recalls the preceding relief. 

Behind her, with his back to the rocks, stands an ithy phallic 
Pan, 5 turned three-quarters toward the front. He has shaggy 
^oat's-legs, and plays the syrinx. A short chlamys falls from 
bis shoulders, 6 but the drapery is very stiff. Pan seldom ap- 
pears standing in the central group. 7 

At the lower left corner is the head of Acheloos, a bearded 
Did man with heavy brows, ox's ears, and large branching 
Lorns. 8 The ugliness of his face may perhaps be attributed to 

1 Compare Samml. Sab. pi. xxviii and Vari VII, the only other examples. 

2 Compare Hermes in Pottier, I.e. nos. 9, 15. 

8 He recalls Hermes in Pottier, I.e. no. 2, in costume and in figure. 
4 Compare the second figure in Vari I. 

6 He is rarely standing in any of these reliefs, but see Pottier, I.e. no. 16, and 
Bull. Corr. Hell. V (1881), pi. vii. 

6 This is unusual, but compare Pottier, I.e. nos. 6, 16, where Pan wears a short 
:loak clasped in front and falling open ; different from the Pan of pillar- type 
nrith mantle draped about him (see Koscher, Lexikon, s.v. 'Pan'). A chlamys 
is worn by Pan in a Gottingen relief (Hubo, Catalogue, p. 43, no. 255). 

7 Compare Bull. Corr. Hell. V (1881), pi. vii. In Pottier, I.e. no. 16, a small 
Pan in the central group plays the pipes ; cf. also an unnumbered relief in a. side 
room of the National Museum at Athens. 

8 This is the only one of our reliefs where his animal characteristics are at all 
prominent. For branching horns compare Pottier, I.e. nos. 4, 7, 14, 16, Berlin 
Museum, 709 a ; for ox's ears, compare Samml. Sab. pi. xxvii ; Bull. Corr. Hell. 
V (1881), pi. vii ; and later (second or first century B.C.) in a mask of Acheloos in 



306 IDA CAELETON THALLON 

the difficulty of foreshortening. In front of the first nymph i&i 
a low, rock-hewn altar. 1 (For the inscription, see pp. 289 f.) 

Ill (PLATE V). Relief composed of fourteen fragments.. 
Height, including tenon, 0.68 m. ; width, 0.70 m. ; height ofj 
relief, 0.06 m. Material, grayish marble, probably Hymettian.j 
The triangular shape is not paralleled in any other relief. Thel 
method of representing the rocks is conventional; there is no> 
overhang, and the shelving in the cave is gradual. The pro- 
cession moves from right to left. Herrnes wears only a chlamys. 
The three Nymphs hold hands, and are dressed in sleeveless! 
chitons with diploidia. The folds of the garments are shallow! 
and sketchy, particularly in the skirt. The only extant face 
has a long, sharp nose, a firm mouth, and deep-set eyes. The 
hair of all three is dressed in the usual fashion. 

Below, at the right, is the face of Acheloos, broken from the 
mouth down. The face is benevolent, with delicate nose anda 
deep-set eyes. His small straight horns show slightly. 2 

Above in the centre sits Pan, full-face, with his legs and arms; 
drawn up and foreshortened. As usual, he plays the syrinx. J f 
His hair is long, and two straight horns show plainly. 4 

the terra-cotta relief from Myrina representing a cave dance (see Bull. Corr. Hell\ 
VII (1883), pi. xvi, pp. 496 ff.). He has the body of an ox in Pettier, I.e. no. 14 1 
Berlin Museum, 709 a. He is a bearded old man, with horns and ox's ears, on coinn 
of Metapontum (480-400 B.C.), Acarnania (400-350 B.C.), Leucas (300-250 B.C.) I 
Thyrrheiurn (250-229 B.C.), Stratus (450-400 B.C.), Ambracia, etc. ; on vases oJ 
black-figured style generally has bearded head with horns and a bull's body;! 
(See Arch. Zeitung, XLIII (1885), pp. 106 ff. for list.) On one vase he has onJ 
horn ; British Museum Catalogue, vol. II, B, 228. 

1 Rock-hewn altars in Pottier, Z.c. nos. 2, 7. 

2 Compare Vari VI, Samml. Sab. pi. xxvii ; Bull. Corr. Hell. V (1881), pi. viffl 

3 The exceptions are Pottier, I.e. nos. 1, 6 (in both of which he holds thJ 
syrinx) ; Vari VI and VII ; and Gottingen, where we have a tendency towanl 
the type of Pan, the hunter, rather than the usual Pan, the musician. Th<J8 
syrinx is the earlier rectangular shape with reeds of equal length ; the use ol 
reeds of unequal length begins in Graeco-Roman time (see Furtwangler, Cist J 
Praenestina e Teca di Specchio con Rappresentazioni Bacchiche,' Annali delV Inm 
stituto, XLIX (1877), p. 212). This is the first of our reliefs in which Pan hold 
a subordinate position, although, with the exception of Bull. Corr. Hell. V (1881)1 
pi. vii ; Berlin Museum, 709 ; Pottier, Z.c. nos. 12, 15, 16 j and the unpublisheJ 
Athens relief, such is his customary place. 

4 The horns are usually well separated and straight. 



THE CAVE AT VARI: MARBLE RELIEFS 307 

Around the border are several goats' heads in very low relief. 1 
A low altar of large, round cobblestones is in the front part of 
the cave in the centre. 2 (For the inscription, see p. 290.) 

IV (PLATE VI). Relief composed of five fragments; only 
the lower part remains. Height, 0.32 m. ; width, 0.58 m. ; 
height of relief, 0.06 m. (high but not round). Material, 
^ravish marble of coarse grain. This type is much less fre- 
quent than that of the dancing or walking Nymphs. Hermes, 
who is nude, except for a long chlamys, draped over his left 
shoulder and arm, and falling in flat, shallow folds below his 
knees, stands in an easy attitude with the weight resting on 
his right leg, while the left is slightly bent. 3 The right hand 
held some object now broken away. Enough remains to show 
that it could not have been a slender object like his herald's 
staff ; possibly it was a vase. 4 

The nymph nearest Hermes is taking a vigorous stride, her 
himation has slipped below the waist, and is grasped by her left 
hand, which is large in proportion to the body. Although the 
folds are shallow, one can see the difference in texture between 
the heavy chlamys and the thinner chiton. The next nymph 
stands with her weight on her right leg, while the left one is 
crossed in front. The third nymph is the first seated figure on 
our reliefs. The right hand rests in her lap, and the left was 
raised, holding her cloak. 5 (For the inscription, see p. 291.) 

V (PLATE VII). Relief composed of five fragments. Height, 
0.52 m. ; width, 0.355 m.; height of relief, 0.05 m. ; cave depth, 
0.04 m.; undercutting, 0.015-0.02 m. Material, fine-grained 
Pentelic marble. The cave rocks overhang and are deeply under- 
cut. (For the inscription, see p. 291.) 

1 Compare Pettier, I.e. nos. 2, 16 ; Vari III, VI. Sheep's heads on Samml. 
Sab. pi. xxviii. Dogs' heads, Berlin Museum, 712. 

2 Compare Pettier, I.e. nos. 1, 6, 8 ; Samml. Sab. pi. xxvii. 

3 No similar Hermes has been found on any of these reliefs. It is, however, 
like many statues of Hermes, notably the Hermes of Andros, belonging to the 
fourth century B.C. Ours is a little more erect ; the Hermes of Andros has not 
his hand on his hip. The position of the legs is almost identical. 

* The hand turns over, with the fingers drooping, thereby showing that the 
object was not grasped in the fist. 5 She resembles one in Vari V. 



308 IDA CAELETON TIIALLON 

A group of three female figures (two of whom stand while 
one is seated) looks toward the right at Hermes, who leans | 
against the background of the cave. He wears a chlamys, 
fastened under his chin and thrown back from his shoul-j 
ders, and a pilos. Hermes, the traveller, is meant to bej 
represented. 

He evidently held in his hands something upon which thej 
gaze of all the Nymphs is bent, but what it was must be a merel 
conjecture. Two reasons point to the improbability of itsi^ 
being his most obvious attribute, the Tcerykeion. In the first! 
place it is too often in his hands to excite attention ; moreover,! 
.the position of the arms shows that it would have projected! 
beyond the limits of the relief. Possibly he held some offer-j] 
ing which he, as messenger, was bringing to the Nymphs. The 
seated figure rests on a low, rock-hewn seat, in an easy, grace-| 
ful attitude, bending forward a little. Her feet (on whicl 
there is no indication of toes or of sandals) rest firmly on th| 
ground, the left one drawn back slightly. Her right arm, 
which is delicately modelled, lies on her knee, the left arm (infe- 
rior in execution) is bent, and the elbow rests on her left kne< 
the fingers of her hand being outspread. The thin, light chitoi 
with short sleeves is pulled loosely through her girdle, and 
seen below the himation, which has slipped down to her waist. 

Behind her stand two more Nymphs, one of whom has heel 
arm about the shoulders of the other. 1 The first nymph isl 
concealed as far as the breast by the seated figure. She weai 
a thin chiton, which leaves the shoulders exposed. The left 
arm touches her own neck ; the right hand rests on the should 
ders of the seated nymph. Her hair is done in a net or baj 
in a style familiar to us from the " Tanagra " figurines. 2 The 
other nymph has a thin chiton with shallow folds. Her hair 
curly and arranged in a roll. 

1 Compare Pettier, I.e. no. 1. 

2 Compare Pettier, I.e. nos. 2, 7 (more pointed and fitting more closely aroui 
the face). Caps are worn by servants on the Attic grave stelae. Nos. 718, 7: 
.732, 743, 822, 832, etc., in the National Museum at Athens are something 
this, but the caps are closer fitting and less graceful. 






THE CAVE AT VARI : MARBLE RELIEFS 309 

Above, in the rocks, Pan reclines. He faces forward and 
plays the syrinx. His face is coarse, with a flat nose and long 
hair. The relief here is lower than in the cave. On. the 
rocks several goats are roughly scratched. One of these has 
his head turned back, another is grazing, while a third, with 
uplifted head, is eating leaves from an overhanging tree or 
bush as he climbs up the rocks. 

It is probable that an Acheloos was on the corner of the 
relief which is now broken away. 

VI (PLATE VIII). Relief in ten fragments. Height, 0.46 m. ; 
width, 0.69 m.; height of relief, 0.08 m. ; cave depth, 0.06 m. 
Material, Pentelic marble. (For inscription, see p. 291.) 

Although the relief is rectangular in shape, 1 the cave outline 
is indicated. The shelving is gradual, with no overhang, while 
a slight waviness shows the rock outline. The figures are too 
large for the cave. 2 Here there is no Hermes, 3 but a group of 
three Nymphs, one of whom stands in the centre, while the 
other two are seated, one on either side, looking toward the 
middle. The figure . at the left is on a high seat with her feet 
planted firmly on the ground, the right slightly drawn back, 
and the left advanced. She is of massive proportions for a 
nymph, more so than either of the others in the relief. She 
wears a chiton with a high girdle, while an himatioii falls to the 
ground, concealing her feet. The left hand holds a corner of 
her cloak ; the right arm lies across her lap. Her hair is elabo- 
rately waved and arranged in a high knot. The nymph in the 
middle stands in an easy pose, with the weight on the right leg 
and the left bent at the knee. 4 Her right arm rests against 
the rock, at the level of her shoulder. The upper part of her 
chiton is almost transparent ; at the foot the folds are deep and 
stiff, as if dug out with a chisel, giving a column-like effect. 
Her cloak is draped over the left arm and hand, and falls around 

1 Compare Pettier, I.e. no. 2. 2 Compare Vari III. 

3 Compare (among complete reliefs) Pettier, I.e. nos. 4 (upper part), 12; 
Myrina terra-cotta, Bull. Corr. Hell VII (1883), p. 498, pi. xvi. 

4 Compare Hermes in Vari VI, where, however, he turns in the opposite 
direction. 



310 IDA CAELETON THALLON 

the lower part of the body in well-executed folds. From traces! 
on the background it is seen that the head was en face, or turnecl 
to the seated figure already described. The other seated figure* 
turns three-quarters toward the centre. Both arms are gone,i 
but on the rocks the fingers of her left hand remain, showing! 
that the left arm partly supported her weight. Her cloak isi 
massed across her lap, and falls in ample folds at her left side.: 

On the upper left corner, on the rocks, reclines Pan. His 
goat's-legs are crossed, the right arm extends across his body! 
and holds a lagobolon. 1 Contrary to custom, he is not playing! 
his syrinx, but he holds it in his other hand. 

On the opposite corner a young male figure, profile, in veryi 
low relief, climbs up the rocks. He wears a piles and a shortl 
chlamys over his back, and he carries a crooked stick. He is a 
hunter, and with his dogs pursues his prey. 

In the lower left corner is the head of Acheloos. Small 
horns are visible; otherwise the face is a noble type of thei 
elderly man in the usual fourth century style. 

VII (PLATE IX). Two fragments of coarse grayish mar- 
ble ; height of relief, 0.04 m. There are cave rocks above, and 
a rocky background is slightly indicated. 2 The young Pan 
reclines on the rocks, over which he has thrown a cloak or the 
hide of some animal. The head is almost full face, the body 
three-quarters, the legs profile. The right leg is drawn up at a 
sharp angle. The god's right arm lies along his thigh, and the 
hand, which holds his lagobolon, rests on his knee. His left arm 
lies on the rock and holds the syrinx. The hair is thick and 
wavy, and the beginnings of small horns are clearly indicated 
on the brow. The face is like that of the young satyrs, the 
eyes rather close together with a decided ridge above them. 

The catalogue shows that some of our reliefs reproduce 
types already familiar, while others exhibit interesting varia- 
tions. Pettier divides the reliefs into two general classes, 

1 The only one on reliefs except Vari VII. 

2 See above, p. 302, note 2. 



THE CAVE AT VARI : MARBLE RELIEFS 311 

those in which Hermes leads the dancing or walking nymphs, 1 
and those in which the nymphs are quiet or posed. 2 In only 
one of these 3 do any of the nymphs appear seated. We find 
among ours both classes, and an interesting transition from one 
to the other. The reliefs I, II, III, belong to the former class ; 
in IV there is the substitution of standing figures for the 
customary procession, and the introduction of a seated figure. 
The figures, however, are merely arranged in a line like the 
procession figures. In V a real group is found in place of the 
scattered figures. The Archander relief 4 has the figures more 
or less grouped, and is the only one resembling ours to any 
extent. In VI the group is still retained, but the figure of 
Hermes is lacking. This is unusual, but not unprecedented. 5 
Of the small relief VII, too little remains to determine the 
composition, but it introduces for the first time on these reliefs 
the figure of the young Pan in a prominent position. 6 

The careless execution of the reliefs makes it impossible to 
date them with any degree of accurac} 7 . It is only safe to say 
that they belong, as do others of this class, to the fourth and 
third centuries B.C. Since they were not made by sculptors of 
note, but by mere artisans, we cannot apply to them the same 
standards of judgment that we do to important works, nor can 
we trace any continuous improvement from early attempts to 
perfected art. The archaic appearance of some of them is not 
due to a conscientious attempt on the part of the sculptor % to 
express what is best in himself, but to lack of skill and to care- 
lessness. In general, ours are better than the average reliefs 
of this class. None is so poor as the Parnes relief, 7 while two 
of them (V and VI) are of decided merit, and another (VII) 
introduces an interesting innovation. 

1 I.e. nos. 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, pi. vii ; cf. Samml. Sab. pi. xxviii. 

2 I.e. nos. 1, 4, 7. 4 Pettier, I.e. no. 1. 

3 NO. 7. 5 Pettier, I.e. no. 12, pi. vii. 

o Young Pan is seen on a relief from Megara, Samml Sab. pi. xxvii, but this 
relief has not the usual dancing nymphs. Pan sits in a circle of serious gods. 
The head and bust of young Pan are also on a fragmentary Cybele-relief from 
Tanagra (Arch. Zeit. XXXVIII (1880), p. 187, pi. 18). 

7 Pettier, I.e. no. 2. 



312 IDA CAELETON THALLON 

A brief discussion of each follows : 

I. This relief is better in conception than in execution. The 
folds of the drapery are formal and archaic, the foreshortening 
of Pan is clumsy, but the procession is not so stiff as is usually 
the case, and some attempt has been made to express individu- 
ality in the faces. 

II. The care in representing the rocky cave, the attempt to 
vary the composition by alternating figures en face with profile 
ones, and the introduction of different costumes are an advance 
on the previous relief. The details, such as the shaggy goafs- 
legs of Pan, are carefully worked out. In the drapery the] 
treatment is more ambitious than in the preceding relief, with 
its few straight lines and channelings, but even here it is note 
true to nature. In the lower part the oblique folds appropriate 
to the profile figure in motion are duplicated on the facing fig- 
ure, giving an awkward appearance between the knees and feet. 

III. The third relief is very careless in execution. The fig- 
ures are too large for the cave, and their heads seem almost to 
support its roof. The modelling of the nude parts is very faulty, 
the arms being made up of a series of planes with no transitions, 
while the drapery is shallow and sketchy. The head of Ache- 
loos is of a merit quite out of keeping with the rest of the relief. 
Evidently the artist could do well enough if he were willing to 
take the trouble. 

IV. Of this only one figure is of interest, that of Hermes. 
Here the modelling, particularly about the legs, is good. The 
easy attitude, with the so-called " double curve " of Praxiteles, 
makes us date the relief no earlier than the latter part of the 
fourth ceiitur}^ B.C., although it may be later. 

V. This shows a decided advance over others of the class, 
both in conception the arrangement into a group and in the 
execution of details. It is more like the Attic grave stelae of 
the fourth century than it is like votive reliefs of its own class. 1 

1 The attitude of the first standing nymph, with the body three-quarters and 
the down-turned face, recalls the figure of a man with his hand resting on his 



THE CAVE AT VARI: MARBLE RELIEFS 313 

There is, however, no question as to its character, as the cave, 
Pan, and the goats around the border, and the inscription 
(w/*(/>afc<?), all show. Aside from the charm and grace of the 
composition as a whole, the execution both of the nude parts 
and of the drapery calls for special mention. The body of 
Hermes is done with care and skill, particularly the thighs, 
which are well rounded yet firm. The arms of the women are 
rendered with great delicacy, the flat treatment being entirely 
abandoned ; the whole rounded surface is worked with care, and 
the marble is smoothly polished. Behind the arm of the stand- 
ing figure, where the undercutting is deepest, there are three or 
four small drill-holes, and behind her forehead are two similar 
ones. Her face stands out from the background, but is not 
well finished on the inner side. This and the adjoining heads 
are the best preserved on the Vari reliefs ; they are of the usual 
later Attic type, with sweet, thoughtful expression. Techni- 
cally, they show the result of no little thought and carefulness ; 
they are treated with feeling, particularly in the transitions 
from nose to cheek and in the curves of the cheek. The ren- 
dering of the drapery is not less successful. In place of the 
conventional parallel grooves running vertically or diagonally 
on the figure, we have drapery which shows the living form 
beneath. Its arrangement about the lower part of the seated 
figure, rather tightly drawn, with a little triangular effect be- 
tween the leg and the rock seat, again recalls the grave stelae, 1 
in which, however, the drapery is usually less transparent. 

VI. The work is excellent in several respects, particularly 
in the variety of the drapery. The heavy and thin materials 
are true to nature, and the masses of folds in the cloak of the 

chin and the same pensive gaze in the National Museum at Athens, no. 717. The 
standing figure behind a seated one is a frequent motive (National Museum at 
Athens, nos. 717, 719, 723 [servant], 729, 737, 743, 819, 822, 830, 832, 870, etc.), 
but a group of three has not been found. 

i National Museum at Athens, nos. 719, 743, 764, 831, 968. It is also very 
like the figure of Apollo in the Mantinean reliefs (cf. Fougeres, Bull Corr. Hell. 
XII [1888], pis. i-iii) in the triangular effect of the drapery, although in the Vari 
figure the drapery is wrapped closely around the leg. 



314 IDA CARLETON THALLON 

seated figure at the right form an excellent contrast to the 
drapery of the standing figure. The arms are well modelled. 
A technical fault is the stiffness and rigidity of the seated figure 
at the left (in striking contrast to the easy pose of the seated 
figure in V). The foot farthest from us is advanced slightly. 1 
The method of representing the hands is quite incorrect. The 
fingers on the rock are unnatural, and the raised right hand 
resting on the background is too round; it is in fact abso- 
lutely wrong between the thumb and forefinger. Instead of 
making a U-shaped curve, the flesh rises into a little mound. 
The figures are too large for the cave, 2 probably because the* 
artist was copying a relief of another sort. This supposition is 
based on two facts. First, such an elementary mistake would 
hardly have been made by an artist who did such good work 
as this relief. Second, the type of maiden differs from those 
on other cave reliefs. It is heavy and massive, not slight and 
graceful. The artist has evidently taken the type of some 
group familiar to him, adding in low relief around the border 
the usual elements of the reliefs in which the nymph occurs. 

A hasty comparison with the Mantinean reliefs 3 is almost 
forced upon us by the consideration that it is the best of the 
fourth century reliefs in which there are groups of three figures. 
In each case 4 there is a standing figure in the middle, around 
which the interest groups itself. This is unusual in the fourth 
century. There are also similarities in separate figures, as, for 
example, in the seated figure to the left, and in the Apollo we 
find the position of the feet reversed, but the arm rests across 
the lap in much the same way, and the manner in which the 
folds of the upper drapery fall to the lap and are grasped by the 
right hand is almost identical. The left hand of Apollo is raised 
to hold his lyre, while in this relief the raised left hand, though 
having no lyre, holds an end of her himation. The position of 
the standing figure is almost the same as one of those from Man- 

1 Compare National Museum at Athens, nos. 717, 832, 968. 

2 Compare III. Fougeres, I.e. 
4 Each of the three Mantinaean slabs and Vari VI. 






THE CAVE AT VAEI : MARBLE RELIEFS 315 

tinea, 1 the knee being slightly more bent. The drapery over the 
knee, running diagonally across the body from the right foot to 
the left hem, is met by a fold from the right hip in exactly the 
same way in both reliefs. The representation of the part of the 
garment below the chiton is in both cases by means of parallel 
grooves alternately deep and shallow, though in the Vari relief 
the grooves are cut somewhat deeper. The differences between 
the two lie chiefly in details. For example, the Mantinean 
figures are more fully draped ; all have their himatia wrapped 
closely about them, but all show more of the long undergar- 
ment below the bottom of the cloak than does this relief. No 
Mantinean figure has the arm raised as in this, although one 
extends her arm, holding out a lyre. In conclusion, it seems as 
if the sculptor of this relief must have been familiar with the 
reliefs from Mantinea, 2 but was forced by the shape of the cave 
to introduce two seated figures at the sides, thus not borrowing 
-exactly from the original. 

VII. The interest of this relief rests upon its relation to 
well-known works of sculpture, and the fact that it introduces 
young Pan prominently on this class of reliefs. Although we 
cannot reconstruct the composition with certainty, this being 
unique, it seems probable that the young god was seated above 
on the rocks, watching the dance below. Pan's relation to the 
nymphs' dance shows several changes ; at one time he leads the 
dance, at another he stands in the cave playing his syrinx, then 
he sits above in the rocks playing, and finally becomes merely 
a spectator, as in this case. It has been noticed that the old 
Pan with goafs-legs was represented on these reliefs, with one 
exception. 3 In the last part of the fifth century a preference 
arose for representing young gods ; Hermes and Dionysus, 
hitherto bearded, became youths, and the same tendency was 

1 Central figure of right slab. 

2 Or with others based on the Mantinean relief, although I am not familiar 
-with any that reproduce the type. One must suppose that the sculptor of the 
Vari relief was familiar either with the Mantinean relief itself or with others 
of the same type. 

3 Megara relief, Samml. Sab. pi. xxvii. See also above, p. 311, note 6. 



316 IDA CAELETON THALLON 

true of Pan. In the case of the former two gods, the later 
type supplanted the earlier one, but, on the contrary, we find 
that the two different types of Pan (the old god, bearded, 
horned, and goat-legged, and the young god entirely human 
except for his small horns) existed side by side l down through 
Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman times, resulting in endless con- 
fusion between young Pan and the satyrs. By the time of 
the Megara relief above mentioned, on which the only other 
representation of young Pan occurs, the artist had a choice 
between these two types, and, in the midst of a solemn assem- 
bly of the gods, chose the human form. The bearded, half- 
human type was undoubtedly the older. Furtwangler, 2 in his 
discussion of the Megara relief, says that young Pan is the type 
which originated in the end of the fifth, and the beginning of 
the fourth century, in the Peloponnesus or Sicily. Its probable 
origin was on the coins of Messana, 431 B.C.; 3 a young head with 
short hair and small horns on his brow. There were two ways 
of representing the young Pan : first, standing ; second, seated. 
The standing type is familiar to us from many illustrations, 
going back to two originals. The first is the well-known 
bronze in the Bibliotheque Nationale, 4 which Furtwangler 5 says 
is an original from the immediate circle of Polyclitus. This is 
almost identical with the Doryphorus statues, except that the 
left arm, which carried a short pedum in place of a spear, is 
more bent, and small horns are added. The other is also from 
an original of Polyclitus. The motive has been borrowed 
inappropriately from the young victor type, and is familiar in 
many copies, of which the " Leyden statuette " is the best rep- 
resentation. 6 Therefore we must admit that by the end of the 

1 British Museum, Catalogue of Vases, vol. Ill, pi. ix, E 228. 

2 Samml. Sab. pi. xxvii. See also 'Satyr von Pergamon,' and Annali delV 
Institute, XLIX (1877), pp. 184 ff., by the same author. 

3 Picture in Gardner, Types of Greek Coins, pi. ii, 42. 

4 Babelon-Blanchet, Catalogue des Bronzes Antiques de la Bibliotheque 
Nationale, 428 A M, III, pi. xii, or Athen. Mitth. Ill (1878), pi. xii. 

5 Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture, p. 229 (English ed.). Babelon says it is a 
copy of the fourth century (Roscher). 

6 Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 114, where a list of copies is given. 



THE CAVE AT VARI : MARBLE RELIEFS 317 

fifth and early fourth centuries, there was, in the Pelopon- 
nesus, a type of young Pan, standing, which originated with 
Polyclitus. 

But we find also a seated type, familiar chiefly on coins. 1 
The wide distribution of this type in later times points to a 
famous original. What, then, is the original of this seated 
type? To return to our relief which supplies the missing link 
-its resemblance to the so-called " Theseus " of the Parthenon 
is obvious. Although not identical, each is a youth in a semi- 
reclining position, resting on a skin or cloak spread over the 
rock. The right knee is drawn up, the body turned partly 
toward the front. The work of our relief is so inferior that 
it is not likely to have been an original conception, and the 
motive was probably borrowed from an original based on the 
"Theseus." At least, there is no other statue which it so 
closely resembles. 2 

On the other hand, the connection between our relief and the 
reclining Pan on the coins is no less apparent, even to the small 
horns and the attributes of club and syrinx. Its high relief is 
a transition between the round statue of the Parthenon and 
the low relief of the coins. From this type of Pan, original in 
Attica, the coins with the type of Pan of the same kind evi- 
dently came. Whether it was taken from an Attic type of Pan 
derived from the " Theseus," or from the " Theseus " itself, we 
cannot say, but, in any case, the original of the coin-type appears 
to be directly or indirectly the statue of the Parthenon. 

If the origin is to be sought elsewhere, we have no existing 
monument which fulfils the required conditions to so admirable 
a degree. We have seen from the dates of the coins that they 
must come from a fifth-century motive. Here is the fifth-century 

1 () Messana (396 B.C.), Imhoof, Monnaies Grecques, pi. B, 5. (6) Arca- 
dian League (370-300 B.C.), Gardner, Types, pi. viii, 32. (c) Megalopolis (300- 
251), Head, Hist. Num. p. 377. (d) Later coins of Delphi, Panticapaeum, 
Sicily, Lower Italy, etc. 

2 A figure on the Lysicrates monument is somewhat similar, but its late date 
makes it probable that it, too, was borrowed from the "Theseus," or was a 
copy of him. 



318 IDA CAIiLETON THALLON 

statue at hand. Objection may be raised that the " Theseus " 
is not a Pan, although that interpretation of this much-discussed 
figure has been suggested, for he has neither the small horns nor 
the attributes associated with this god. 1 But in order to prove 
our point it is by no means necessary to admit that " Theseus " 
is Pan, for we have seen that the Doryphorus, who has no con.- 
nection with Pan, was converted into k type of that god by the 
addition of small horns and a syrinx, and the substitution of a 
club for a spear. Neither is it necessary to admit that the coins 
were copied directly from the " Theseus " (although the fact that 
the figures on the coins all face in the same direction makes it 
probable that they were copied from a relief or a pediment), 
but it seems probable that the " Theseus " was borrowed (with 
necessary alterations) to form a representation of Pan, from 
which the coins were derived. At a later time this attitude 
became famous in Lysippus's well-known statuette of Heracles, 
described by Statius (Silv. IV, 6) and Martial (IX, 43, 44). 
This is copied on the coins of Croton, 2 but the Messanian and 
Arcadian coins antedate Lysippus, and put any such origin out 
of the question. 

It has been said that the connection of the Arcadian coins 
in general with the Polyclitan school is unmistakable, particu- 
larly in the coins with only the head. 3 Even this does not dis- 
prove the Attic origin of the seated Pan on Arcadian coins, for 
the copies need not be slavish. The Peloponnesian artists were 
used to certain proportions, and, while borrowing the motive 
and attribute, might easily retain the proportions to which they 
were accustomed. The head of young Pan was already a 
familiar conception to them, and need not be altered to Attic 

1 Sauer (Athen. Mitth. XVI [1891], p. 82) says that the marks on the floor of 
the pediment show that the left hand held a bronze attribute. Regularly Pan 
holds his syrinx in his left hand, and these marks are probably those of a spear. 
Miss Jane Harrison, who was one of the first to notice the resemblance between 
this relief and the "Theseus," considers it an important piece of evidence in 
identifying the " Theseus " as a " Young Pan." 

2 Illustrations in Gardner, op. cit. pi. v, 2 and 29. 

8 Gardner, op. cit. pi. viii, 32, and explanatory text. 




THE CAVE AT VAEI : MARBLE RELIEFS 319 

style, especially as the treatment of the hair in the bronze 
models of Polyclitus is better adapted for coin engraving than 
in the Attic marble models. While retaining their own treat- 
ment of details, the Peloponnesian die-engravers apparently 
took from their Attic neighbors the attitude of the young god 
of their Arcadian mountains. If at the time of the introduction 
into art of the young god Pan, the Peloponnesians preferred 
the standing type, using for this a famous statue by their famous 
master Polyclitus, why should not the Athenians have preferred 
a seated type modelled after the " Theseus " of Phidias ? This 
origin is not disproved by the non-occurrence of young Pan on 
Attic coins or vases, for the coins of Attica were noticeably con- 
servative, using Athena and the owl as the only decoration of 
the coins until a late date, while young Pan first begins to be 
conspicuous on the vases of the Graeco- Italian period. 

Our Pan, then, is a bit of evidence which forms a link between 
the coins and the " Theseus," and indicates that this type was 
used by the people of Attica for Pan. While exceedingly care- 
less in execution and artistically of no value, it gives us aside 
from the coins our first important representation of the seated 
young Pan ; it shows that there must undoubtedly have been a 
well-known statue from which it was copied, and it points to 
the origin of the seated young Pan in Greek art in the so-called 
" Theseus " of the Parthenon. 

IDA CARLETON THALLON. 

POUGHKEEPSIE. 



American School 
of Classical Statues 
at 



THE CAVE AT VARI 
IV 

VASES, TERRA-COTTA STATUETTES, BRONZES, 
AND MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS 



[PLATES X, XI] 



THE POTTERY 

THE pottery is the common Attic ware such as has been 
found in large quantities at Marion-Arsinoe in Cyprus. In 
general, it consists of a large number of flat bowls or saucers, 
cups and lecythi of plain black ware, and a smaller number 
of red-figured vases, chiefly lecythi, craters of the oxybaphon 
variety, and miniature lutrophori. Of the red-figured exam- 
ples, none are earlier than the period when the eye is correct!}' 
drawn. The earliest vase, two fragments of which are seen 
in PLATE X, is dated about 460 B.C.; 1 and, as this was found 
at the lowest level of the Greek layer, it furnishes the earli- 
est date of the entire vase-find. 2 The latest date of the vase- 
find is at least later than the third century, for Megara ware 
was found in the Greek layer at some distance below the upper 

1 The faces are similar to those on the Orvieto crater to which Milchhofer 
assigns this date (Jahrb. deut. Arch. Instit. IX [1894], p. 75). 

2 It is, of course, possible that the vase was offered at a date later than that 
of its manufacture. However, that the earliest date cannot be later than the 
middle of the century is evident from the use of the three-stroke sigma in an 
incised vase-inscription (Fig. 2, No. 2, p. 326), the form which appears on the 
tribute-lists for the last time in 447 B.C. (C.LA. I, 233). Moreover, at the lowest 
level a few black-figured fragments were found, and this ware finally disappears 
about 450 B.C. (Myres-Richter, Cat. of Cyprus Museum, p. 25). 

320 






AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VII (1903) PLATE X 




MERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VII (1903) PLATE XI 




TERRA-COTTA FIGURINES FROM THE CAVE AT VARI 



THE CAVE AT VAEI : VASES 321 

level. With this agrees the evidence of the terra-cottas which 
extend down into Graeco-Roman times; cf. No. 63 (p. 333). 

The work on the red-figured vases, with the exception of a 
toilet scene on one lutrophorus, is universally careless, and 
the subjects depicted are those found most commonly on the 
inferior ware. One aryballus with Eros and Aphrodite may be 
mentioned. Eros is picking berries from a tree for Aphrodite, 
who sits before him. It differs only in details from the one 
published in the Arch. Zeit. (XXXVII [1879], pi. 6, 2); here 
Aphrodite leans on her right elbow, and with her left hand 
holds up the drapery which covers her back and the lower part 
of her body. Behind Eros is a second tree. Eros wears a 
crown. Of the colors common to this class of vases, only 
traces of white and yellow remain. Height, 0.072 m. 

The list of vases is as follows : l 

Nos. 1-9. Black-figured fragments of careless work, chiefly lecythi with 
stiff, upright palmettes, 'and necks of miniature lutrophori. 

Nos. 10-27 are fragments of large vases which are probably oxybaphons, 
although the trefoil mouth of a large pitcher was found. The fragments 
show women from toilet scenes ; ephebi with strigils ; a bearded man ; a 
couch and an Eros from a banquet scene ; the lower part of a scene with 
Eos and Cephalus, of the type found on E 320 in the British Museum ; 
a youth with a petasus hung on his shoulders ; and the central figures 
from a libation scene. Cf . PLATE X. 

Nos. 28-142. Small aryballi and lecythi. 2 Of these the majority con- 
sist of the plain types, the most common being those ornamented with 
a line left in the red of the clay, running around the lower part of the 
body (Compte Rendu, 1863, pi. vi, 3). There are three examples each of 
the aryballi covered with a network of black glaze (op. cit. fig. 1) and 
of pressed ware, the latter with a band of alternating wedges filled with 
crowded palmettes. The lecythi, covered with pipe-clay and decorated 
with a conventional design in black, number only sixteen. Of the red- 
figured examples, the types represented are the single figure of a woman 
(18), a helmeted head (1), a goose (1), a woman's head with a snood (3), 
and a squat palmette. This last forms the largest series among the aryballi. 

Nos. 143-259. Fragments of cups. The cylix is wanting, and the can- 
tharus appears only four times, showing two forms; cf. Robinson, Cat. oj 

1 The vases are badly broken, only three being intact, a miniature cylix, 
a lamp, and a small lecythus. 

' 2 The height of the lecythi varies from 0.067 m. to 0.14 m.; of the aryballi, 
from 0.055 m. to 0.13 m. 



322 LID A SHAW KING 

Vases, Boston Museum, nos. 407, 411. Other types of cups are nos. 40:5 and 
404 in the Boston Museum ; Stephani, Vasensamm. Ermitage, form 12 (the 
latter are red, painted, in the bowl and about the standard, with concentric 
circles of black); Furtwangler, Vasensamm. zu Berlin, form 284; Compte* 
Rendu, text, 1869, p. 11, no. 63. In addition there is a series of a high, 
narrow scyphus with slightly concave sides, and a series, in coarse ware, of j 
a deep cup with a two-cushioned, high foot. The red tone so common on | 
Attic plain ware found in Cyprus appears a few times. 

Nos. 260-270. Bowls with a metallic lustre ; as Levezow, Gallerie der 
Vasen, Berlin, form 3. 

Nos. 271-321. Saucers or flat bowls on a low foot. They range from a 
coarse, heavy ware painted with a dull wash to a fine ware with a good 
glaze, often with circles, sometimes hung with palmettes, impressed on the 
bowl. One only has an independent rim, as Lau, Die griechischen Vasen, 
pi. ix, 5. On the bowl of one is painted an athlete holding a pair of jumping- 
weights. 

Nos. 322-345. These are gutti of the high-tubed variety, lamps with a 
central circular opening (Stephani, op. cil. form 63), and vases with spout 
and strainer (Furtwangler, op. cit. forms 247 and 249). 

Nos. 346-367. Miniature vases. Of these the larger numbers are circular 
ointment pots (Furtwangler, op. cit. form 258), boxes with extruding bases, 
and cylixes. The latter are plain, sometimes with incurving handles, or 
have a band of pipe-clay about the mouth, painted with a running palmette 
design. There were also found a lecane, a stamnus painted with black 
bands, a handleless amphora with encircling bands left in the red clay, an 
oenochoe on which is painted a horse, a second with an ivy vine painted 
in white about the neck, an olpe with a ribbed body, and an almost cylin- 
drical vase, without a foot and with a flat mouth, as Collignon et Couve* 
Cat. des vases peints du Mus. Nat. a Athenes, no. 1603. 

Nos. 368-378. Small fragments of Megara bowls. 

Nos. 379-394 are the common gray flasklets of Roman date. 

Nos. 395-426. Miniature lutrophori. Height, 0.2 m. to 0.3 m. (?). Of 
these, seventy fragments were found, thirty of which are necks. They show 
both types of the lutrophorus, with one and with two high vertical handles, 1 
and have the slim form and the foot, with the softer curves, of the later 
red-figured lutrophorus. 2 The different varieties of the flaring mouth are 
indicated in Fig. 1. 

1 For the two-handled lutrophorus, cf. the vase-painting in Mon. d. Instil. 
vol. X, pi. 34 ; for the one-handled, that in Dumont et Chaplain, Les ceramiques 
de la Grece propre, vol. I, pi. ix ; for the latter with two horizontal handles in 
addition, that in 'E0r;/i. 'Apx- 1897, pi. 10, 2. Both varieties of the one-handled 
or hydria type are found among the miniatures. 

2 Cf. the grave-lutrophorus published by Wolters, ' Die rotfigurige Loutro- 
phoros,' Athen. Milth. XVI (1891), p. 372. Since, with one exception (cf. 
Richards, Jour. Hell. Slud. XIV [1894], pp. 193 f.), no lutrophorus vases 
have been published, references must be made to their representations in vase* 






THE CAVE AT VARI : VASES 



323 




The miniature follows its prototype in the scheme of decoration. It is 
not necessary to give the details, but it may be mentioned that even the 
broad bevel which, painted with a palmette or other ornamental band, orna- 
ments the lower part of the neck, in the more elaborate lutrophori, 1 appears 
occasionally. On the 
mouth and handles is 
the snake line painted in 
white, the well-known 
decoration of the grave- 
lutrophorus. Here, as 
there, it is a snake- or 
wave-line, or zigzag, 
often accompanied on the FIGURE 1. TYPES o<- MOUTHS OF LUTROPHORI. 
mouth by a second simi- 
lar, but narrower, band nearer the rim. This decoration is evidently charac- 
teristic of the class, and, as these vases are not sepulchral, it cannot, when 
found on the grave-lutrophorus, be interpreted as a snake-line, 2 used sym- 
bolically of the grave. On the neck the main design is one or two attendants 
from a toilet scene; on the body, a toilet scene. 8 These miniatures had no 
practical use ; for the channel of the neck is narrow, in one case with a 
diameter of only 0.06 m., and the clay is often thick, and left rough on the 
inside, while on some the mouth is enclosed, except for a small aperture in 
the centre, as No. 3 in Fig. 1. 

It is of interest to find these miniatures of the vase, which was the one 
most commonly chosen to carry the water for the nuptial bath, 4 used as 



paintings or to the grave-lutrophorus. Lutrophori have been found in Athens, 
chiefly in the Pre-Persian layer south of the Parthenon, and near the Pro- 
pylaea in the excavations of 1873. To the list of representations on vases 
(Wolters, op. cit. p. 385) are to be added the two published in the 'EQw. 'A/>x 
1897, pp. 128 ff., pi. 10. 

1 Cf. Furtwangler, Sammlung Sabouroff, vol. I, pi. lix ; Wolters, op. cit. 
p. 372 ; etc. 

2 The usual interpretation ; cf. Furtwangler, op. cit. text to pis. Iviii, lix ; 
Herzog, Arch. Zeit. XLI (1882), p. 137 ; Collignon, article Loutrophoros, 1 
Daremberg et Saglio, Diet, antiq. gr. et rom. p. 1318 ; Bruckner und Pernice, 
Athen. Mitth. XVIII (1893), p. 143. On the grave-lutrophorus more elaborate 
forms are also found ; cf. Mon. d. Instit. vol. Ill, pi. 60, vol. VIII, pi. 5, 1 g; etc. 

3 Of the black-figured examples, only necks remain. On one are two flying 
women dressed in himations, while an altar (?) stands on the ground; on a 
fragment of another is the lower part of a man, dressed in a himation, walking 
to the right. Of the lutrophori found on the Acropolis at Athens, the designs 
of the black-figured ones are chiefly processions ; of the red-figured ones, sacri- 
ficial processions, processions of gods, and toilet scenes. 

4 Milchhofer (Athen. Mitth. V [1880], p. 176 and foot-note 2) was the first to 
identify this vase with the lutrophorus used for the nuptial bath, and also as a 
grave monument for those who died unmarried. 



324 LIDA SHAW KING 

offerings at a spring from which the fresh water requisite for the nuptii 
bath was taken. 1 As a class, these vases were not made for the one purj 
as ex-votos to be dedicated to marriage deities; for one has been found ii 
the precinct of Amynus and one in the precinct of Dionysus, in the distrk 
between the Areopagus and the Pnyx in Athens. 2 However, it is natun 
to assume that their presence in the cave at Vari was due to the special ui 
of their prototype, and it is difficult to explain on other grounds the lai 
number, which implies some connection with the local worship. The 
sible explanation that miniatures of vases used for carrying water would 
appropriate offerings at a spring cannot be accepted, because of the small 
number of amphoras and pitchers among the vases. The theory 
miniatures of toilet vases would naturally be found at the shrine of i\ 
Nymphs, the protectors of young girls, is refuted by the small number 
other varieties of toilet vases in the vase-find. These miniatures mayj 
have been offered when the nuptial water was taken from the spring, 
at the less formal sacrifice which young girls offered to the Xyni] 
before their marriage, 3 or on any occasion requiring an offering to thesej 
deities of marriae. 4 



1 Porphyry, De Antris Nympharum, 12 : &0tv KO.I TOW 

K Trrjy&v . . . 77 KpffvCjv devduv i\Tr)(j./j.tvois. Euripides, 
1. 347, Schol. : tiri ^7x w ^ ots TTOTa.jj.ois ctTroXotfecrflcu. 

2 It is, of course, true that to local heroes was sometimes offered the pre- 
marriage sacrifice (Pausanias, II, 32, 1), but we know of Amynus only as a 
Hero Physician (Athen. Mitth. XVIII [1893], p. 233). 

3 Cf. Gardner and Jevons, Manual of Greek Antiquities, p. 345 ; also Plutarch, 
Aniftt. N(irr. 1 : o>s TJ K6prj Kara ra irdrpia tiri TTJV Ki<ro'6<r<ra.v KO.\OV^VTJV Kp^vrjf 
KaTyei rats Ntf/i$cus TO. TrportXeia 06<rov<ra, where the sacrifice does not refer to the 
more formal ceremony to the ya^Xiot 0eol, for in Boeotia (the passage refers 
to Ilaliartus) this took place at the altar of Artemis (Plutarch, Aristides, 20). 
Probably, in this inaccessible cave at Vari, the ceremony took place when the 
water was taken from the spring. 

4 Dr. Hartwig ('E^/i. 'Apx- 1897, p. 138) notes the discovery, in excava- 
tions near the Propylaea.on the Acropolis at Athens, of some miniature or 
votive lutrophori, which, with great probability, lie connects with the precinct 
of Artemis Brauronia, and regards as offerings made by young girls to the 
goddess. Dr. Wolters (op. cit. pp. 383 f.) adds to his list of grave-lutrophori 
five votive ones (nos. 29, 30, 32-34) from the museums. In addition to those 
given by Wolters, two have been recently acquired by the National Museum 
at Athens : 

(1) No. 12540. Lambros Collection. Red-figured. Three handles. Height, 
0.34 m. On the neck, a woman presenting an alabastron to a second ; on the 
body, a toilet scene. The central figure is a girl, seated to left, holding a large 
lutrophorus in her lap ; on either side, two attendants. 

(2) No. 12280. Red-figured. Two handles. Height, 0.3 m. On the neck, a 
woman closely wrapped ; on the body, a toilet scene. The central figure is 
a bearded man, seated to left, resting his right hand on a table ; a fillet binds 
his hair, his cloak has fallen, leaving the upper part of the body bare. A winged 






THE CAVE AT VAEI : VASES 325 



INSCRIPTIONS ON VASES 

On eighteen vases are incised inscriptions. Their facsimiles 1 
are given in Fig. 2. Nos. 6, 7, 16, and 18, and l and 2 were 
cut each on the mouth of a crater, the first four just inside 
the rim, the others on the rim itself; Nos. 3, 4, 5, 8, and 9, on the 
foot of a scyphus, and No. 15, of a saucer; No. 10, around the 
neck of a cantharus; No. 17, on the inside .of a saucer; and 
Nos. 11, 12, 13, and 14, on the sides of small vases. Both 
the Attic and the Ionic alphabets were used. The inscrip- 
tions are accordingly grouped under these heads : (1) Attic, 
(2) Ionic, and (3) Undetermined, the last class being made up 
of those, which, owing to the lack of characteristic letters, may 
belong to either alphabet. 

ATTIC 

1. IIo...p. . -v lv ye SiKei /xe dv.'0cic[ei/]. Of this inscription five frag- 
ments remain, four of which (a, b, c, <I) are consecutive. The dedicator was 
forced to crowd his letters at the end and, finally, to cut the last two sylla- 

Eros flies down. From either side runs a winged attendant. Cf. the somewhat 
similar one in Berlin, Vasensamml. no. 2630. 

To these should be added an example in the Louvre : 

(3) Louvre, Paris. Red-figured. Height, 0.18 m. On the neck, toilet scene 
with women ; on the body, Eros bringing an ornament to Aphrodite. Found in 
a tomb at Bengazi in the Cyrenai'ca. (The only example of known provenu nee 
in the museums.) 

The use of the votive lutrophorus was evidently much influenced by the two 
special uses of its prototype. This was to be expected, as these two uses were 
so closely associated in Attic life with important events, marriage and death. 
The excavations at Vari reveal that the votive lutrophorus was a favorite offer- 
ing to the goddesses of marriage. [With regard to the other Attic shrines of the 
deities of marriage, so far as they have been excavated, at Callirrhoe, on the 
Ilissus, where the Athenian girls obtained the water for the nuptial bath 
(Thucydides, II, 12), the lutrophorus was not found ; but the yield of vases was 
very small. The same is true of the sanctuary of Amphiaraus, where Aphrodite 
and the Nymphs were worshipped (Pausanias, I, 34, 3). This sanctuary was so 
often under Attic rule that we may believe that the Attic vase would be used 
there : cf. Frazer, Pausanias, vol. II, p. 463. I do not know whether or not any 
were found in the excavation of the shrine of Aphrodite on the Sacred Way 
(Pausanias, I, 37, 7).] Its sepulchral use must have been limited to the graves 
of those who died before marriage. The vase represented as standing on the 
top of a grave stele, on an Athenian white lecythus (Birch, Ancient Pottery, 
opp. p. 395), is probably a votive, not a grave, lutrophorus. 

1 These are slightly under the actual size. 



326 



LID A SHAW KING 




FIGURE 2. INSCRIPTIONS ON VASES FROM VARI. 



THE CAVE AT VAEI : VASES 327 

bles, OtKtv, on the inner side of the mouth. The inscription is metrical, 
the latter part forming the last three feet of an hexameter, and, to judge 
from the length of the mouth, consisted of two verses. For the rare omission 
of the elision in metrical inscriptions, in the formula /AC aveOrjKtv, cf. Allen, 
< Greek Versification in Inscriptions,' Papers of the American School at Athens, 
1885-86, pp. 136-137. The inscription was cut on a red-figured vase of the 
early fine period, dating about 460 B.C. (PLATE X). We have, then, a very 
late use of the cross-barred theta. 1 

2. At6/AVC(7TOS dv[e'0eK/]. 

3. hicpd. 4. A[i]epa. 

5. Ti/xo. This formula, the name of the dedicator standing alone in the 
nominative, is found on votive vases from Naucratis (< Naucratis,' Annual of 
the British School at Athens, 1898-99, p. 55, nos. 66 and 108). Rouse, Greek 
Votive Offerings, p. 324, finds only one possible example (this on a vase) 
among all classes of votive offerings. Cf. also No. 11. 

6 ..... o KOI IIo/>t[7r...] or IIov[r...]; cf. No. 5 or, with the verb, cf. 
No. 2. Either formula may have been used in Nos. 7, 13, 16, 17, and 18. 

IONIC 

7 ..... evrj. A was found on a fragment probably of the same vase. 

8. MtKa Ka\r) avtOrjKcv. 

9. [Nv/u,<]ais iepos. The form of the dative ending shows that the 
Nymphs, and not the Charites (the other feminine deities worshipped in 
the cave [see p. 295]), are to be .understood. 

10. 
11. 



UNDETERMINED 

12. [.... (W077JKCV. 

13. 'AT.... 

14. NV<[ai9 icpd?] (cf. No. 9) or NV/A<[<H] (cf. No. 15). The broad, 
early Attic form of the mu is probably due to the curved surface of the vase, 
and was not intentional. 

15. [Nv/x]<ai. The nominative must stand here, as there is room on 
the fragment for the sigma of the dative, had the engraver desired to use it 
(cf. Rouse, op. cit. p. 235). When found at Naucratis, it is explained as a 
Samian custom (Naucratis, p. 54, no. 30). For a third variety of votive 
formulas, used on a vase dedicated to the Nymphs, cf. Kaibel, Inscr. Graec. 
Sic. Ital. no. 860. 

16. 'Apioro ..... 

17. txrio or 10 

18. s 

19. Graffito. 

1 With the exception of this instance, the latest use of known to me is on 
the Pandora cylix in the British Museum (Cat. vol. Ill, D 4), a vase of the late 
severe period. 



328 LID A SHAW EIXG 

THE TERRA-COTTA STATUETTES 

The terra-cottas number eighty-five. With one exception, 
all are broken, while of many there are but small fragments] 
Chronologically they cover a period which extends from about 
the middle of the fifth century B.C. into Graeco- Roman times. 
The fifth-century and " Tanagra " types are represented in aboufl 
equal numbers, while the large proportion of statuette- vases im 
noticeable. The late Hellenistic type is little represented, as 
usual in Attica. Naturally, at so small a shrine, we do not find; 
one largely represented type of local manufacture. MoreoverJ 
the proportion of statuettes of local deities is small : Pan is rep-j 
resented only three times, Apollo not at all ; of the deities associ-1 
ated with Pan, Silenus, three times in vases of the fifth century, 
once in the statuette-vases, the Satyrs, once ; the Nymphs, proba- 
bly once, in the Satyr and Nymph group No. 63. As the Pans! 
and Sileni are so common in the fifth century, and the Sileni andj 
groups of Nymphs and Satyrs in the Hellenistic period, the pro- 
portions found here are the usual ones. As to the other deities,, 
if we interpret the female figures and masks of the fifth century 
as deities, Demeter is represented six times, Aphrodite three. 
Aphrodite is also found once among the statuette-vases. 

The quality of the terra-cottas is excellent, considering the 
simplicity of the shrine. Nos. 36, 41, and 52 are worthy of note. 
On the ^ Tanagra " types only the purely Attic styles of head- 
dress are found. No new use of color can be detected. 

ARCHAIC 

Xo. 1 (PLATE XI, 1 12). The mask of a woman, with features and 
treatment of the hair similar to those of the Apollo of Tenea. As this was 
found with vase-fragments, it cannot have been ottered in the cave earlier 
than the middle of the fifth century, the earliest date of the vase-find. 2 This 
is the only terra-cotta found intact. Clay, light-brown, hard. 

1 In PLATE XI the figures 1-16 correspond to the catalogue numbers as fol- 
lows: 1, 39 ; 2. 40 ; 3, 52 ; 4, 41 ; 5, 42 ; <5, 63 ; 7, 60 ; 8, 61 ; 9, 63 ; 10, 8 ; 
11, 44 ; 12, 1 ; 13, 53 ; 14, 2 ; 15, 3 ; 16, 20. 

2 Cf. p. 320. This may be a late preservation of an early hieratic type. 
A mask of the fifth-century style was found in a late Hellenistic grave at 



THE CAVE AT VARI : TERliA-COTTAs 329 

FIFTH-CENTURY TYPES 

No. 2 (PLATE XI, 14). A naked, bearded Pan seated on the top of a 
rock, holding the syrinx near his mouth. The horns rise from a knob over 
the forehead, and branch out on either side, being joined to the head, thus 
giving the appearance of an elaborate head-dress. Traces of red on the 
body. Clay, light brown, hard. 

No. 3 (PLATE XI, 15). Slim, bearded Pan standing, holding a syrinx 
of four pipes near his mouth. A short chlamys hangs down the back 'from 
the shoulders, forming a background. Clay, red-pink, hard. 

No. 4. Naked Pan with goat's legs and a tail, seated on a rock. Head 
and arms are wanting. Height, 0.089 in. Clay, light brown, hard. 

Xos. 5, 6, and 7 are the common figures of Silenus, squatting on the 
ground. In Xos. 5 and 6 he plays the double pipes. In Xo. 7 only the head 
and breast remain ; cf. Martha, Cat. des figurine* en tcrre cuite du Mug. cle la 
Soc. Arch. d'Athenes, nos. 464-473. Height, 0.06 m. Clay, light brown or 
red, hard. 

Xo. 8 (PLATE XI, 10). The mask of a woman with stephane. The 
hair is parted in the middle, and hangs down to the shoulders in a solid 
mass. The common type. Clay, light brown, soft. 

N\>s. 9 and 10. Seated female figures, with the hands resting on the 
knees. Much defaced. The folds of the Doric chiton are indicated by 
symmetrical lines, and oblong ornaments fasten it at the shoulders. Height, 
:u. Clay, red, soft. 

Xos. 11. 12. and 13. Standing female figures, dressed in chiton and hima- 
tion. with the right arm left bare. The right hand catches a fold of the 
himation above the right knee, the left holds a bird under the breast; as 
Salzmann, Nc'cropole d. Camiros, pi. 18. The heads are defaced or wanting. 
Xo. 11 was fastened to an upright plinth, and formed a placque. The 
suspension-hole still remains. Height, 0.154 m. Xo. 12 was made in the 
same mould, but has been broken from its plinth. Xo. 13, made from a 
similar but larger mould, is a statuette. Clay, red, hard. 

Xos. 14 and 15. Veiled heads, much defaced. Height, 0.032 m. Clay, 
light brown, soft. Height, 026 m. Clay, pink, hard. 

Xo. 16. A large, coarse head, with a stephane moulded solidly with the 
head. The hair is represented by a semicircular conventional roll. The 
common tvpe. of which hundreds have been found on the Acropolis at 
Athens. Height, 0.058 m. Clay, red, hard. 

Xos. 17 and 18. A woman's head, with the hair in an exaggerated 
" Psyche " knot, gathered in a sphendone. The hair falls in waves on 
either side of the forehead : cf. Dumout et Chaplain, op. cit. vol. II, pi. iv. 4, 
from Athens. Height. 0.057 m. Clay, light brown, soft. The knot does 
not narrow quickly toward the end, as in most examples of this type. 

Myrina ; cf. Pottier et Keinach, La Xecropole fie Miirina, vol. I, pp. 386, 387, 
where other examples of the custom are given ; cf. also Waldstein, The Aryive 
H<-r<( t'U ni, vol. I, p. 40. 



330 LID A SHAW KING 

No. 19. Canephore carrying a three-panelled . basket, of the class de- 
scribed by Heuzey, Les figurines antiques, text to pi. 16 bis, 3. 1 Cf. also 
Martha, op. cit. no. 681 (no. 6017, National Museum, Athens), from Cyrene; 
Ohnefalsch-Richter, Kypros, The Bible and Homer, pi. ccvii, 4; C 69 and 
C 151, from Melos and Amathus, in the British Museum. In this example 
the arms are not raised to balance the basket ; the figure on the front panel 
is a naked man, striding to the right. The hair is in a roll about the fore- 
head. Traces of yellow on the basket and hair. The body is missing. 
Height, 0.065 m. Clay, light brown, soft. 

No. 20 (PLATE XI, 16). Canephore with a plain basket. The figure is 
dressed in a sleeveless chiton and a himation, with diplo'idion, which passes 
below the right arm and falls in deep folds over the left shoulder. The hair is 
parted in the middle, and falls in a lock on either side of the head. Both hands 
hold the basket. Cf. no. 197, from Halicarnassus, in the British Museum. 
Traces of red on the hair. Broken below the knees. Clay, light brown, hard. 

No. 21. Hydrophore. The jar rests on a cushion, and is taller and of a 
somewhat different shape from the usual type (Pettier, Les statuettes de terre 
cuite, p. 56, foot-note 2). A hydrophore, C 18, from Athens, in the British 
Museum, carries a similar jar. The hair forms a roll about the forehead. 
Traces of yellow on the jar. Broken at the neck and at the top of the jar. 
Clay, brown, soft. 

"TANAGRA" TYPES 

No. 22. Ephebus wrapped in a cloak, standing. Head and legs missing. 
Height, 0.063 m. Clay, light brown, soft. 

No. 23. Small torso and legs of Eros (?). Clay, pink, soft. 

No, 24. Torso and legs of a flying boy(?). A chlamys hung in heavy 
folds over the left shoulder, across the back, and about the right leg. Height, 
0.12 m. Clay, light brown, hard. 

Nos. 25-29. Fragments of " Tanagra " standing women, dressed as the 
figures in Kekule, Die griechischen Thonfiguren aus Tanagra, pi. xiii ; Reinach, 
Les antiquites du Bosphore Cimme'rien, pi. Ixviii, 1. One holds an apple in 
the left hand. 

No. 30. Fragment of the unveiled dancer type, as Stackelberg, Die Graber 
der Hellenen, pi. Ixv. 

No. 31. Woman seated, closely wrapped, her head resting in her hands. 
Height, 0.68 m. Clay, red, hard. 

No. 32. Lower part of the figurine of a woman seated on a rock, as the 
figure in Kekule, op. cit. pi. ii. The rock is red, the projections brown, and 
on the back there is a band of hooks in brown. Clay, light brown, hard. 

No. 33. Woman seated on a rock, as in Heuzey, op. cit. pi. 20, 3. Only 
the right side remains. Traces of pink on the drapery. Clay, red, hard. 

No. 34. Young girl seated on a box, of the usual type. The head is miss- 
ing. Height, 0.035 m. Clay, red, hard. Cf. Hutton, Greek Terra-cotta 
Statuettes, fig. 23. 

1 Cf. Winter, Festschrift fur Benndorf, Vienna, p. 319 ; note to p. 188. 



THE CAVE AT VARI : TERRA-COTTAS 331 

No. 35. Young girl reclining on the ground, as Furtwangler, Die Samm- 
lung Sabourojf, vol. II, pi. xciii. The head, arms, and lower legs are missing. 
The drapery is a soft green. Clay, light brown, hard. 

No. 36. Small statuette of a winged girl, kneeling. The wings, head, and 
arms are wanting. Height, 0.074 m. Curls hang down on the breast and 
back, a cross-band gathering them in the back. The drapery covers the 
lower body ; at the waist the edge of the drapery is turned back, and then 
spreads out as a petal. This same effect is found on a kneeling woman, 
holding a bag of knuckle-bones, from Tanagra (case 103, Boston Museum), 
and on two figurines from Myrina (case 114, National Museum, Athens). 
The drapery is a soft pink, the hair yellow. Clay, pink, hard. 

Nos. 37-42. Six heads with Attic coiffure. In No. 37 the hair is drawn 
back into a flat knot at the apex of the head, as on the woman at the 
left in the Attic grave-relief, Conze, Die attischen Grabreliefs, pi. Ixxxi, 
no. 327. No. 38 has a smaller, more upright knot, and is similar to the 
terra-cotta head in Stackelberg, op. cit. pi. Ixxv, 1. Both are defaced. 
Nos. 39-42 (PLATE XI, 1, 2, 4, and 5) wear the hair in a roll. In No. 39 
(1) we have the circular roll common on the grave-reliefs, crowned with 
a stephane cut, as the later ones often are, 1 with perpendicular dashes. 
No. 40 (2) has a high top-knot on the forehead (cf . the terra-cotta head in 
Stackelberg, op. cit. pi. Ixxvii, 1), which was probably cut in horizontal lines 
ending in deep dashes. In No. 41 (4) the roll comes to a high point at the 
top, as is often seen on the grave-reliefs (cf. the seated woman in Conze, 
op. cit. pi. Ixxxix, no. 359 ; pi. Ixviii, no. 290 ; etc.) . The treatment of the 
hair is artistic, rather than natural. In No. 42 (5) the roll is pointed, but 
less exaggerated, the hair is drawn back from the face, the waves are repre- 
sented by deep horizontal cuts. Leaves from garlands remain on No. 42 (5) 
and No. 41 (4). Yellow is found on the roll in No. 41 (4), on the head in 
No. 42 (5) and No. 41 (4) ; red, on the roll and head in No. 40 (2) ; brown- 
red, on the cheeks in No. 41 (4). Clay, light brown, hard. 

STATUETTE-VASES 2 

No. 43. Silenus leading a goat, which Eros rides. The statuette is badly 
defaced, but seems to be a replica, in all details, of the one in the Louvre 
(Heuzey, op. cit. pi. 38, 4). Traces of green- on the veil, of red on the leg of 
Silenus. Height, 0.1 m. Clay, light brown, soft. 

No. 44 (PLATE XI, 11). A beautiful statuette of a nude young man, 
standing in repose. The head and neck are bent forward in full relief from 
the neck of the vase. The left hand, which, with the left arm, is covered 
with a chlamys, rests on the left hip. The right arm (missing) was probably 

1 As in nos. 12114, 12113, from Eretria, no. 4960 from Asia Minor, arid others 
in the National Museum, Athens. 

2 These belong to one class, a lecythus or oenochoe, having for its obverse 
side a terra-cotta figure or group. The mouth of the vase is missing, except in 
four cases, Nos. 46, 52, 57, and one undescribed, in all of which it is a trefoil. 



332 LID A SHAW KING 

extended, holding a cup or pitcher, as in the somewhat similar example pub- 
lished by Reinach, op. cit. pi. Ixx, fig. 7. The hair lies in thick clusters about 
the forehead, and falls in long curls on the breast. A garland and crown 
decorate the hair. The face is carefully retouched. The hair-waves are 
indicated by clusters of crescents. Traces of yellow on the hair. The 
figure is broken off at the hips. Clay, pink-red, hard. 

Nos. 45-48. Naked child reclining in a grotto. In only one can tho 
figure be restored ; here the right hand is extended, holding a dog by the tail. 
The two heads, remaining-, have the calathus, once with broad ribbons, and 
hair-dress typical of the class (Furtwaugler, Vasensamtn. zu Berlin, nos. 2911, 
2914, 2922-24, 2928; no. 2083 in the National Museum, Athens; Compte 
Remlu, 1876, pi. v, 16, 17; Arch. Zeit. XXII (1864), pi. clxxxii, 4; G 4 in 
the British Museum). Clay, light brown, hard. 

No. 49-51. Small fragments of heads of same. 

No. 52 (PLATE XI, 3). Head of a young woman. The rest of the figure 
is missing. The head inclines far to the right, and bends forward. A veil 
(missing) formed the background, probably covering the hair, which is 
done in a high knot on the top of the heaJ. Great care has been given 
to the hair. The coroplast curved the locks about the forehead in great 
variety, and then made fine grooves along each lock near the face, 1 thus 
obtaining the effect of the soft hairs which lie on the forehead. The broader 
waves of the hair at the side are deeper and heavier on tha side away from 
the light. The eyelids are carefully retouched. The hair is yellow. Ths 
neck of the vase is closed near the neck of the figure. Clay, pink, hard. 

No. 53 (PLATE XI, 13). Naked boy seated in a high-backed chair. He 
is represented in three-quarters view, the left knee being in low relief. 
The head is bent forward, and looks up smilingly ; the right hand, extended 
across the body, holds an apple (?). The head-dress is a calathus, resting on 
a large roll, decorated with leaves. Clay, red, hard. 

No. 54. Aphrodite Anadyomene. The upper part of the figure is broken 
off at the breasts. Height, 0.035 m. The right hand holds out the drapery 
at the side, as in the Boston Museum example (A nnual Report, 1900, pp. 80 f.). 
The basis was circular and high; the shell missing. Clay, pink-red, hard. 

No. 55. Head of a young girl reclining toward the left ; the hair falls on 
the breast. The body is missing. Europa on the Bull (?). Clay, brown, hard. 

No. 56. Head of a young child, with wreath and calathus ; figure missing. 
Height, 0.025 m. Clay, brown, hard. 

No. 57. Small head of a young woman, the hair in a roll about the fore- 
head ; body missing. Height, 0.015 m. Clay, pink, hard. 

No. 58. Upper part of a woman, dressed in a Doric, high-girt chiton, raising 
her arms above her head. The head is wanting. Clay, light brown, hard. 

No. 59. Lower part of a standing woman, as Pettier, op. cit. fig. 38. Clay, 
light brown, hard. 

1 These grooves, so characteristic of bronze technique, are not found commonly 
among terra-cottas. They are seen on two heads with Phrygian caps in the 
National Museum, Athens, on the locks escaping from the caps. 



THE CAVE AT VAR1 : TERRA-COTTAS 333 

LATE TYPES 

Nos. 60 and 61 (PLATE XI, 7 and 8). Two examples of the coarse old 
woman who covers the lower part of her face with her himation. [Heuzey, 
op. cit. pi. 51, 1, 2, and 3 (text) : Compte Rendu, 1865, pi. vi, 6 ; 1869, pi. iii| 
11; 1875, pi. ii, 31: Paris, Elatee, pi. xi, 8: Terres-cuites antiques, Coll. 
Lecuyer, pi. Q 2 , 3 (text), similar to Fig. 7 : no. C 508, A (a fragment from 
Cyprus), in the British Museum : no. 6045, from Peiraeus, and a second, 
from Tanagra, in the National Museum, Athens, similar to Fig. 8 : also, iii 
the National Museum, no. 4689 (from Tanagra), one fragment from the 
Cabirium, and Martha, op. cit. nos. 953-955 and 960 (Dumont et Chaplain, 
op. cit. vol. II, pi. xxiv, 3 ; Pettier, op. cit. p. 123, fig. 43), of unknown prove- 
nience.] Clay of No. 60, red, hard ; of No. 61, pink, soft. 

No. 62 (PLATE XI, 6). Grotesque face or comic mask of a young man, 
with thick lips wide open, a broad upturned nose, a deep pouch over each 
eye, and a perpendicular furrow on the forehead. The face is broken 
on all sides. The piece is solid, with a slightly concave back, and is cov- 
ered on both sides with a deep red glaze. On either side of the chin is a 
hole running horizontally, but the two holes, though meeting in the centre, 
do not form one continuous opening. Clay, light brown, hard. 

No. 63 (PLATE XI, 9). Fragment of a group composed of a Nymph (?) 
and a Satyr, showing the head and bust of the Satyr in relief, from which the 
forehead and part of the left side are wanting. The Satyr, bearded and with 
goat's ears, raises the syrinx to his mouth, looking up, with an expression of 
fear and cunning, to the Nymph (?), whose left hand rests on his left shoulder. 
A skin(?) covers the left shoulder and the lower breast. There is careful 
modelling of the coarse features, the muscles of the left hand are indicated, 
and the upper part of the face shows skilful retouching ; the eyelids are cut 
in deep and sharp ; the wrinkles on the brow, by the eyes and nose, are 
marked. Large pieces of a black-green glaze still remain on the skin(?), 
the syrinx, the beard, and the fingers of the Nymph ; the rest of the surface 
is a dull black. White is found on the black glaze. The late form of the 
syrinx shows that the terra-cotta cannot be earlier than Graeco-Rornan times. 
(Furtwangler, Der Satyr aus Pergamon, p. 7.) Clay, light brown, hard. 

MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS 

Nos. 64-66. A turtle, dove, and frog ; the last is painted brown, with 
yellow spots. 

Nos. 67-69. Articulated dolls. 1 

Nos. 70 and 71. Fragments of a throne, and of a column with one plinth. 2 

1 The dolls, the grotesque head (No. 63), and the toy animals may have been 
offered to the Nymphs by young girls before marriage (Anthol. Pal. VI, 280), 
but one expects to find a larger number. This suggests that perishable varieties 
were greater favorites. 

2 Among the other fragments is the neck of a jug of coarse red clay, unpol- 
ished, with a diameter of 0.03 m. The mouth was flattened on either side to 
receive a suspension-hole ; on the front was stamped the face of a woman. 



334 LID A SHAW KING 

BRONZE, IRON, AND GLASS OBJECTS 

There are few articles of bronze, aside from the coins : a few 
finger-rings, a small circular band (diameter, 0.02 m.; width, 
0.01 in.), a strainer, an unidentified object, and a cow-bell (with 
part of a second), from which the clapper is missing. The bell 
was found at the north end of the artificial wall (p. 274) at a 
depth of 1 m., together with vase-fragments, and was possibly 
a votive offering to Pan. 1 Iron is represented by two or three 
finger-rings and some nails ; glass, by a few small fragments, 
probably from one object, of the iridescent ware of late Hellen- 
istic and Roman times, and by the upper part of one of the com- 
mon small amphoras of opaque glass. 

LIDA SHAW KING. 

PROVIDENCE. 



1 A bell bearing a dedicatory inscription was found at the Cabirium (Walters,. 
Cat. of Bronzes, Brit. Mus. no. 318). 






American School 
of Classical Studies 
at 



THE CAVE AT VAKI 
v 

COINS 



THE coins found in the cave at Vari are of types already 
published. They have been catalogued as indicated below and 
placed in the " find department. " of the Numismatic Museum 
at Athens. Without exception they are of bronze. 

SUMMARY 

No. of 
GREEK Coins 

JE 
1. Athenian coin of circ. 220-86 B.C. (Head, Historia Numo- 

rum, p. 325 ; cf . Br. Mus. Cat. of Or. Coins, Attica, etc. 
(1888), p. 83, pi. xiv, 11) 1 



Obv. "Head of Athena Par- 
thenos r., wearing ear-ring and 



close-fitting helmet with triple ^ ., -rr ,1 

crest, adorned in front with the On the Vafl COm the 

foreparts of four horses abreast, 

at the side with a flying Pegasos 

or griffin, and on the back with 

a scroll resembling an aplustre ; 

border of dots." 



Rev. "A 6E Tripod. To '!., 
poppy-head ; to r., thunder-bolt." 



poppy is more distinct 
than on the example in 
Br. Mus. Cat. pi. xiv. Cf. 
with silver coin, Head, op. 
cit. p. 321, no. (24), of 
186-146 B.C. 



ROMAN IMPERIAL 

2. Constantinus Magnus (307-337 A.D. 1 ). 

1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, Mon- 
naies Romaines, 2d ed., VII, p. 304, no. 638 . 

1 The dates, which are those given by Hill, Handbook of Greek and Eoman 
Coins, denote the year in which the title of Augustus was received and the year 
of the emperor's death. 

335 



336 AGNES BALDWIN 

No. of 

3. Constant (337-350 A.D.). C ^ ns 

1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VII, 

p. 420, no. 106 1 

4. Constantius II (337-361 A.D.). 

36 examples (or varieties) of type published by Cohen, VII, 

p. 446, no. 44 ; 
5 examples (or varieties) of type published by Cohen, VII, 

p. 468, no. 188 ; 
5 illegible l . . . ' . . . . . 46 

5. Jidianus Philosophus (360-363 A.D.). 

3 examples (or varieties) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 
p. 45, no. 16 ; 

1 illegible . . 4 

6. Jovianns (363-364 A.D.). 

2 examples (or varieties) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 79, no. 32 . . . . . . . . 2 

7. Valentimanus I (364-375 A.D.). 

1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 
p. 88, no. 12; 

3 examples (or varieties) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 92, no. 37 4 

8. Valentimanus II (375-392 A.D.). 

1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 142, no. 23 ; 
1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 142, no. 28 ........ 2 

9. Valens (364-378 A.D.). 

3 examples (or varieties) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 
p. 103, no. 11 ; 

1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 110, no. 47; 

2 illegible .... ..... 6 

10. Procopius (365-366 A.D.). 

1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 122, no. 9 1 

1 That is, the reverse type. 



THE CAVE AT VARI : COINS 337 

No. of 

.1. Gratianus (367-383 A.D.). Coills 

1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 130, no. 30 ; 
1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 130, no. 34 ; 

1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 
p. 134, no. 71 ; 

1 illegible 4 

2. Theodosius (379-395 A.D.). 

2 examples (or varieties) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 155, no. 15 ; 

1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 
p. 157, no. 27 ; 

3 examples (or varieties) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 158, no. 30 ; 
1 example (or variety) of type published by Cohen, VIII, 

p. 158, no. 31 ... ' , .... 7 

3. Arcadius (395-408 A.D.). 

1 example (or variety) of type published by Sabatier, Monn. 

Byzan. I, p. 106, no. 40 ; 
3 examples (or varieties) of type published by Sabatier, I, 

p. 106, no. 41 . . " . . T . . . . 4 

83 
Unidentified . . . . . . ... 64 

Total . . . 147 

AGNES BALDWIN. 

NEW YORK. 



American Srfjooi 
of Classical Stutites 
at 



THE CAVE AT VARI 

VI 
THE TERRA-COTTA LAMPS 



[PLATES XII-XIV] 

THE lamps, nearly one thousand in number, which we 
found in the cave at Vari 1 are of the type commonly called 
" Roman," but are of late date. 2 

Like some of the lamps found in North Africa, they 
trate the transition from the " Roman " to the " Christian 
lamp. 3 

The best and earliest specimens resemble in shape Dresse! 
forma 25, 4 but the clay is coarser and the workmanship mud! 
inferior. Lamps of this form (cf. Fig. I) 5 are found in larg 
numbers in Greece, and the fact that they are rarely or nevei 
found except in Greek lands seems to indicate that they repr 

1 For other considerable finds of lamps in one place, see Birch, Ancient Pot, 
tery, 2d ed., pp. 132 f. ; Melanges Archeologiques de rJfcole franqaise a Rome* 
XII, 1892, p. 116 ; IIpa/criKd T^S tv 'A^rais 'Apxa-ioXoyiKTjs 'Eratp/as, 1900. p. 4 
Annual of the British School at Athens, 1902, p. 390 ; Am. J. Arch. VI, 1902 
Suppl. p. 21. 

2 One wheel-made lamp, of the third century B.C., was found ; cf. Musee 
St. Louis de Carthage, pi. xxiv, no. 24. 

3 La Blanchere and Gauckler, Musee d'Aloui, pi. xxxiv, nos. 38-55. 
* C.I.L. XV, 2, fasc. 1, Tab. iii, no. 25. 

5 The lamp in Fig. 1, together with fifty or sixty others, most of them 
fragments, was found in a conduit at Corinth, in May, 1902. Length, 0.106 mm 
width, 0.084 mm. ; height, exclusive of handle, 0.027 mm. On the bottom is incise 
the name KAAAICTOY, together with a heart-shaped leaf. The Nations 
Museum at Athens has on exhibition about fifty lamps of a similar type, an< 
scarcely a museum in Europe is without a specimen. 

338 

^ 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES 












LAMPS FROM VAR 




VOL. VII (1903) PLATE XII 
















ON BORDERS 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VII (1903) PLATE XIII 




LAMPS FROM VARI : DEVICES ON BORDER AND DISK 



MERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES 



VOL. VII (1903) PLATE XIV 






SEVEN LAMPS FROM VARI 



THE CAVE AT VAEI : TEREA-COTTA LAMPS 



339 



sent one of the types which the Roman lamp assumed on Greek 
soil. 1 These lamps are of a fine, pale yellow, or pinkish clay,. 
very thin and delicate, and usually without a slip of any kind,- 
The handle (ansa), without which none of these lamps seem: 
to have been made, is straight and 
perforated, and on its upper sur- 
face are two or three grooves. The 
nozzle (myxa} is short and rounded, 
and is without a trace of the ara- 
besques which are a characteristic 
of the Roman lamps of the first and 
second centuries of our era. 2 The 
upper surface of the nozzle is plain, 
and is raised a little above the bor- 
der (margo). The border itself is 
either left plain or is decorated with 
a kind of ovolo pattern, or less fre- 
quently with a vine. In most cases 
two nobs of clay, 2 mm. to 3 mm. 

in height and flat on top, rise, one on either side of the lamp, 
from the centre of the border. 3 The device on the centre of 
the upper surface (discus) consists of a rosette or a relief simi- 
lar in subject and execution to the reliefs found on Roman 




FIGURE 1. TERRA-COTTA LAMP 
FROM CORINTH. 



1 Cf. Birch, op. cit. p. 132. 

2 See J. Toutain, in Daremberg and Saglio, Diet. Ant. II, p. 1323 ; La Blan- 
chere and Gauckler, op. cit. pp. 149 ff., pi. xxxiv, nos. 23-31 ; Dressel, in C.I.L. 
XV, 2, fasc. 1, p. 783 ; J. Fink, Sitzungsber. d. kgl. bayer. Akad. 1900, phil- 
hist. Classe, p. 687. 

8 Similar but taller nobs on lamps stamped with the name FORTIS, etc. (Dres- 
sel, op. cit. Tab. iii, no. 5 ; Fink, op. cit. Taf. iii), are explained by Fink (p. 088) 
as means by which the two halves of the lamp were held together before the 
firing. Dressel (p. 783) gives the more probable explanation that they were 
made in imitation of similar projections on bronze lamps, to which were fastened 
the suspension chains. In addition to the examples given by Dressel of clay 
lamps in which these projections are actually pierced (unpublished lamps, sketches 
of which are in the possession of Costa, Naples) might be added Passeri, Lucernae 
Fictiles, I, Tab. prelim, no. iii, and Proleg. p. vii. Dressel, in Horn. Mitth. VII, 
(1892), pp. 144-157, shows that most of the lamps shown in the work of Passeri 
are spurious, but makes no mention of the Prolegomena. 



340 SAMUEL ELIOT BASSETT 

lamps of the better period. The bottom (fundus) usually has, 
scratched across it with a fine-pointed instrument, a name in 
the genitive. This inscription, with a single exception, so far 
as I have been able to learn, 1 is in Greek letters. 2 

It is from this type that the lamps from Vari were developed. 
But the best of them are far removed from their prototype in 
fineness of clay and in the degree of art displayed. So it would 
be fair to date the earliest of them as late as the end of the third 
or the beginning of the fourth century. There are only half a 
dozen lamps of the fully developed " Christian " type of the 
fifth century. We may therefore, with a considerable degree 
of probability, say that nearly all the lamps from Vari are of 
the fourth century of our era. This hypothesis is strengthened 
by the testimony of the coins found together with the lamps, 3 
and by that of the monograms found on the lamps themselves 
(see below, p. 345). 4 

The lamps from Vari, then, illustrate the later steps in the 
development of the " Christian " type. The majority of them 
are ornamented with devices symbolic of the Christian religion. 
This, together with the fact that none of the earlier lamps 
were found, indicates that they were brought there by the 
Christians who used the cave as a gathering place in the 
fourth century (see p. 284). The occurrence of heathen devices 
on many of the lamps does not weaken this hypothesis. 5 

The lamps are of a coarse red clay, baked very hard. They 
vary in length from 65 mm. to 120 mm. ; and their length, 

1 Muselli, Antiquitatis Reliquiae, no. 140, has c CLU sus ; cf. Dressel, op. 
tit. p. 810. 

2 Cf. Birch, op. tit. p. 132. See also pp. 284 f., 335 ff. 

_* According to Schultze, Katak&mben, V, p. 123, the monograms, N^ and 

" "l w I > 

; , are first dated at Rome 323 and 355 A.D., respectively. The lamps from 

Vari on which these are found occur in about the middle of the series, chrono- 
logically considered. 

5 The persistence with which heathen reliefs appear on " Christian " lamps is 
illustrated by a lamp found at Carthage (P. Delattre, Rev. de VArt Chretienne, 
4ieme Se"r. Ill, 1892, no. 752), which bears on the disk a representation of Achilles 
dragging the body of Hector around the walls of Troy. 






THE CAVE AT VARI : TERRA-COTTA LAMPS 



341 



breadth, and height, exclusive of the handle, are to each other 
about as 3:2:1. With the exception of two trymyxi (one of 
which is shown in PLATE XJV, 7 a and 75), they are all 
monomyxi. Some of the earlier ones are covered with a red 
slip. The nozzles all show signs of having been burned, and 
in one a portion of a wick was found. 1 Olive stones in many 
bore testimony to the kind of fluid used. 

In describing the lamps, the parts will be discussed in the 
following order : 2 

(1) The handle, (3) The border, (5) The reverse. 

(2) The nozzle, (4) The disk, 

(1) The Handle (Fig. 2). This is a solid piece of clay, 
10 mm. to 12 mm. in height, at the back of the lamp. Its 




FIGURE 2. TYPES OF LAMP HANDLES FROM VARI. 

upper surface is either left plain (a), or is ornamented with 
one, two, or three longitudinal grooves (6, <?, d), Wltn cross 
hatching (e,/,#, ^), with a row of concentric circles (i), or of 

1 For other cases of wicks found in lamps, see Becker-Goll, Gallus, III, p. 396 ; 
Cosmos, November 24, 1900, p. 695. 

2 A, handle. 

B, disk. 

C, oil aperture. 

D, border. 

E, small aperture. 
f, nozzle ; 

wick aperture. 
G, body of lamp. 
H, reverse. 
/, trade-mark. 
J, relief. 

For the nomenclature, see also Kenner, Antike Thonlampen, Einleitung, 
pp. 12 ff. 




342 



SAMUEL ELIOT B AS SETT 



dots (/). It is seldom entirely more often partially per- 
forated, but most frequently is unpierced. The lower surface 
of the under portion of the handle, which extends down over 
the back of the body (crater) of the lamp, is usually orna- 
mented in the same way as the upper surface. At the lower 
end, where the handle approaches the bottom (fundus), there 
is often an imitation in clay of the means by which in bronze 
lamps the handle was riveted to the body (Fig. 5, 1). No 
lamp was found without a handle. 

(2) The Nozzle. This calls for little comment. It is short, 
rounded, and plain, like that of its prototype (see above, p. 339), 

but its upper surface, instead of 
being raised above that of the: 
border, is merely separated from 
it by one or two lines (cf. PLATE 
XIV, 4). In the later lamps the 
transition from the body to the 
nozzle is so gradual that it is 
difficult to say where the former 
ends and the latter begins. In 
these lamps a broad shallow 
groove is often found connecting 
the disk with the wick aperture 
(cf. PLATE XIV, 4), as in the 
" Christian " lamp. 

(3) The Border (PLATE XII). In the earlier specimens 
this shows, better than any other part, the relation between 
these lamps and the one mentioned above (p. 339). The nobs 
have disappeared, but are indicated, as in the case of the noz- 
zles, by lines (Nos. 1-7, 10, 18). Between these lines are seen 
a palm leaf (Nos. 3, 4) or dotted rings (No. 7). Dotted rings 
are also found on the outer side of these lines and near the 
handle and nozzle (Nos. 4, 5, 18). Some borders show also 
scrolls (No. 6), palm leaves (Nos. 7, 10), or squares of dots 
(No. 18). As time went on, the lines indicating the nobs were 
abandoned. The chief ornaments from this time on are the 




FIGURE 3. TERRA-COTTA LAMP 
FROM VARI. 






THE CAVE AT VAEI: TEEEA-COTTA LAMPS 343 



palm leaf, very much conventionalized (Nos. 8, 9), which occurs 
on about one-half of all the lamps ; wavy lines, which are next 
to the palm leaf in frequency (Nos. 15, 16); vine leaves (No. 
13) with grapes (No. 11) or berries (No. 12) ; oak leaves (?) 
(No. 14); and a rude ovolo pattern (No. 17). Many show 
dots, dotted lines, and small rosettes (Nos. 19-22). These 
are probably but little earlier than the conventional orna- 
ments on the borders of " Christian " lamps (cf. No. 23, on 
a fully developed " Christian " lamp). Later still are the tri- 
angles (Nos. 25, 26 ; cf . No. 24), 
pyramids of dots (Nos. 26, 27), 
rude letters and meaningless signs 
(Nos. 28-30). None of the bor- 
ders are entirely plain. 

(4) The Disk. In about two- 
thirds of the lamps the disk is 
entirely plain. It is pierced by 
from one to seven holes, which 
served as means for introducing 
the oil into the lamp. Between 
the nozzle and the disk was also, 
in most cases, a small aperture, 
through which the wick might be 
raised or lowered. 1 

On the disks of about two hun- 
dred lamps there is a rosette of from six to twenty petals, or a 
shell (pecteri). The reliefs on about- eighty show the conven- 
tional types of subjects, but the workmanship is of the crudest 
sort. The gods are but sparingly represented : Artemis, with 
her hound (PLATE XIII, 4) ; bust of Athena, with helmet, spear, 
and aegis (Fig. 3) ; 2 Athena, armed with helmet, shield, and 

1 Fink, op. cit. p. 687, explains this as the aperture through which a peg was 
passed to hold the two halves of the lamp together when they were first taken 
from the mould. But the inside of the lower half shows no trace of having 
received a peg, as it would, especially in these lamps on which so little care was 
spent, if a peg had actually been used. 

2 A lamp found in Corinth in May, 1902, may be compared (Fig. 4). 




FIGURE 4. TERRA-COTTA LAMP 
FROM CORINTH. 



344 SAMUEL ELIOT BASSETT 

spear, standing with her face to the left (PLATE XIII, I); 1 
bust of Isis, with an uncertain object at her right (PLATE XIII, 
3); Eros, playing Pan's pipes, reading from a scroll at a sort of 
pulpit (PLATE XIII, 7), walking with inverted torch, and pray- 
ing with uplifted hands. Pan is represented with his pipes 
(PLATE XIII, 5). The only scene from the adventures of the 
heroes is the contest of Heracles with the Nernean lion (PLATE 
XIV, 2). There is one scene from the amphitheatre, a man 
fighting with a bear (PLATE XIV, 1). As miscellaneous are to 
be classed : an acrobat turning a somersault l over the back of a 
bear (PLATE XIV, 6); 2 a man with a long spear, standing in 
front of his horse ; a man mounted on horseback, with a whip 
in his right hand ; and a figure seated astride a dolphin, with a 
whip(?) in his right hand (PLATE XIV, 5). 8 

As symbols appear: the dolphin with the trident (p. 341, 
footnote 2); the crescent and the bucranium. Animals are 
numerous. We find the bear, boar, lion, ox, sheep, and wolf. 
One lamp shows an animal like a bear, with the legend 4>OBOC 4 

1 Ch. Bigot, Bulletin de VEcole fran$. a Athenes, Aout, 1868, pp. 33 ff., men- 
tions a similar lamp in the National Museum at Athens. 

2 In Ath. Mitth. XXVII (1902), p. 260, Abb. 5, the reader will find figured a 
very much better copy of this type of relief. 

3 The meaning of the device on the lamp represented in PLATE XIII, 2, is 
uncertain. It seems to be a struggle between the human being in the centre and 
an animal to the right, while to the left, behind the human figure, is a lamb or 
kid. It it could be proved that scenes from the Bible appear on lamps of so 
early a date, one might see in this relief an attempt to represent an episode 
in the life of David (/ Sam. xvii, 35). 

4 Ludwig Deubner, Ath. Mitth. XXVII (1902), pp. 253-264, regards two 
lamps similar to this one, which are now in the National Museum at Athens, 
as grave offerings. " Dass sie (the lamps) aus einem Grabe stammen, ist die 
nachstliegenden Annahme. . . . Der kilikische Inschrift (Heberdey and Wil- 
helm, Denkschr. d. Wiener Akad. 1896, phil.-hist. Kl p. 38, no. 94) hat uns 
Phobos als Wachter des Grabes gezeigt : . . . der daemonische Bar, der auf den 
Lampen ausdriicklich als Phobos bezeichnet ist, soil wie das Licht der Lampe 
selbst uber des Grabes Frieden wachen und alles Unheil von dem Toten fern- 
halten auf dem dunkeln Wege der zum Jenseits fiihrt " (p. 264). But the lamp 
from Vari was certainly not used as a grave offering ; and a similar lamp, found 
in May, 1902, in the ruins of a Roman shop near the Agora in Corinth, was 
evidently not intended for this purpose. Would not the ordinary purpose of 
the lamp to dispel the darkness of night, together with its horrors explain 



THE CAVE AT VAlil: TEREA-COTTA LAMPS 345 

Of emblems which are surely Christian the following are found : 
the cross ; the monograms, ^ JS JU J (see also N^, on 
the border and on the reverse of the trymyxus (PLATE XIV, 
7 a and 7 ft)) ; the cock, alone and with the palm branch ; a fish ; 
two fishes ; the dove ; the eucharistic chalice ; and the chalice 
with the dove brooding over it (the symbol of the Holy Spirit) 
(PLATE XIV, 4). 1 Only one obscene subject is represented, 
and this is on one of the earliest lamps. 2 

(5) The Reverse. --The bottom of the lamp is rarely left 
entirely plain. A few lamps show only the shape of the bot- 




i 2 3 

FIGURE 5. THREE INSCRIBED LAMPS FROM VARI : REVERSE. 

torn, outlined in one or more rings or heart-shaped or oval 
lines, made by means of a blunt instrument in the soft clay. 
Nearly all have some device as a trade-mark within these lines. 

sufficiently the apotropai'c use, on the disk of the lamp, of the "daemon of 
terror"? 

I should like to offer, as a suggestion, the reading XPY (Xptf[<roi/]) (?) 
instead of XFY, for the inscription on the reverse of the lamp figured by 
Deubner, I.e. Abb. 3 and 4 (p. 259). A careful examination of this inscrip- 
tion, two years ago, with the aid of a magnifying glass seemed to show the 
second letter as P rather than as [~. 

1 See P. Delattre, Revue de V Art Chretienne, 4ieme Se'r. I, 1890, pp. 129 ff. ; 
II, 1891, pp. 39 ff., 296 ff. ; III, 1892, pp. 133 ff., 224 ff. ; IV, 1893, pp. 34 ff. ; 
Missions Catholiques, Anne"e 12, 1880, pp. 278 ff., 290 ff., 302 ff., 326 ff., 338 
ff., for a systematic classification and explanation of devices found on "Chris- 
tian " lamps. 

2 It is an interesting fact that no obscene relief has ever been found on a 
"Christian" lamp. 



346 SAMUEL ELIOT BASSETT 

In two-thirds of the lamps this consists of a palm leaf, often 
with small dotted circles on either side. Another frequently 
recurring device is a number of small rings arranged in pyra- 
mids, squares, or circles. 1 Other devices are: the cross; the 

cross gemmae, JJ=> JL ; the monogram, yf ; a palm tree, A 

M. V I 

a fish, ; and the eucharistic chalice, (^), all incised ; and a 
heart-shaped leaf in relievo. 

About two hundred of the lamps have on the reverse side a 
letter or letters, or a name in the genitive. These are, with- 
out exception, in Greek, and are incised. Sometimes with the 
inscription is a palm leaf or a pyramid of dots. 1 The following 
is a brief summary of the inscriptions : 2 

1. A r\ A Shape II, longitudinally (4 examples) ; device, rosette 
(2 examples). 3 



Shape I ; device, pecten. 3. /\ y Shape II. 

4. 1^ Shape II ; device, rosette. 

5rt. r* \7 Shape I; device, b. r"y Shape I ; device, bust of 

L- y o rosette. Li / Athena. (Fig. 3.) 

FY 

6. i Shape II ; device, figure seated astride a dolphin ; 

A -I r E48c6[pou]. (PLATE XIV, 5.) 

FY 

7 . IT Y Shape II (2 exam- b. ' Shape II (2 exanv 

* ' pies); device, \^ A Q pies); devices, 

IS A p rosette (1 I\ AA I rosette, pecten ; 

l\ AA I example). TT*~\ Y/ EvKapTrov. 

I 10 Y 

1 See Dressel, in C.LL. XV, 2, fasc. 1, p. 860, for an explanation of these. 

2 The shapes I, II, and III are shown in Fig. 5. Shape IV (PLATE XIII, 2) 
is almost never inscribed. Shape V is the conventional " Christian " lamp. 

8 Most of the inscriptions are written across the bottom of the lamp, with the 
tops of the letters toward the handle. The inscriptions which run longitudinally 
across the bottom, beginning at the handle, are so indicated. The number of 
instances of each inscription is given and, when one exists, the device on the disk. 






THE CAVE AT VAEI : TERRA-COTTA LAMPS 347 

KAP 

8. If \ Shape II. 9. Shape II ; KapTn//^ 

fM. IT H A. (cf C ' LG ' 4208 c > 

10. Shape I ; device, ram facing left. 






11 a. Shape I (16 examples) ; devices, rosette (15 examples), bust 

~\f"\f of Athena (1 example). Shape II, longitudinally (2 exam- 

*^ "* pies). Shape III (1 example). 

6. J^_ j[ Shape II ; device, dolphin. 

;. ICY" Shape II. d. K^V Shape II. 



12. |\ T I AA IN Shape I; device, obscene; KvpaKos (cf. Aesch. 
_, Fra^r. 354, Kvpa^, a dog's name). See Fig. 5, 1. 



A 

13. AJI D Shape II; Map- 14. Shape I; device, 

./Ll rvpiov. /~\ K I A Pan with pipes. 

-T-VXQ I IMM (PLATE XIII, 

I T r I 5.) 

or 

15 ^ _ \ Shape II, longitudinally (4 examples) ; device, rosette 
I I XX (4 examples). 

b. TTA Shape II. c. TTA Shape II. 

o 

.0 

d. I { /0\ Shape II ; device, rosette. 

o e 
e 

16. TT Shape II (3 examples). 



348 



SAMUEL ELIOT BASSETT 



17 a. f~ Shape I (2 examples) ; device, rosette (2 examples). 

ape I (2 examples); devices, lion (1 example), 

and the Nemean lion (1 example); 2rp. (PLATE XI V r ,! 



> I ' I 'P Shape I (2 examples); devices, lion (1 example), Heracl 

CTP 



A 



Shape I ; device, rosette ; 



18 a. [ I I Shape I ; device, Eros reading from a scroll. (PLATE XIII, 7.) I 

b. y Shape III (44 examples); device, cock and palm branch. 

Shape II (6 examples); devices, rosette (5 examples), 
sheep (1 example). See Fig. 5, 3. 

LUJ 

19. Shape I ; device, cock and palm branch. 

TTA 

LUJ 

b. Shape II ; device, cock 

T H P I facing right; 

AC * 



20 a. Q ]]} Shape II. 

TH 

21. 6 Shape II. 

22 a. (t) [-] Shape II. b. (p^/ |-| Shape II. 

Xlo 

23 a. r : Shape V (1 example). 

N n 

Xlo 

c. |\J H Shape V. 

c 

*/C I O Shape II (34 examples) ; devices, rosette (8 examples), 
monogram (2 examples), figure praying (1 example) ; 
XT LJ F XtoVrjs. See Fig. 5, 2. 



b. ' Shape V (1 example). 

NH: 



d. 



THE CAVE AT VARI : TERRA-COTTA LAMPS 349 

24 a. X Shape I (5 examples). Shape II (7 examples); devices, rosette 
AA (6 examples), monogram, bucranium. 

b. ^v Shape I (4 examples). Shape II (1 example) ; devices, rosette 
^v\ (2 examples), mounted man (1 example). 




* Shape II. 4. fa 



Shape II. d. f\ Shape I ; device, bust of 

woman. 



Shape II (2 examples) ; /. A In relief, 

device, monogram (1 A\ 

example). 



25 . !\ Shape 1 ; device, rosette. 



A Shape II (2 examples) ; c. A Shape II. 

device, rosette (1 ex- o^r 

o o < 

E : . 



device, rosette (1 ex- 
ample). 



Shape I. 27. \f Shapes I and II ; device, 

rosette. 



Shape III. 

T Shape I (5 examples) ; devices, rosette (3 examples), crescent, 
dolphin with trident. See p. 341, note 2. 

SAMUEL ELIOT BASSETT. 

NEW HAVEN. 



American Scjjool 
of Classical Stutites 
at 



EXCAVATIONS AT CORINTH: 1903 

PRELIMINARY REPORT 

THE excavations at Corinth, conducted by the American School of Clas- 
sical Studies at Athens, were resumed at the end of March, 1903, and with 
slight interruptions continued until the middle of June. 

Digging was begun to the southwest of the Old Temple, its object being 
to reach the ancient Agora and determine its western and southern bounda- 
ries, its northern limit having been found previously. Early in May, diffi- 
culties with the landowners compelled the stoppage of work here for thejj 
season. It is to be hoped that funds may be forthcoming to enable the 
School to take up the work again in 1904. 

Though the excavation in this section is incomplete, part of the end had 
in view in digging here has been attained, for it would seem as if buildings 
on the west side of the Agora had been found. An interesting deposit ofj 
votive offerings was discovered, consisting of terra-cottas of the late sixth,, 
the fifth, and perhaps the fourth centuries B.C. Some of the types are.! 
known already from Corinth, others are new. There may be mentioned 
standing draped female figures, reclining male figures, horsemen, both 
armed and unarmed, hand-mirrors, shields, helmets, breastplates, thej 
two latter in relief, and stelai surmounted by a Corinthian helmet in 
relief and decorated on their face by the relief of a twisting serpent. 

From the middle of May until the end of the campaign a smaller force 
of workmen was employed in the main excavation field of previous years 
and in the Theatre. In the former place may be mentioned the tracing to 
their source of two small water channels which were discovered a year ago 
near the " Old Spring " ; they date from the end of the sixth or the begin- 
ning of the fifth century B.C. 

In the Theatre a Greek terrace wall back of the skene was reached, at a 
depth of six metres, but the skene itself still lies buried farther to the south. 
Above the terrace wall there was found a considerable number of fragments 
including five heads, two of them intact of a decorative frieze of good 
Roman work in high relief ; its subject is a Gigantomachia, the figures being 
of somewhat more than life-size. 

The detailed map of the main excavation area of former years was com- 
pleted, and much progress made in understanding and dating the complicated 
mass of wall remains. 

A School Bulletin, which will give a plan of the excavations with full 
commentary, is in preparation. 

T. W. H. 
350 






Archaeological 
Institute 
of America 






THE FOUNDING OF THE SCHOOL AT ATHENS 



NOTE. At the annual meeting of the Managing Committee of the 
School at Athens, held in New York, May 8, 1903, the following vote 
was adopted: "That Professor Charles Eliot Norton be requested to pre- 
pare a memorandum upon the early history of the Institute arid of the 
School at Athens." Professor Norton has found it impossible to comply 
fully with the request of the Committee. While we regret this fact, we 
take great pleasure in publishing without delay the following brief account 
of the foundation of the School at Athens which he has been so good as to 
send us for publication. ED. 

THE First Annual Report of the Archaeological Institute of 
America, dated May 15, 1880, begins with the words, "In April, 
1879, a circular was issued stating that it was proposed to estab- 
lish a society for the purpose of furthering and directing archaeo- 
logical investigation and research, and setting forth in general 
terms the objects contemplated and the methods suggested for 
procedure." This circular had been drawn up by me, and I 
had obtained for it the signature of eleven persons represent- 
ing the scholarship, the intelligence, and the wealth of our 
community. The chief motive which had led me to under- 
take this task was the hope that, by the establishment of such 
a society, the interests of classical scholarship in America might 
be advanced, and especially that it might lead to the foundation 
of a school of classical studies in Athens where young scholars 
might carry on the study of Greek thought and life to the 
best advantage, and where those who were proposing to become 
teachers of Greek might gain such acquaintance with the land 
and such knowledge of its ancient monuments as should give a 
quality to their teaching unattainable without this experience. 
It had become evident that, if Greek literature and art were to 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 351 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VII (1903), No. 3. 



352 CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 

have their proper place in the education of American youth, 
fresh effort must be made and new means taken to promote their 
study. It seemed possible that this object could be accom- 
plished through a society such as was proposed in the circular, 
and that it was not unlikely that such a society could be formed 
without great difficulty, because of the widespread and deep 
interest which Dr. Schliemann's remarkable discoveries, as well 
as the splendid results of the German investigations at Olympia, 
had aroused, not merely among scholars, but in the community 
at large. 

The circular met with an encouraging response. A meeting 
of persons interested in the formation of the Society was held 
on May 10, 1879; a committee of five, of which I was made 
chairman, was appointed to draw up a constitution for the 
Society, and at an adjourned meeting, on May 17, this com- 
mittee reported a set of Regulations, which was adopted, and 
the Society was constituted under the name of The Archaeo- 
logical Institute of America, and organized by the election of 
myself as President, of Mr. Martin Brimmer as Vice-President, 
of Mr. Alexander Agassiz, Professor W. W. Goodwin, Mr. H. 
W. Haynes, Mr. Francis Parkman, and Professor William R. 
Ware as members of an Executive Committee, of which the 
President and Vice-President were members ex officio. In this 
Committee the parent of the present Council the govern- 
ment of the Institute was vested, and power was given to it 
to determine the work of the Institute, and the mode of its 
accomplishment. The means at the disposal of the Committee 
were not sufficient to enable it to undertake at once any work 
of great importance, but, contenting itself at first with modest 
enterprises, it laid out the ground for more considerable achieve- 
ments. The record of the work of its first year is contained in 
its First Annual Report. After stating what it had accom- 
plished and what it proposed to do in the field of American as 
well as of Classical Archaeology, I added: "France and Ger- 
many have their schools at Athens, where young scholars devote 
themselves, under the guidance of eminent masters, to studies 



THE FOUNDING OF THE SCHOOL AT ATHENS 353 

and research in archaeology. The results that have followed 
from this training have been excellent ; and it is greatly to be 
desired, for the sake of American scholarship, that a similar 
American School may before long enter into honorable rivalry 
with those alreacty established." 

The project of the foundation of the School was fully dis- 
cussed during the year after the making of this Report. The 
importance of such a school was generally recognized, but the 
difficulties attending its establishment were great, especially 
that of obtaining the requisite means for its support. In the 
Second Annual Report of the Committee, presented at the 
meeting of the Institute on May 21, 1881, the project was 
again urged, and a plan which 'had suggested itself to me for 
the provisional establishment of the School was thus set forth : 

" The maintenance and direction of such a school as is pro- 
posed might well be undertaken by our chief universities. A 
common effort on their part could not fail of success. The 
general features of the scheme are simple. It requires the 
securing of a proper local establishment at Athens, and an 
agreement between the universities to support alternately, for 
such periods as should be determined upon, a professor at the 
head of the school, who should have charge of its conduct 
during his term of residence. The details of the project 
would require discussion, but would hardly present serious 
difficulties. 

"Your committee recommend the appointment of a special 
committee to take this subject into full consideration, to cor- 
respond with the institutions that would be likely to derive 
benefit from its establishment and might wish to share in its 
direction, and to take such other steps in the matter as may 
seem desirable." 

One portion of the plan it was thought best to leave for the 
proposed Committee to develop and to present to the institu- 
tions which they might seek to interest in the scheme. It 
related to the mode in which the means for the running of the 
School could be obtained. A permanent endowment would, 



354 CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 

of course, be the most satisfactory mode, but it appeared un- 
likely that a sufficient fund could be at once raised to provide 
from its income for the annual expenses. In the lack of such '< 
an endowment, it occurred to me that it was possible that the 
colleges and universities interested in the establishment of the 

O 

School might each be asked to provide a small sum annually 
toward its support, for which the joint subscriptions might be 
sufficient. There was no precedent for such pecuniary sub- 
sidies, and none of similar united action on the part of our 
colleges and universities. The plan, when first proposed, met 
with little encouragement from many of the persons upon 
whose judgment I most relied. It had, however, the warm 
support of Professor John Williams White, who had from the 
beginning taken the most cordial interest in the scheme, and 
he consented to act as chairman of the committee appointed 
at the meeting of the Institute on May 21, 1881, to consider 
the establishment of the School, and to take such steps toward 
it as might seem advisable. 

The Third Annual Report of the Executive Committee of 
the Institute, presented May 20, 1882, ended as follows : " The 
executive committee have the great satisfaction of presenting 
to you the First Report of the School at Athens, from which it 
appears that the establishment of the School is already secured 
under the most propitious auspices. Such a result is a matter 
of congratulation to the Institute, and of gratification to all 
scholars and lovers of classical learning throughout the country. 
It has been accomplished by means of the hearty cooperation 
of most of our leading universities and colleges, and their union 
in furtherance of a common object is one of the points in the 
scheme which appears to be of best promise for the School, while 
in itself it is a fact of no slight import in the mutual relations 
of the institutions that have in charge the interests of the high- 
est education." In the report of the special Committee on the 
School it was stated that so favorable had been the answers 
from the colleges and universities that it had been determined 
to open the School in the autumn of 1882, and that Professor 



THE FOUNDING OF THE SCHOOL AT ATHENS 355 

Goodwin, of Harvard University, had accepted the directorship 
of the School for the first year. This fact at once assured 
recognition of the high character of the School by the world of 
scholars, and gave confidence in respect to the standard which 
it would maintain. 

This auspicious beginning of the School was mainly due to 
the good judgment and energy of Professor White, and to him, 
during the six difficult years in which he remained Chairman 
of the Committee on the School, its successful operation and 
firm establishment as a permanent institution were due in no 
less degree. 

It was inevitable that, during the early years of the Institute 
and of the School, much of the initiative impulse and much of 
the responsibility for action should fall to me, but it is to the 
members of the Executive Committee appointed at the meeting 
for organization of the Institute in May, 1879, that the chief 
credit for the work accomplished by it is to be ascribed, and 
for its present position as one of the important institutions for 
the advancement of learning in the United States. Their wise 
counsels and their ready sacrifice of time and labor to the work 
in hand laid the foundation well. Two of them in especial, 
neither of whom are now living, Mr. Martin Brimmer and 
Mr. Francis Parkman, effectively contributed to the success 
of the early undertakings of the Institute. In the difficult 
task of obtaining the means for investigations alike in the Old 
World and the New, the example and the efforts of Mr. Brim- 
mer were of invaluable service, because of the just confidence 
reposed by the community in his sound judgment and wise 
liberality; while the name of Mr. Parkman was an assurance 
that the work of the Institute, especially in the field of Ameri- 
can Archaeology, would be wisely directed. At the same time 
the name of Professor Goodwin was in itself an appeal to the 
scholars, and that of Professor Ware to the architects, of the 
country to give their support to an institution which promised 
to promote the highest interests alike of classical scholarship 
and good architecture. 



356 



CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 



The history of the first twenty years of the Institute remains 
to be written. Its highest service, perhaps, has been the estab- 
lishment of the School at Athens, and subsequently of that at 
Rome. What the former has done to fulfil the object of its 
founders for the "advance of classical scholarship in America 
has been well set forth by Professor Seymour, of Yale Uni- 
versity, in his recent record of its work during its first twenty 
years. 

CHARLES ELIOT NORTON. 






1903 
January June 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS 1 

NOTES ON RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND 
DISCOVERIES; OTHER NEWS 

JAMES M. PATON, Acting-Editor 

Wesley an University, Middletown, Conn. 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

ARABIA. Inscriptions. H. DERENBOURG publishes in R. Arch. I, 
1903, pp. 407-412 (cut), six Semitic inscriptions from Yemen, edited from, 
impressions collected by P. Bardey of Aden. One of them is above reliefs 
of two winged lions with human heads. 

AN INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ARCHAEOLOGY. It 
is proposed to hold an International Congress for the discussion of archaeo- 
logical questions in Athens at Easter, 1905. The Congress is called under a 
royal decree of May 14, 1901, and the arrangements are in charge of a com- 
mittee consisting of the Crown Prince of the Greeks, President ; the Minister 
of Public Instruction, Alexander Sp. Roma, Vice- President ; Th. Homolle, 
Director of the French School, Secretary ; and the Ephor-General of Antiqui- 
ties, the Rector of the University of Athens, the Vice-President of the Greek 
Archaeological Society, the Mayor of Athens, and the Directors of the 
German, American, English, and Austrian Schools. The executive com- 
mittee of this body consists of the Minister of Public Instruction, the 
Director of the French School, the First Secretary of the German Institute, 
and the Ephor-General of Antiquities. A provisional code of regulations 
has been prepared, containing fifteen articles. Art. I provides for the 
meeting of the Congress at Athens and the adoption by that body of a per- 
manent organization. Art. II defines the object of the Congress to be the 

1 The departments of Archaeological News and Discussions and of Bibliography of 
Archaeological Books are conducted by Professor FOWLER, Editor-in-charge, assisted 
by Miss MARY H. BUCKINGHAM, Professor HARRY E. BURTON, Professor JAMES C. 
EGBERT, JR., Professor ELMER T. MERRILL, Dr. GEORGE N. OLCOTT, Professor 
JAMES M. PATON, and the Editors, especially Professor MARQUAND. In Professor 
FOWLER'S absence, these departments are conducted by Professor PATON. 

No attempt is made to include in the present number of the JOURNAL material 
published after June 30, 1903. 

For an explanation of the abbreviations, see pp. 145, 146. 

357 



358 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

furthering of archaeology by the examination and discussion of scientific or 
practical questions relating to this science, by the publication of reports of 
the Congress and of papers presented, and in general by all means which 
may seem opportune and effective. Art. Ill creates the general and execu- 
tive committees already mentioned. Art. IV announces that the Crown 
Prince will preside over the meetings at Athens. The scientific sessions at 
Athens will last for five days, and there will be archaeological excursions in 
continental Greece and among the islands of the Aegean, including Samos 
and Crete. The Congress will decide whether the sessions shall be general 
or special. The opening meeting will be held in the Parthenon, general 
meetings in the hall of the University, and special meetings, in case sections 
are organized, in the rooms of the Archaeological Society or at the foreign 
Schools. Art. V provides that after the formal opening of the Congress by 
the Crown Prince, the Ephor-General and the Directors of the foreign 
Schools shall report on recent discoveries in Greece and the progress of 
archaeological science. The Congress will then perfect its organization by 
the election of four Vice-Presidents from the members who do not reside in 
'Greece. Art. VI provides for the organization of sections, if this shall 
seem advisable to the Congress. Each section shall choose its President from 
among the non-resident members. Members of the French School will act 
as Secretaries. Art. VII makes French the official language of the Congress, 
in which its records will be kept and its correspondence conducted. Mem- 
bers, however, in discussions and papers may use also Greek, German, 
English, or Italian. Art. VIII provides that the President and Vice- 
Presidents shall determine the programme for each day. Art. IX requires 
that no paper or speech exceed a quarter of an hour. At the end of the 
session speakers are requested to furnish the Secretary with brief summa- 
ries for insertion in the records. Art. X provides for the publication of 
the Proceedings of the Congress and the most important papers, at the 
expense of the Archaeological Society, and their sale to members at a 
reduced price. Art. XI provides that for membership in the Congress it is 
necessary to announce one's desire to the Committee and to receive a card 
of admission. These requests, accompanied by notice of any paper or dis- 
cussion, should reach Athens before the end of December, 1904. Art. XII 
announces that the detailed programme and itinerary of the proposed 
excursions will be sent to members in January, 1905, together with a non- 
transferable card of admission. Arts. XIII and XIV contain rules for 
registration, etc. Art. XV provides for the formation of a permanent 
organization and the determination of the next place of meeting before the 
adjournment. The Committee request suggestions as to questions for dis- 
cussion, expressing a preference for practical subjects and those capable of 
prompt and precise solution. They suggest the following: (1) In what 
spirit and to what extent is it desirable to restore ancient monuments, 
especially the Parthenon V (2) Plans for the publication of an annual inter- 
national bibliography of archaeology, of an Ephemeris Epigraphica Graeca, 
of a comprehensive collection of Greek inscriptions in a small form and at a 
moderate price, of a collection of Greek Christian and Byzantine inscrip- 
tions. (3) To what extent and by what means can the study of archaeology 
and the history of art be introduced into secondary education? What 
methods have been followed and what results obtained in countries where 






GENERAL] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 359 

this instruction has been given ? The call for the Congress is signed by 
Cavvadias, Ephor-General of Antiquities in Greece. 

NECROLOGY. Alexandra Bertrand. R. Arch. I, 1903, pp. 53-60, 
contains a somewhat long notice by S. REINACH of the life and work of 
Alexandre Bertrand, since 1883 one of the editors of the Revue, whose death 
occurred December 8, 1902. See Am. J. Arch. VII, 1903, pp. 101-102. 

Edouard Gamier. M. Edouard Gamier, who died on March 30, was 
not only the curator of the National Porcelain Museum at Sevres, but also 
an undoubted authority on all points in connection with ceramic art. He 
was born sixty-three years ago, and had been attached to the Sevres factory 
since 1871, succeeding Champfleury as conservateur of the Museum some 
fifteen years ago. He received an artistic training under Ingres, and wrote 
a number of books, either alone or in collaboration, among these being a 
Dictionnaire des Faiences, Histoire Generate de la Ceramique, a monograph on 
the porcelaine tendre of Sevres, of which a translation into English appeared 
in 1889, in folio size, and another on the porcelain of Mennecy. He had 
commenced a catalogue raisonne of the collections in the Museum at Sevres, 
but this great work was not finished at the time of his death. He was a 
frequent contributor to the Gazette des Beaux-Arts and to L' Illustration. 
(Athen. April 11, 1903.) 

Heinrich Keller. In Dr. Heinrich Keller, who died last week at 
Zurich, the Swiss have lost one of their characteristic historical scholars. 
He was the manager of the great paper factory on the Sihl, and a good 
business man; but, at the same time, he had made himself one of the 
foremost authorities of his day in the history, archaeology, art, literature, 
genealogy, and heraldry of his native city and canton. No contemporary 
surpassed him in local documentary researches. He was one of the editors 
of the Zurich Urkundenbuch, editor of the Zurich Stadtbucher, a constant 
contributor to the Anzeiyer fur schweizerische Altertumskunde, issued many 
publications on the ancient monuments of his canton, presided over the 
excavations instituted in the canton of Ticino, compiled the admirable cata- 
logue of the collection of coins in the Swiss Landes-rnuseum, and, in addition 
to his ceaseless and exact labors with his own pen, was a generous supporter 
of other scholars in their work. (Athen. March 14, 1903.) 

Francis Cranmer Penrose. The death on February 15, at the ripe 
age of eighty-five, of Mr. Francis Cranmer Penrose, removes a very striking 
figure from the scientific world. . Eminent alike as an architect, an astrono- 
mer, and a mathematician, Mr. Penrose in the course of his long life ren- 
dered valuable service in all these fields, and also brought his wide range of 
knowledge to bear upon important problems in art and archaeology. Edu- 
cated on the foundation at Winchester, Mr. Penrose proceeded to Magdalene 
College, Cambridge, and in 1842 was elected "travelling Bachelor" in the 
University, spending part of the next three years in Italy and Greece. 
While in Greece he prepared the materials for his work on ' The Principles 
of Athenian Architecture,' originally published by the Society of Dilettanti 
in 1851, and reissued by the same society, after careful revision, in 1888. 
Mr. Penrose, having adopted architecture as his profession, served from 1852 
to 1897 as surveyor to the fabric of St. Paul's Cathedral. He received in 
1883 the Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and in 
1894-95 was President of the Institute. When the British School at Athens 



360 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

was established in 1886, Mr. Penrose consented to act as Director for the 
first year, having himself planned the house which was built for the School 
on the site granted by the Greek Government. He had previously taken an 
active part in the foundation of the Hellenic Society, of which he was an 
original Member of Council, and ultimately a Vice-President. After his 
return from Athens he still maintained his keen interest in the School as an 
active member of the Managing Committee, and he again took charge of it 
during part of the session 1890-91, while the Director, Professor Ernest 
Gardner, was fulfilling an engagement in Cambridge. As the result of 
astronomical observations begun in connection with an occultation of Saturn 
in 1866, Mr. Penrose published in 1869 a treatise on the prediction and 
reduction of occultations and eclipses. A new and thoroughly revised 
edition of this book was published only last year. In the latter years of his 
life Mr. Penrose, at the suggestion of Sir Norman Lockyer, directed his 
attention to the orientation of Greek temples, with a view to obtaining, by 
careful observation on the spot of sun and stars, and by the application of 
formulae for finding the places of stars at distant epochs, some evidence as 
to the date of their foundation. The basis of his theory was the assump- 
tion that the object sought by the ancients in orienting their temples was 
to obtain from the stars at their rising or setting, as the case might be, such 
warning as to the approach of dawn as might enable them to prepare for 
the critical moment of sunrise, when sacrifices were to be offered. On this 
subject Mr. Penrose read papers in 1893 and 1897 before the Royal Society, 
of which he was elected a Fellow in 1894. He was elected Honorary Fellow 
of his college in 1885, and later received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from 
the University of Oxford and Litt. D. from the University of Cambridge. 
The King of Greece also conferred on him the Grand Cross of the Order 
of the Redeemer. In 1899, on the death of Sir A. W. Franks, he was 
appointed Antiquary to the Royal Academy. From 1852 till his death 
he was an active member of the Society of Dilettanti, attending the meet- 
ings regularly and observing strictly the traditional ceremonies of their 
gatherings. (T, Athen. February 21, 1903; London Times, February 17, 
1903.) 

TESSERULA AEDIFICIORUM. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1903, p. 81, 
G. SCHLUMBERGER describes a small bronze tessera, of the class known as 
tesserulae aedijiciorum, which bears the names of the emperor Zeno, Odoacer, 
and Symrnachus. It must therefore be dated about 485 A.D. These tes- 
serulae were deposited in foundation walls, and their importance lies in the 
names of emperors or noble Roman families which they usually bear. 

EGYPT 

ABUSIR. Excavations in 1902-03. The German excavations at 
Abusir have yielded good results. The great system of terraces which 
extends from the Nile to the pyramid is gradually becoming more dis- 
tinct, but the work of entering the pyramid is delayed by the large masses 
of stone which must be removed or supported. In the necropolis of the 
nobles interesting discoveries have been made, including the tomb of a 
princess and her attendants. Many Greek coffins and sarcophagi have also 
been found, which are of much archaeological value on account of their 
admirable preservation. (Berl Phil. W. 1903, col. 604.) 



EGYPT] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 361 

ABYDOS. Excavations in 1903. The London Times, June 29, 1903, 
contains a letter from W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE, giving an account of his 
excavations at Abydos. The clearance of the site of the old temple brought 
to light in a depth of 20 feet no less than ten successive temples, ranging 
from 5000-500 B.C. Often all that could be traced was a single course of 
brick on a bed of sand. The main result was proof that Osiris was not the 
original god of Abydos. The jackal-god, Upnaut, and the god of the west, 
Khentamenti, were honored here till the twelfth dynasty. About the time 
of the fourth dynasty the temple building seems to have been replaced by a 
great hearth for burnt-offerings, which was full of votive clay substitutes 
for sacrifices. An ivory statuette of Cheops of the finest workmanship 
shows for the first time the features of this king. Globular vases of green 
glaze, with the name of Menes inlaid in purple, take polychrome glazing 
back to the time of the first dynasty. Pottery was found of forms and 
material unknown in Egypt, but identical with the neolithic ware of Crete. 
A great fort like the Shunet-ez-Zebib proves to be a residence of the thirty- 
second dynasty. The use of iron is now proved for as early a period as the 
sixth dynasty. There have also been found some long decrees of the fifth 
and sixth dynasties. Many of the ivory carvings of the first dynasty show 
great delicacy and refinement, and a figure of an aged king for subtlety and 
character ranks with the best work of Greece and Italy. 

BENI-HASS AN. Tombs of the Middle Empire. In the London 
Times, June 1, 1903, J. GARSTANG reports the results of his recent excava- 
tions among the rock tombs of Beni-Hassan. The tombs already known 
were of the eleventh and twelfth dynasties, but in a gallery at a lower level 
were found a few tombs of the sixth dynasty. One, belonging to a promi- 
nent courtier, Apa, was decorated with reliefs and paintings of agricultural 
and other conventional scenes. Below the gallery of the well-known tombs 
was found an extensive necropolis, remarkable for the preservation of the 
furniture and for the wealth of material illustrating the customs of the 
Middle Empire. Four hundred and ninety-two tombs of the eleventh and 
early twelfth dynasties were opened, of which more than one hundred had 
remained unplundered. In the tomb of Nefer-y, a chief physician, were 
found many wooden models representing scenes familiar from wall-paint- 
ings, among others a boat with twenty rowers, a granary with models filling 
baskets with real grain, women making bread, the manufacture of beer 
from the fermentation of bread, and a sailboat with men hoisting the 
square sail. Another tomb contained a fleet of war-ships. The coffins were 
inscribed with new " Pyramid texts " of the time of Unas. These tombs 
belonged to the middle class, including minor officials of the locality, whose 
names and portraits appear in the tombs of the nobles in the gallery above. 
(Same article in Biblia, XVI, 1903, pp. 104-108.) 

MA'DI AND GHORAN. Houses and Tombs. B.C.H. XXV, 1901, 
pp. 379-411 (pi.; 21 cuts), contains a report by P. JOUGUET on the dis- 
coveries in the Fayoum at Medinet-Ma'di and Medinet-Ghoran, in 1901 and 
1902. At the former place some trial pits were dug in two large mounds, 
and an examination of the Ptolemaic cemetery was made, with but little 
result. The chief object of the work was the discovery of papyri, and in 
consequence of favorable reports the work was transferred to Ghoran, where 
excavations were made at the village and the necropolis. The houses in 



362 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1003 

general have disappeared, but three groups of buildings were marked by 
low mounds, and proved, in two cases, to be houses, of interesting ground 
plan and plain indications of upper stories. These houses and the small 
objects found in them are fully described and illustrated. The third 
mound seems to have covered a Ptolemaic temple, which was later replaced 
by a small Coptic convent. The mound yielded a number of fragments of- 
Coptic papyri. The necropolis contained a great number of graves, which 
are classified in nine groups, from the shallow trenches in which the very 
poor buried their dead to deep pits lined with smooth stone. Many of the 
mummies had a cartonnage of papyrus. The sarcophagi are (1) of stone, 
either oblong or anthropoidal ; (2) of terra-cotta, with a flat cover ; (3) au- 
thropoidal of wood, decorated on the cover with a head in Egyptian style; 
(4) of painted wood, with the same form as the preceding but more richly 
decorated. One rectangular wooden sarcophagus was found. The pottery 
showed that the village and necropolis were of the second half of the 
Ptolemaic period. 

NAHAS. Papyri. In B.C.H. XXVI, 1902, pp. 95-128, P. JOUGUET 
and G. LEFEBVRE publish twenty-two papyri from Medinet-en-Xahas, now 
shown by an inscription to be the ancient Magdola. All were taken from 1 
the cartonnage of mummies discovered in 1902 in the Ptolemaic necropolis/ 
They belong to the third century B.C. and to the reign of either Philadel- 
phus or Euergetes, probably the latter. They are all legal documents, and 
with one exception are petitions nominally addressed to the king and queen, 
praying for the redress of some wrong. Some of them, and probably all 
originally, bear a note of the <TTpaT7;yos, generally addressed to an eTrio-rar?;?, 
with directions as to the case. They therefore belong to the class of docu- 
ments described in other papyri as circuits fcexp^/uaTur/uci/ut. 

OXYRHYNCHUS. New Papyri. The excavations at Oxyrhyn- 
chus during six weeks in 1908 prove that the site is far from exhausted, for 
the yield of papyri was quite in proportion to that obtained in the first 
campaign. Among the new pieces is a third century fragment of six morel 
Logia of Jesus, a large fragment of the Epistle to the Hebrews, written on] 
the back of a Latin epitome of Livy, Books 37-39 and 49-55, which differs 
widely in its selection of events from the Periochae. Among the classical 
papyri is a first century B.C. fragment of an epinician ode by a poetess, per- 
haps Corinna, and part of a philosophical dialogue, in which Peisistratus isi 
one of the speakers, and Solon, Periander, and others are mentioned. There 
is also a second century papyrus, containing on one side a long invocation of 
a goddess, with all her titles in Egypt and the rest of the civilized world, and 
on the other an account of a miraculous cure ascribed to Imhotep. who is; 
identified with Asclepius. Both writings seem to belong to the Alexandrian 
school that produced the works of Hermes Trismegistus. These papyri 
are to appear in Vol. IV of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri. (GRENFELL and HUNT, 
in London Times, June 26, 1903.) 

THEBES. Tomb of Thutmdsis IV. R. Arch. I, 1903, pp. 413-418,, 
contains a letter of G. MASPERO, published in Le Temps, April 10, 1903, 
giving an account of the opening of the tomb of Thutmdsis IV, in the 
Valley of the Kings at Thebes. The excavations were conducted by Mr. 
Carter, the chief inspector, at the expense of Mr. Theodore Davis. Work 
began in January, 1902, but it was February 3, 1903, before the tomb was; 



BABYLONIA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 363 

finally opened. It had been pillaged of its valuables in gold, silver, and 
jewels long ago. Indeed, inscriptions showed that under Arraais, less' than 
a century after the burial of the king, restorations had been needed. The 
rock chambers, however, contained a large quantity of the funeral furniture 
which had been broken and cast aside by the plunderers. The king had 
evidently died before the chamber was finished, as the walls were still rough 
and undecorated. Among the objects is the body of a chariot of leather 
and wood decorated with fine reliefs. The fragments are to be removed to 
the museum at Cairo, where they can be put together, and later a complete 
publication is to appear. 

GREEK WOODEN FURNITURE. In Jb. Arch. I. XVII, 1902, 
pp. 125-140 (pi.; 12 cuts), C. RANSOM publishes some remains of turned 
wooden furniture of Greek manufacture, found in Egypt and now in Berlin. 
A low bedstead with pillow-support at one end is, perhaps, to be assigned 
to the third century B.C. The mattress-support of palm-wood slats is pre- 
served. Remains of a large stool, or ottoman, and of a couch, both once 
seated with some kind of basket-work, seem, from the resemblance of the 
legs to a bronze bed found at Priene, to belong to the second century B.C. 
A tentative list of known remains of ancient classical carpenter's work is 
appended. 

A GREEK PAPYRUS. In Atene e Roma, VI, 1903, pp. 149-158, 
G. VITELLI publishes a transcript of a leaf of papyrus, containing fragments 
of Greek hexameters on both sides. It seems to be four pages from a book, 
and the author is evidently a Graeco-Egyptian poet later than Nonnus, for he 
generally observes his rules in the verse. The author and subject are not 
clear. The exact origin of the papyrus is unknown, but it probably comes 
from the neighborhood of Herrnopolis (Ashmuneu). The writing points 
to a date in the fifth century after Christ. 

GREEK VASES AT CAIRO. A descriptive list of some forty 
Greek vases of different periods in the museum at Cairo is given by 
C. WATZINGER in Arch. Anz. 1902, 4, pp. 155-160 (8 cuts). Among the 
funeral hydriae from Hydra are several with inscriptions and some with 
white ground and polychrome decorations in red, blue, green, and yellow. 
A well-painted pair of shoes is one device. 

BABYLONIA 

BABYLON AND FARA. The German Excavations. The fif- 
teenth Mitteilunflen of the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft brings the news that 
the great Istar Gate at Babylon has been so far excavated that the general 
plf-m is clear. The walls are preserved to a height of 12 m. with decorations 
in relief covering their entire height. Upwards of 130 animals in relief are 
visible, and others are still below the surface. The gate was double, with the 
towers fronting the north, and was in the axis of the street Aiburschabn. 
In Fara an old Babylonian necropolis, already plundered, was found, and 
in it a small collection of about forty clay tablets of a very early period. 
(B. in Berl. Phil. W. 1903, col. 60-61.) 

The sixteenth number contains plans and a map in illustration of a re- 
port by the architect Andrae on many ancient sites in Mesopotamia. The 
excavations at Fara yielded many interesting small objects and inscribed 
tablets, many of them entirely uninjured, and of very early date. In 



364 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1908 

Babylon the Istar Gate is completely excavated. About six hundred 
cases of enamelled bricks are to be sent to Germany, where the colored] 
reliefs from the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, the Istar Gate and the strej 
of Marduk are to be reconstructed. (Berl. Phil. W. 1903, col. 798-799.) 

SYRIA AND PALESTINE 

ANTIOCH. An Oracle of Alexander of Abonotichos. A frag- 
mentary inscription from Antioch. on the Orontes has been restored by! 
P. PERDRIZET as reading [<J>oT/?o5 d/cepoKo/Arjs Xot/xov ve]^>e'Xr/v aTrepvKci. 
A'G'H'I'O'Y'UI. The seven Greek vowels have a magic value, and] 
the hexameter is given by Lucian as an oracle of Alexander of Abonotichos, 
which was written on doors to keep off a predicted plague. This inscription 
seems to have been on the base of a statuette of Apollo. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1903, pp. 62-66.) 

ANTIQUITIES OF NORTHERN SYRIA. B.C.H. XXVI, 1902, 
pp. 161-208, 289-290 (7 cuts) contains an article by V. CHAPOT on the 'An- 
tiquities of Northern Syria.' The monuments described are from three dis- 
tricts : I, Pieria and Seleucis ; II, Cyrrhestica ; III, Euphratesia, Osrhoene, 
and Commagene. Under II are published three inscriptions from the sanc- 
tuary of Zeus Madbachos on Cheikh Barakat, including two not published 
by Prentice in Hermes (1902, pp. 91-120), and a curious dedication of an 
olive mill on Kafer-Xebo to the gods Seimos, Symbetylos, and Leon. Under 
III are described several Hittite monuments in or near the village of Kelle- 
klu Oglou on the right bank of the Euphrates. In all sixty- two inscrip- 
tions, including seven in Latin, and a number of sculptured monuments are 
published. 

BAALBEK. The German Excavations. The second year's report 
of the German excavations at Baalbek deals with the propylaea, the two 
great temples, and other important Roman buildings in Syria. The Temple 
of the Sun has only six columns standing above the floor, but the architectural 
remains allow a reconstruction of this most colossal temple of its time, the 
second century after Christ. Its foundations contain an entire course of 
stone blocks thirty feet long and others still more huge. A Greek inscrip- 
tion names the god 'HXiovTroXtVrys and one in Latin mentions his oracular 
responses. The smaller temple still stands to its full height lacking the 
roof. The interior of the cella has the same rich architectural decoration 
in two stories as the peristyle of the great court. The fine door has been || 
cleared and strengthened. At the west end is the adyton or sanctuary, jl 
Lucian's 0aA.a/xos, an elevated space partly separated from the main cella 1 >y 
walls and pillars and reached by steps, while others lead to a crypt beneath. 
Sculptured decorations suggest that the temple belonged to Dionysus. The 
Arabs of the thirteenth and earlier centuries, who made a fortress of the M 
whole enclosure, used this building for a keep. Some light is shed on 1 
the partly native cults by the remains of a building connected with the fl 
waterworks near Baalbek. Several months were spent in Eastern Syria and jl 
the Libanus region in studying the Roman remains, which are chiefly of late 
imperial times. There are, beside temples, the great colonnaded streets of 
the larger cities, memorial or decorative arches, theatres, odea, etc. The 
commanding situations of the temples and the regular plans of some cities 
are noteworthy. The architecture seems to have been brought from the 



SYRIA AND PALESTINE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 365 

west and locally modified. The adyton of the temple, with its crypt, in 
various forms, is seerj to be a characteristic feature. Another is the Xym- 
phaeum. a type of building resembling the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at 
Olympia, which can be studied in better preserved examples here than in 
Italy or elsewhere. (O. PUCHSTEIN and others, Jb. Arch. I. XVII, 1902, 
pp. 87-123; 6 pis; 3 cuts.) 

BYBLOS. A Bronze Statuette of Jupiter Heliopolitanus. In 
C. J'. Acad. Insc. 1903, pp. 89-91 (cut), CLKRMONT-GANNEAU publishes a 
bronze statuette, found near Byblos. It represents a beardless personage, 
clad in a long tunic, over which is a shorter garment divided into squares 
containing busts and symbols of various kinds. This is not the goddess of 
Uyblos, but Jupiter Heliopolitanus of the temple at Baalbek. Other repre- 
sentations of the same deity are mentioned. 

GERASA. Ancient "Remains. In Z. D. Pal V. XXV, 1902, pp. 
111-177 (4 pi; 42 cuts), G. SCHUMACHER gives a full account of the exten- 
sive ruins of Gerasa, east of the Jordan, based on surveys and notes made 
during six visits between 1891 and 1902. The place is suffering from the 
vandalism of the natives. Excavations have been conducted by Puchstein 
and Schiitz, resulting in the discovery of inscriptions and exact plans of 
the more important buildings. After a brief account of the situation, in- 
habitants, and history of Gerasa, which seerns to have been founded in the 
Hellenistic period, the buildings and monuments are systematically described 
under the following heads : (1) the city walls, bridges, and streets with 
colonnades ; (2) temples, propylaea, and fountains ; (3) the two theatres ; 
(4) baths; (5) Christian churches, all of which are post-Roman. Outside 
the walls are a triumphal gateway, a naumachia, circus, and necropolis, and 
an extensive reservoir, now called cl-bitken. Especially noteworthy seem 
the long street with colonnades, extending from the forum to the north gate, 
the temple of the Sun, and the two Roman theatres. 

Inscriptions. H. LUCAS in Mittheilungen und Nachrichten D. Pal. F. 
1901, pp. 33-47, publishes from the papers of H. Kiepert fifteen Greek inscrip- 
tions copied in Palestine in 1870. Thirteen are from Gerasa, and all but 
one have been published elsewhere. The article contains full references to 
previous publications. A complete publication of the inscriptions of Gerasa, 
w r hich number more than ninety, is promised in a later number. 

GEZER. Excavations of the Palestine Exploration Fund. In 
Athen. February 7, 1903, is a report by R. A. STEWART MACALISTER on his 
excavations at Gezer, which were stopped in November by an outbreak of 
cholera. The work has centred about the megalithic temple, and the results 
are important. On the rock summit are a series of very ancient troglodyte 
dwellings, of perhaps 3000-2500 B.C. Above this are five later strata, two 
Amorite, two pre-exilic, and one just after the exile. During the earlier periods 
the temple was an open place, containing only a monolith. In the Jewish time 
it was partially built over, though without loss of its sacred character. The 
town grew smaller during the period of the monarchy. Very few inscrip- 
tions have been found. The temple consists of (1) a row of eight monoliths 
and two broken stumps of others. One had evidently been held in peculiar 
Teneration, as it had been much polished at the top; (2) a large block of 
stone with a socket in the top, apparently for the ashera pole; (3) an open 
area of undetermined extent. In the soil which covered the rock during the 



366 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

Amorite periods were found a number of large jars, each of which con- 
tained the skeleton of a new-born child, evidently the victim of sacrifice. 
A fuller account of the work and its interruption is contained in the 
Quarterly Statement of the Palestine Exploration Fund for January and! 
April, 1903. See also the London Times, June 23, 1903, and Harper's 
Magazine, June, 1903. 

KAB ELIAS. The rock sculptures near this place are further de-|> 
scribed and illustrated by Mrs. GHOSN-EL-HOWIE in Records of the Past, II J 
190-3, pp. 140-144 (3 cuts). See Am. J. Arch. VII, 1903, p. 107. 

SIDON. An Inscription from the Temple of Eshmoun. A new 
Phoenician inscription, almost certainly from the temple of Eshmoun near) 
Sidon, has been reported by Dr. Schroder of Bey rout. It is of value as] 
showing for the first time the title King of Kings (Melek-melakim) in a. 
Semitic inscription, and as furnishing the name of the father of Bodastoret, ] 
Siddykjaton. Why he should bear this new title is wholly uncertain. This! 
gives a list of six kings of Sidon, Esmounazar I, Tabnit, Ummastoret, Es- 
mounazar II, Siddykjaton, Bodastoret, but whether they ruled before or] 
after Alexander is still uncertain. (P. BKRGER, in C. R. Acad. Insc. 1903,1 
pp. 154-159.) Ibid. pp. 163-164, CLERMONT GANNEAU publishes a note on] 
the new title and name in the inscription. Ibid. pp. 166-167, a discussion 
by ROUVIER is announced and a photograph reproduced. 

ASIA MINOR 

COS. The Excavations of 1902. The generously endowed expedi- 
tion to Cos has had great success in its four months' work in 1902. The 
most important ancient and mediaeval sites on the island outside of the 
capital were studied. These are the sanctuary of Isthmos, possibly the 
original capital, where there is a fifth-century temple dedicated to Demeter; 
the sanctuary of Apollo at Halasarna, an Hellenistic white marble Doric 
temple, which was replaced not later than A.D. 450 by one of the most im- 
posing of early Byzantine churches; and four strongholds of the Knights of 
St. John, who occupied the island in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
But the great achievement, due to the suggestion of W. R. Paton, was the 
discovery and partial excavation of the famous Asclepieum. This lies at 
the foot of the hills about two miles west of the city, and already the great 
Doric temple dating from the beginning of the second century B.C., an 
earlier and much smaller Ionic temple in antis from perhaps the end of the 
fifth century, an elaborate altar-building resembling the Great Altar at 
Pergamon, which is the scene of the fourth mime of Herondas, and traces 
of a still earlier Doric poros temple, have been found. There is little but 
fragmentary sculpture. Inscriptions throw much light on the history of the 
sanctuary. Apparently it was controlled by a school of genuinely scientific 
physicians, whose skill was well known abroad as early as the third cen- 
tury B.C. Further excavation is needed for the comparison with Epidaurus, 
which the extent and splendor of this establishment demand. (R. HERZOG, 
Arch. Anz. 1903, pp. 1-13; 4 cuts.) 

CYZICUS. Inscriptions. In J.H.S. XXIII, 1903, pp. 75-91, F. W. 
HASLUCK gives forty Greek inscriptions from Cyzicus, with photographs 
of some of the stones. They are largely post-Christian and with Latin 
names. Apollo, who seems to be the local representative of the Phrygian 



ASIA MINOR] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 367 

sun-god, was the patron god of Cyzicus, and his temple was shared with 
Asclepius on the introduction of the latter from Pergamon. The gene- 
alogy of three generations of a family of Asclepiadae is here worked out. 

IS AURIA AND P AMPHYLIA. Explorations in 1902. A joint 
German-Bohemian expedition to Asia Minor in the spring of 1902 made 
extensive exploration of the little-visited region west and south of Iconium, 
studying especially the ancient settlement of the country, following new 
roads across the Taurus, correcting the map, and noting a large number of 
inscriptions and sculptures. Special points were Fasiller, with its colossal 
Hittite statue and a necropolis; Palono-Isaura, the ancient capital, the 
remains of which are extensive and important ; the site of Vasada, deter- 
mined by an inscription; Amblada, where an inscribed letter from a'Per- 
gamene king to the city was found; and an unknown ancient site with 
aqueduct and buildings standing, not far from the southern coast. The 
country in this direction was difficult but very picturesque. (H. SWOBODA, 
Arch. Am. 1902, pp. 160-162.) 

KIDROS. Inscription. B.C.H. XXVI, 1902, pp. 286-287, contains 
an inscription from Kidros, on the Black Sea between Amasa and Djidde, 
copied by Catelin and published with notes by G. MENDEL. It is a dedica- 
tion to the 0eos cucovios, and is dated according to the Bithynian calendar 
and Pompeian era, corresponding to February 21, 115 A.D. The maker of 
the vow was Sextus Vibius Gallus, known from an important inscription of 
Amastris. (C.I.L. Ill, 454, Suppl. 6984.) 

KONIA. Monuments in the Museum. B. C.H. XXVI, 1902, pp. 
209-246 (11 cuts), contains a classified description of the museum at Konia 
by G. MENDEL. Twelve inscriptions are published, one of which is in Latin, 
but none seem of special importance. Six sculptures in the round, all 
badly mutilated, are briefly described, and more fully five votive reliefs and 
fifteen funeral monuments, of which ten are inscribed. Noteworthy is a 
relief representing the god Sozon, nude, with a lyre in the left hand, and 
beside him a serpent on a bucranium. Reliefs hitherto have only shown 
the god on horseback, but analogous types are found on the coins of Mas- 
taura, Thyatira, and Germa. Among the four bronzes is a nude Hermes 
with a purse in his right hand and a feather or leaf on his head. An 
appendix describes the great sarcophagus found at Ambar-arassy and already 
noticed by RAMSAY. (Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 1901 ; cf. Am. J. Arch. VI, 
1902, p. 202.) On the front in a central niche the deceased is seated, read- 
ing; in similar niches on the right and left, the Dioscuri. The back and 
right side represent hunting scenes, with games on a small frieze below. 
The left side shows a funeral offering before the door of the tomb; and 
below, a frieze showing three labors of Heracles performed by Eros. The 
cover shows the funeral couch occupied by the man and wife. There is 
added a full discussion of this type of sarcophagus, in which it is claimed, 
in opposition to STRZYGOWSKI (Orient oder Rom), that the characteristics 
are not sufficiently specific to require the reference of all these monuments, 
found in Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy, to a single centre, and that even if 
this were proved, it would not support the thesis of Strzygowski, for it is 
impossible to connect them with a purely Greek artistic tradition. This 
does not necessarily affect his main position as to the origin and develop- 
ment of Christian art. 



368 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1<J03 

LIBYSSA. The Tomb of Hannibal. In Athcn. Mitth. XXVII, 
1902, pp. 321-326 (pi. ; 4 cuts), T. WIEGAND seeks to identify the site of 
the ancient Libyssa, where, according to Tzetzes, Septirnius Severus marked 
the tomb of Hannibal by a marble monument. The ancient town did not lie' 
in the valley of the Dil (Libyssus) by the modern Dil-Eskelessi, east of the 
promontory, Kaaba-burnu, but farther to the west, along the shore at the' 
foot of the hill, Ilandschir-bair, where are considerable remains, some of! 
which may well mark the monument of Severus. 

MILETUS. Excavations during 1901-02. The second year's work 
of the German excavations at Miletus (1901-02) has been abundantly pro-: 
ductive. The city walls show four periods earlier than the much reduced 
Byzantine circuit: (1) early Hellenistic; (2) late Hellenistic, a very strong' 
wall ; (3) of the time of Trajan ; (4) of the time of Gallienus, when, in 
A.D. 265, a somewhat reduced area was hastily defended from the Goths. 
Among the burial monuments found outside the city in the direction of 
Didyma, a very beautiful little Hellenistic Doric building can be entirely 
restored. In the necropolis some archaic sculpture has been found, but no 
undisturbed grave of that period. Within the city the important Xym- 
phaeum at the end of the aqueduct has been thoroughly recovered, both in 
its mechanical construction and in its decorative features, The town-house, 
too, with propylaeum, large enclosed court, great altar, and covered assembly- 
hall can be entirely restored. An area of about half the ancient site, includ- 
ing the theatre and all other important points, has been bought outright for 
the purposes of exploration. (Til. WIEUAXD, Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 147-155; 
pi.; 11 cuts.) 

MYRINA. A Terra-cotta Group. In R. Arch. I, 1903, pp. 205-212 
(pi.; cut), S. RKINACII publishes 'Aphrodite and Eros; a Group from 
Myrina in the Museum at Athens.' The group represents Aphrodite threat- 
ening with her sandal a diminutive Eros, who crouches before her in suppli- 
cation. The group is of value as throwing light on other representations of 
Aphrodite with a sandal, wand, or garland. It is clear that she is threaten- 
ing Ares, or Eros. The article contains a review of previous discussions of 
these other figures. 

PERGAMUM. The Visits of Cyriacus. Cyriacus of Ancona visited 
Pergamum in 1431 and in 1444, but few of the pleraque epirjmminatn, which 
he copied have survived. One is C.I.L. Ill, 399, another the note of Apia- 
nus, Per<jaini reperifur haec columna opus Nicerati, and a third seems hidden 
in the Latin of Codex Parmensis (fol. 60 V -). It is a translation of a decree 
in honor of L. Cuspius Pactumeius Rufinus, known through two other 
Pergamene inscriptions. (E. ZIKBAHTH, Atlien. Mitth. XXVII, 1902, pp. 
445-143.) 

RHODES. Excavations at Lindos. In Athen. June 13, 1903, is a 
summary of the report of the Danish archaeologists, Drs. Blinkenburg and 
Kinch, on their first season's work at Lindos. The excavations were con- 
fined to the higher part of the Acropolis, where the Propylaea and temple 
of Athena were laid bare. The latter was Doric and apparently built about 
400 B.C. Fragments of statues and inscribed bases, many with artists' sig- 
natures, were found. Other inscriptions are also of importance, particularly 
two long laws relating to the management of the temple property and the 
right of entry and sacrilege. There is also a list of about 150 officials and 



THRACE AND MACEDONIA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 369 

priests of Lindos. A crevice near the temple yielded a mass of terra-cottas 
and vase fragments, remains of ex-votos, which had been thrown away when 
the temple became overfilled. Many objects imported from the East were 
found, recalling Herodotus's statement that Amasis bestowed rich gifts on 
the temple. 

MT. TMOLUS. Discovery of Ancient Gold Mines. Two engineers 
of Smyrna, Catalanos and Axiotakis, report t'he discovery of the ancient 
gold mines at Mt. Tmolus. They have found, about four hundred metres 
from the Pactolus, a vein of quartz which seems to have been worked in 
antiquity. At the end of the vein were remains of ancient structures and 
traces of a conduit leading to a tributary of the Pactolus. (C. R A cad 
Insc. 1903, pp. 73-74.) 

TRALLES. Excavations in 1902. The excavations at Tralles, 
begun in 1901, have been continued by Edhem Bey. He has excavated a 
iine marble portico with monolithic columns in colored marbles which had 
been later altered into a Byzantine church. Many inscriptions have been 
discovered and numerous fragments of marble statues, among which are 
three good heads. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 1903, pp. 78-79.) 

VARIOUS INSCRIPTIONS. In B.C.H. XXV, 1901, pp. 325-336, 
A. BESSET publishes thirty-two inscriptions from Asia Minor. Two are 
from the European side of the Sea of Marmora, three from Bithynia, one 
from Mysia, twenty -two from Phrygia, three from Galatia, and one from 
Lydia. Some of these are taken from a pamphlet of Meliopoulos and from 
Ta^v8po/xos, a daily paper of Constantinople. One is in elegiacs and one in 
Latin. They are for the most part sepulchral and of ordinary types. Of 
some interest is a group of nine dedications to Potamos by a certain Manes 
and his family, who came from Attalia in Lydia, though the provenience of 
the inscriptions is not certain. They are now in the railway station of 
Haidar-Pasha in Phrygia. 

Atlien. Mitth. XXVII, 1902, pp. 267-268, contains eight inscriptions from 
Bithynia, found at Chalcedon, Drepanon, Sabanja, and Ak-shehr. Four 
are funerary, two honorary, one votive, and one merely caballistic signs. 
Two are accompanied by reliefs. In Ibid., pp. 269-270, are published 
two fragmentary inscriptions from Alabanda and one from Lagina. Ibid., 
pp. 270-271, contains five inscriptions from Phrygia. Four are mortuary, 
the fifth a mere fragment. They are from Philomelion, Laodicea on the 
Lycos, Ilidja, and Arab-oren. Ibid., p. 269, contains two inscriptions from 
Smyrna. One is a dedication to the Tyche of the Thessalonians, the other 
the gravestone of the father and brother of Apollas. (See B.C.H. 1887, 
p. 297.) In the same place are republished from the 'Ap/xovta of Smyrna 
two inscriptions of Thyatira, one honorary, the other sepulchral. 

THRACE AND MACEDONIA 

ANCIENT REMAINS IN EASTERN THRACE. In Jh. Oesterr. 
Arch. I. VI, Beiblatt, col. 63-66 (2 cuts), F. SCHAFFER reports some archaeo- 
logical observations made on a geological trip in the district east of Adrian- 
ople between the railroad and the Black Sea, which is very seldom visited. 
Ancient remains arid inscriptions are said to be frequently found at Tirnovo. 
Thirty kilometers south of the Bay of Iniada, on a rocky promontory, lay 
the ancient Midia, probably the later name of Salmydessos. The fortifica- 



37.0 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1$ 

tions on the land side are well preserved. Near by is a chapel of St. Nichol 
in front of a cave, which, by its decorations and sculptures, seems to 
been long a centre of worship, even in pre-Christian times. 

BULGARIA. Tumuli in the Toundja Valley. C. R. Acad. In 
1903, pp. 81-87, contains a report by M. COLLIGNON on the excavations 
Degrand in the valley of the Toundja (Tonsus) near Yamboli in Bulgai 
In 1901 and 1902 two tumuli were explored, one at Tell Ratcheff, the otl 
at Metchkur. At each a necropolis was found, in which the dead wei 
interred, after burning, under small hillocks about which were placed 
and other funeral offerings. Implements of stone and a few of bronze wei 
found, as well as rude figures in terra-cotta and much pottery. These objects, 
and especially the vases and terra-cottas, showed strong resemblances to those 
from Hissarlik, Cyprus, and Yortan in Mysia. As yet the date of these burials- 
cannot be determined, and it is very possible that this primitive civilization 
continued longer in Thrace than in the Troad or Cyprus. 

CONSTANTINOPLE. Syrian Bronzes in the Museum. In 
Arch. I, 1903, pp. 392-400 (2 cuts), P. PERDRIZET publishes the third instal- 
ment of ' Syriaca.' (86672.^^.1898,1^.34; 1899, II, p. 34.) 13 treats 
of a bronze from Antioch in the Ottoman Museum. It represents a beard 
less Hermes victorious over a youthful adversary. Between the wings on 
the head of Hermes is a lotus leaf, an Egyptian symbol of victory. This in 
terpretation of Forster (Jb. Arch. I. 1898, pp. 177-183; 1901, pp. 39-53) i 
defended by the analogy of a head from Carthage in the Museum of Algiers 
This head is an Antinous or Serapis. Other examples of the bronze group 
are cited, and it is claimed that they are derived from a celebrated work 
probably in Alexandria. 14 deals with a curious bronze Syrian idol o 
very early date in the museum at Constantinople. It rests on a triangular 
base supported by three feet. The image is flat, and recalls the clay 
Mycenaean idols. The head wears a conical cap surrounded by seven rays 
In spite of some superficial resemblances, nothing warrants any connection 
between this figure and Mycenaean or early Greek works. All such images- 
are merely modifications of the primitive triangular type in the representa- 
tion of the human form. This work belongs in the Hittite period, am 
shows neither Assyrian nor Egyptian influence. . 

KISTANJE. Roman Gravestones. In May, 1903, there were dis- 
covered in Kistanje (Burnum) three gravestones of soldiers of the eleventl 
legion. Two of these are published, with illustrations, by H. LIEBL in Jh. 
Oesterr. Arch. I. VI, 1903, Beiblatt, col. 85-86. The third contained also a- 
relief representing a case of surgical instruments, and has been described it 
Wiener Stuclien, XXIV, p. 149. 

MACEDONIA. Inscriptions. In Athen. Mitth. XXVII, 1902, pp 
305-320, A. STRUCK publishes fifty inscriptions from Macedonia. Of these 
six are mere fragments, one a list of names, four votive (two of these are 
Christian), thirty-four mortuary, and five Latin (one a dedication). Seven- 
teen are from Mygdonia, including eleven from Thessalonica ; twenty from 
Emathia, including ten from Aegae, and nine from Beroea; two fron 
Siatista in Elimea, and eleven from Paeon ia. None seem of any specia 
importance. 

SER VI A. Inscriptions and Monuments. Jh. Oesterr. A rch. I. VI 
1903, Beiblatt, col. 1-60 (7 cuts), contains another report by A. VON PREMER 






GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 371 

STEIN and N". VULIC on ancient monuments observed during a tour in Servia 
and Macedonia. The article contains ninety-nine inscriptions, of which 
sixteen are Greek, the rest Latin. They were collected in Macedonia- 
(Bylazora and Stobi), Moesia superior, and the Dalmatian-Moesian border 
near Guberevci. Among the few pieces of sculpture described are a relief 
at Stobi of a standing female figure between two horsemen, commonly 
called Helena and the Dioscuri, and another at Viminacium representing 1 
the evil eye attacked by beasts and birds. 

THRACIAN INSCRIPTIONS. In B.C.H. XXV, 1901, pp. 308-324, 
G. SEUKE continues his ' Voyage en Thrace ' by publishing twenty-seven 
sepulchral inscriptions from various places. Two of these are metrical, and 
six are in Latin. 

GREECE 

GREEK ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Annual Meeting. 
A general meeting of the Greek Archaeological Society, under the presi- 
dency of the Crown Prince, was held on January 25 (February 6), 1903. 
The Ephor-General, Cavvadias, reported on the work of the Society during 
the year 1902, dwelling especially upon the expectations and results of the 
excavations at Samoa. (See Am. J. Arch. VII, 1903, p. 111.) The temple 
had a double row of twenty-four columns on the sides, and a triple row of 
either twelve or ten across the front. The architecture shows many peculi- 
arities. The Society has also been at work at Olympia, Eleusis, Sun him, 
Thessaly, Thermon, Chaeronea, Euboea, and Arcadia. The proposed resto- 
ration of the Temple of Apollo at Phigalia, the Lion of Chaeronea, and the 
north porch of the Erechtheum were described. New museums have been 
opened at Chalcis, Thera, Myconos, and Nauplia, and much done for the 
preservation of the monuments scattered through the kingdom. (Neov 
'Acrrv, January 26, 1903.) 

ACARNANIA. Inscriptions. In A then. Mitth. XXVII, 1902, pp. 
330-352, E. PREUNER publishes twenty-four new inscriptions from Acarna- 
nia, and adds notes and corrections to those already published in C.I.G.S. 
III. Of these four are fragments, from Astacus, Phyrreum, and Komboti ; 
from Palairos are fifteen gravestones with a single name, two being frag- 
ments in archaic character, two votive bases, but without the name of the 
divinity, and one list of names belonging apparently to some private reli- 
gious association. The larger part of the article is concerned with two met- 
rical epitaphs from Thyrreum. One, of eight lines, commemorates a certain 
Sosipolis, who fell in battle ; the other Timelas, who was killed by a bear. 
Two other metrical epitaphs from the same place (C.I.G.S. Ill, 489, and 
Athen. Mitth. XXV, 1900, p. 113) are also discussed. 

AMORGOS. Defixiones. In B.C.H. XXV, 1901, pp. 412-456, 
T. HOMOLLE publishes the inscriptions on two lead plates discovered near 
Arkesine on Amorgos in June, 1899. Both belong to the devotiones or defix- 
iones; the first is addressed to Demeter and contains a curse against, a cer- 
tain Epaphroditus who has caused the suppliant's slaves to run away, and 
stirred up hatred against him. It cannot well be earlier than the second 
century of our era. The other is an exorcism against a malignant tumor, 
and is full of Jewish-Christian formulae. It is evidently intended to be worn 
as an amulet by any person of either sex. There is a full commentary on 
the character of the" exorcism and the terms employed. The two tablets show 



372 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

the continuance of the ancient practices even in Christian times. Lead 
plates with Christian formulae are rare, but this seems a clear case, and if it 
is the work of a heretic, the heresy is well concealed. The date is perhaps 
the third century after Christ. References are given to similar beliefs and 
charms in the folklore of modern Greece. 

ARGOS. Excavations. The Dutch excavations on the hill Aspis, 
just north of Argos, have disclosed a very early ring-wall resting on solid 
rock, with one-room houses within, all built of small unhewn stones laid 
without mortar. The pottery, all pre-Mycenaean, shows six or seven distinct 
varieties, beginning with hand-polished ware. A second and larger area, 
enclosed by a Cyclopean wall, has three strata, two prehistoric and one Greek. 
Two towers and a piece of wall in polygonal masonry adjoin it. The foun- 
dations of part of the Cyclopean wall are followed by the fortifications of 
classic times. The Mycenaean necropolis is between Aspis and Larissa ; a 
few late graves show cremation. The site of the temple of the Pythian 
Apollo and the neighboring stadium are on the south side of Aspis. 
{February meeting of Berlin Archaeological Society. Arch. Anz. 1903, pp. 
44-45.) See Am. J. Arch. VII, 1903, p. 114. 

ATHENS. A Fragment of the Eleusinian Decree. The National 
Museum at Athens contains a small fragment of the Athenian copy of the 
Eleusinian decree (C.LA. IV. 1, p. 59, 20 />; Dittenberger, Syll.' 2 20), con- 
taining a part of lines 15-20. The two stones seem to have been of exactly 
the same size, and the letters are identical in form, size, and spacing. The 
two copies did not agree absolutely, however, for in only the second, third, 
and fourth lines of the fragment do the letters appear in the same vertical 
columns as on the complete stone. It shows clearly how little importance 
the ancients attached to an exact agreement in unessentials. The bearing 
of this on the text of Thucydides V, 47, as given in the manuscripts is ob- 
vious. The character of the writing in this fragment agrees best with the 
dates assigned to the Eleusinian decree by Korte and Ziehen (418 B.C. or 
423 B.C.). The nearest analogy is found in the writing of C.I. A. I, 260, of 
the year 420 B.C. (A. WILHELM, Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. VI, 1903, pp. 10-15; 
2 cuts.) 

A Prehistoric Tomb. In'E<. 'Ap X . 1902, 124-130 (4 cuts), A. X. SKIAS 
publishes an account of a prehistoric tomb found on the south slope of the 
Acropolis between the Odeum and the Asclepieum. The tomb contained 
six bodies, two below and four above. One certainly, and the other proba- 
bly, were buried in the contracted position common on the Cyclades. All 
seem to have been buried about the same time, and the presence of several 
arrow-heads of stone makes it probable that they fell in battle. A little jug 
of hand-made ware and some fragments of primitive pottery were also 
foil nd. 

Portraits of Aeschylus and Chrysippus. Athen. Mitth. XXVII, 1902, 
pp. 294-300 (cut), contains two notes on Greek Iconography by H. vox 
PROTT. (1) The statue of Aeschylus in the Theatre at Athens is mentioned 
by Pausanias (I, 21) in a way which seems to distinguish it from those of 
Sophocles and Euripides. The latter are probably the statues set up by 
Lycurgus, the former is a pendant to that of Thespis (C././l. Ill, 940) set 
up in Roman times. This is shown by a fragment in the epigraphical mu- 
seum at Athens, corresponding in material, size, and writing to the Thespis 






GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 373 



inscription and containing the letters ^^XYAOS. (2) The National 
Museum at Athens contains a small bust, without the head, bearing the 
inscription TOV Xp [v] (TLTTTTOV \ 'A/cpio-ios | Mfflprj. Though the head is gone, 
the arrangement of the drapery and the evident position of the head confirm 
the identification of the so-called Poseidonius of the Louvre with the statue 
of Chrysippus in the Ceramicus, and of the bald-headed old man on the 
coins of Soli with the Stoic philosopher rather than with Aratus, who is 
probably shown on the coins as a bearded man wrapped in a mantle. 

Tombstone of a Priestess. In 'E<. 'A px . 1902, 143-144, Miss S. B. 
FRANKLIN describes a small column in the National Museum at Athens. Its 
exact provenience is unknown, but it marked the grave of a certain MaAtfa/cr;, 
and bears in relief the representation of a temple key. It is the fourth 
column with this symbol in Attica. The inscription is plainly pre-Roman. 

Reproductions of Sculptures in the Acropolis Museum. _ Miss 
Ingred-Kjern, a Danish sculptor, has made plaster copies, with accurate 
reproduction of the colors, of one of the Kopat of the Acropolis, and of the 
fine head of an ephebus in the same museum. Reproductions are for sale. 
(R. Arch. I, 1903, pp. 75-76.) 

BOEOTIA. Inscriptions. In B.C.H. XXV, 1901, pp. 359-378, 
W. VOLLGRAF publishes twenty inscriptions from Boeotia. The first two 
are manumissions from Thespiae in the Boeotian dialect. The next fifteen 
are from Thebes, and are for the most part single names from gravestones. 
One is a corrected copy of C.I.G.S. I, 2552, and reads hcapov \ Fas MaKai/oaj? 
TeAeo-o-<d/oo. The last three are from Livadia, and two of these are thought 
by T. H. to belong together. A part of this inscription has been published 
in C.I.G.S. I, 3078. It was erected by the Agonothetes, Xenarchus, after the 
Basileia, between 221 and 216 B.C., and contains not only the record of A r ic- 
tors but the accounts of the Agonothetes, and the record of a fine imposed 
on a previous officer for carelessness or delay in his accounts. Such a docu- 
ment as this airoXoyia of Xenarchus is unique. 

CHAERONBA. According to the Vossische Zeitung, Soteriades has 
discovered about 2 km. east of Chaeronea at a depth of 7 m. the remains of a 
huge funeral pile, upwards of 70 m. in circumference. The remains con- 
sist of ashes, bones, spear-heads, swords, and daggers, as well as Ka.vQa.poi of 
the fourth century and other fragments of pottery. (From Woclienschrift fiir 
Mass. Philologie, 1903, col. 334-335.) 

CRETE. CANDIA. A Grave-relief of the Fifth Century. O. 
BENNDORF publishes in Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. VI, 1903, pp. 1-9 (pi.; Scuts), 
a stele in the museum at Candia. Only the upper part is preserved contain- 
ing the head and shoulders of a youth, with a quiver on his back. The size 
of the stele and the modelling of the body indicate that he was seated, prob- 
ably on a rock. The work is of the Periclean age and of the most delicate and 
painstaking execution. The head is of the same type as the Idolino, but 
has a certain softness which connects it in feeling with the Ionic art, as it 
appears in the reliefs of Philis from Thasos and the youth from Pella, or in 
the youths of the Lycian sarcophagus from Sidon, as contrasted with those 
of the Parthenon frieze. This agrees with the character of the Cretan coins, 
in which the temper of the pre-Dorian art of the islands continues to exist. 
Nothing hinders regarding the stele as the work of a Cretan artist; it is 
certainly contemporary with Cresilas. An illustrated catalogue of the mar- 



374 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

ble sculptures in Candia is in preparation by L. Savignoni. In Revue <!?* 
Etudes Anciennea, V, 1903, pp. 120-123 (pi. ; cut), P. PERDRIZET publishes the 
same stele. The youth was represented as a hunter, for he carried the bow. 
but heroized, for he did not wear the hunter's tunic. The style indicates that 
it was made about 400 B.C. and under Polyclitan rather than Phidian influ- 
ence. It shows a strong resemblance to the Dresden athlete and the Idolino. 

CRETE. CNOSSUS. Excavations in 1903. In a long letter to 
the London Times, June 5, 1903, A. J. EVANS describes his season's work at 
Cnossus. At the north side of the northwest court of the palace a double 
flight of steps, at right angles to one another and with a square bastion pro- 
jecting between, led down to a square area, originally paved with cement. It 
seems clear that they did not lead to any megaron nor did they form a direct 
approach to the palace from this side. The steps and bastion would accom- 
modate about five hundred spectators. It is scarcely likely that the space was 
used for bull-fights, but it may have been used for dances or pugilistic encoun- 
ters, such as are shown in contemporary art. Between this area and the west 
court of the palace is a collection of small, irregular rooms, whose founda- 
tions belong to the " Minoan Middle Period." Possibly they formed an early 
shrine and its dependencies, and hence were preserved when the later palace 
was built. Among other fine objects found here was a deposit of bronze 
vessels decorated in relief, of a technique and beauty superior to any of those 
from Mycenae. They belong to the latest period of the palace. In the 
*' magazines," thirty more cists were found beneath the long gallery, and in 
one the remains of a wooden chest, which had been covered with a mosaic 
of porcelain and crystal plaques. The wood work and porcelain had been 
also covered with gold-leaf. Near the chest was a large bronze handle. The 
earlier strata show a long course of civilization before the late Minoan period 
of the present palace, which is not later than the sixteenth century B.C. The 
objects of the Ilyksos period and the twelfth dynasty take us back at least 
to the beginning of the second millennium B.C. In some ways, especially in 
the ceramic ware, these earlier days were the more brilliant. The prehistoric 
houses outside the palace were examined, and a miniature palace excavated. 
The plan of the whole upper story, which was reached by two staircases, 
can be easily seen. The building shows uniformity of structure, and the 
architectural style of the later palace period in its purer form. The walls 
are seldom of rubble, but more often of large gypsum blocks covered with 
a thin coat of painted plaster. One room. with a monolith in the centre 
shows the sockets in the wall for the beams which sustained the floor above. 
The megaron has at the inner end a raised balustrade supporting two col- 
umns, between which three steps ascend to a square niche containing the 
remains of a gypsum seat or throne. The whole bears an extraordinary 
resemblance to the later basilica. It is probable that the building was a 
royal villa, for which its situation in a cool valley near a stream is very 
suitable. 

In the Times, June 10, 1903, G. A. MACMILLAN publishes a telegram 
from A. J. Evans, reporting " a discovery of extraordinary interest " at the 
close of the season. The excavation of a depression in the basement of the 
shrine off the central court uncovered two large walled depositaries contain- 
ing cult objects and decorative furniture belonging to the sanctuary. These 
were largely of native porcelain, including vases, inlays, and small reliefs of 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 375 

great spirit. More important is a series of porcelain figures, about 1 foot in 
height, representing the goddess and her votaries. The goddess is repre- 
sented with snakes coiled about her hair and forming her zone; she holds 
them out by their necks. Her form is finely modelled, and every detail of 
the embroidered dress is reproduced, even to the lacing of the bodice. The 
remains of a chest, with crystal inlays lined with gold foil, and a hoard of 
seal impressions from lost documents were also found. Some of the seal- 
ings were inscribed with linear script, while others contain representations 
of a god and goddess accompanied by lions. 

CRETE. GOULAS. Topography. In B.C.H. XXV, 1901, pp. 282- 
307 (2 pis. ; 6 cuts), J. DEMARGUE begins the publication of the results of 
the excavations at Goulas in Crete in 1899 and 1900. This paper con- 
tains a full description of the topography of the region and a detailed 
description of the site. The remains seem to show that the city was built 
according to a definite plan, and underwent but few modifications. There 
is an absence of fine buildings, though there is some difference between the 
private houses. Ordinarily these consist of a front court and two connect- 
ing rooms on the ground-floor, though they may have had an upper story. 
The roofs seem to have been generally flat, though in some cases they were 
tiled. The excavations and a prolonged examination did not confirm the 
view that this was a Mycenaean city, as only four possible Mycenaean 
objects were found. It seems to have been a city of the archaic Greek 
epoch, which continued to exist until perhaps the second century B.C., pre- 
serving its ancient traditions. An inscription of the third century B.C. 
shows that it was the ancient Lato. Later articles will give a detailed 
description of the discoveries. 

CRETE. HAGIA TRIAD A. Italian Excavations in 1903. Ac- 
cording to the Kolnische Zeitung, the Italians at Hagia Triada (Herakleion), 
near Phaestos, have continued the excavation of the small Mycenaean 
palace, which has been found to contain megara for men and women, baths, 
and storerooms, but no cisterns nor conduits. The two staircases, which 
led to the upper rooms, are only partially preserved. The small objects 
found include two hundred clay seals and twenty tablets with Cretan script, 
as well as bronze kettles and figures of women and animals, a steatite vase, 
with relief decoration representing Mycenaean warriors, and nineteen talents 
of bronze, i.e. quadrangular bronze plates, each weighing about 1283 gr. 
( Woche.mclirift fur Mass. Philologie, 1903, col. 588-589. See also London 
Times, May 4, 1903.) 

CRETE. PHAESTOS. Italian Excavations in 1902. In Rend. 

Ace. Lincei, XI, 1902, pp. 512-536 (2 plans), L. PERKIER presents a sum- 
mary report of the excavations in the palace of the third acropolis from 
February to May, 1902. The work comprised the excavation of the un- 
touched portions of the palace to the west of the great court, at the north- 
east corner of the hill and north of the women's quarters, and also a careful 
study and restoration (so far as needful) of th<* part uncovered previously. 
The new portions showed decided similarity to the Mycenaean -palaces 
already known, and especially to some of the arrangements at Cnossus. 
Excavations beneath the surface of the Mycenaean palace brought to light 
here also evidences of earlier structures with fragments of monochrome and 
Kamares pottery. Detailed reports are to appear in Man. Ant. 



376 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1003 

CRETE. The Recent Excavations. In the Nation, June 11 and 18, 
1903, are two interesting letters by R. B. RICHAKDSOX, describing the 
recent discoveries at Cnossus, Hagia Triada, and Phaestos and the museum 
at Candia (Herakleion). 

DELOS. Renewal of Excavations. The Due de Loubat, who lias 
given largely to further the progress of American archaeology, has, since 
becoming a Corresponding Member of the Academic des Inscriptions et 
Belles-Lettres, shown interest in classical archaeology also. Through the 
late president, G. Perrot, he has recently given 50,000 francs, which is to 
be used for new excavations at Delos, under the direction of T. Homolle. 
(C. R. Acad. Insc. 1003, pp. 178-179.) 

DELPHI. Opening of the Museum. On May 2, 1903, the new 
Syngros Museum at Delphi was formally transferred to the Greek Govern- 
ment by T. Homolle, the Director of the French School at Athens. Speeches 
were made by Messrs. Mavromichalis, Minister of Education and the Fine 
Arts; Homolle; Cavvadias, Ephor-General of Antiquities; Chaumie, the 
French Minister of Public Instruction ; and several others. In the theatre 
dances were performed, and athletic contests held in the stadium. An inter- 
esting summary of the French work at Delphi and a description of the 
exercises are given by DEMETRIUS KALOPOTHAKES in the Nation, May 28, 
1903. 

EUBOEA. Inscriptions. *E<f>. 'Apx- 1902, col. 97-123, contains 
Euboean inscriptions published by G. A. PAPABASILEIOS. The first is the 
most important, being a decree of the Eretrians providing for the proper 
celebration of the Artemisia. Musical contests are instituted, and the 
prizes for each contest fixed. There are also regulations for the sacrifices 
and the procession. This decree was also published in 'AOrjva, XIV, 1902, 
pp. 357-363, by I. I). PHOKITES, and his text, which ditt'ers somewhat from 
that in 'E<. 'Ap^., is reprinted in the Wochenschrift fur Mass. Philoloyie, 
1903, col. 328-329. The decree cannot be far from the end of the fifth cen- 
tury B.C., and shows incomplete use of the Ionic alphabet. Two other 
inscriptions, also found in Aulonarion, are fragments of lists of victors. 
Forty-four inscriptions from the Museum at Chalcis are also published. 
Most of them are funerary and very brief. One, inscribed under and 
around the foot of a little cantharus, reads &uVa>vt dreAeoTa yu/eo-0ai ra.ya.Ba. \ 
Ko.1 Travra TO. re ovra KCU et TL eATrurei. | TTOLVTO. Ta.yj.0j. d/x?;^ava /ca7ropa avroi. 
The article concludes with six short inscriptions from Eretria and five from 
Vathy. 

ITHACA. Inscriptions. In Athen. Mitth. XXVII, 1902, pp. 372- 
376, E. PREUXER publishes corrections and additions to the inscriptions 
from Ithaca in C.I.G.S. Ill, from an article by JOHN LEE, 'Antiquarian 
Researches in the Ionian Islands in the Year 1812.' (Archaeologia, XXXIII, 
1849, pp. 36-54 ; 2 pis.) No. 656 is thus clearly shown to be a modern addi- 
tion to the golden band. Four new sepulchral inscriptions are added to 
those in the Corpus, and it is shown that Nos. 626 and 627 are from Same, 
not Ithaca. On pp. 377-378, H. VON PROTT adds twelve unpublished 
sepulchral inscriptions and brick stamps from Ithaca. Xone seem of 
importance. 

LEUCAS. Inscriptions. Athen. Mitth. XXVII, 1902, pp. 353-367, 
contains ' Inscriptions from Leucas,' by E. PREUNER. The greater part of 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 377 

the article is given to corrections and additions from the ^vXXoyrj ruv 
Aeu/caStW e7riy/ott(aJi/ of I. N. STAMATELOS to the inscriptions in C.LG.S. 
Ill, 5:54-599, 98:^-990. It is shown that 540 and 989 are in all probability 
forgeries of Petrizzopulos. In conclusion are published six new inscriptions 
collected during the Dorpfeld-Goekoop excavations in 1901. Five of these 
are mere names or letters, but the sixth is an inscription in the Corinthian 
alphabet of the first half of the sixth century, Evcfrpalos /,' (W0e/ce Ta.Ba.vai. 
It is engraved on the bronze crest of a helmet, which once belonged to a 
statuette of Athena. It is said to have been found at Sto Gula, a small 
plateau in the mountains, where, however, excavations yielded nothing of 
value beyond confirmation of the existence of a lonely sanctuary of Athena. 
On pp. 368-371, W. KOLBE publishes twenty-five more inscriptions from 
Leucas, copied in 1902. All are from grave stelae, and contain only the 
names and in one case the age of the deceased. 

ORCHOMENOS. Excavations in 1903. According to the Mun- 
chener Allgemeine Zeitung, the excavations of Furtwangler and Bulle at 
Orchomenos were directed especially to the discovery of the palace and 
town of the Minyae, and were completely successful. On a terrace above 
the spring of the Charites, Akidalia, were found the remains of a large 
palace of the best Mycenaean period, the walls of which had been decorated 
with paintings on stucco, consisting partly of ornamental patterns and 
partly of human figures at rest or in violent activity. Many vases were 
found, including a large ' Biigelkanne ' with a painted inscription in Cretan 
characters. Many strata were found below the Mycenaean palace, and in 
the lower levels circular buildings of crude brick on stone foundations. In 
the graves of the lower levels the bodies were in the cramped position found 
in neolithic burials, and the graves were lined with clay slabs. In the 
upper levels were Mycenaean and " geometric " graves, the latter containing 
gold ornaments. Many vases and other utensils were found in all the graves. 
From the classical period is a bronze tablet with an interesting inscription. 
The objects found cover a period of two thousand years. (Wochenschrift 
fur Mass. Philolocjie, 1903, col. 500.) 

PAROS. The Asclepieum and the Pythium. In Athen. Mittk. 
XXVII, 1902, pp. 189-238 (3 pis. ; 25 figs.), O. RUBENSOHN publishes his 
third report 011 Paros, containing the description of the Pythium and 
Asclepieum. Both sanctuaries lie on terraces near a bay west of Paroikia. 
The lower terrace has been known as the site of the Asclepieum since the 
time of Cyriacns, but the scanty remains of the Pythium on the terrace 
above were discovered and identified by Rubensohn. Almost nothing 
remains except the supporting wall at the back of the lower terrace and 
traces of two walls, which seem to have been part of the peribolos of the 
Pythium. Probably there was a small temple in the northwest corner and 
an altar in the centre. The identification is rendered certain by fragmen- 
tary inscriptions, including a block with the name MiK/aaS/;? in characters 
bearing the closest resemblance to the Archermus basis from Delos. The 
inscriptions are to appear in /. G. Ins. V. Of the Asclepieum also the 
remains are little more than foundation walls and a few Doric architectural 
members in the style of the fourth century. The very detailed description 
shows that there was an early structure on the site, apparently connected 
with a spring which flows from the rock at the back of the terrace. At a 



378 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

later period, probably during the fourth century, a new spring was opened 
near the centre of this rock, the old one closed, and a new sanctuary laid 
out, apparently consisting of a court containing a large altar, with a colon- 
nade at the rear, and perhaps in front, and rooms at either end, with por- 
ticos on the outside. There are no remains of a temple. The inscriptions 
are summarily noted, and nine published in full. All will appear in /. G. 
Ins. V. A lead nail, with the inscription P Y P, seems a charm against fire, 
which is shown by one of the inscriptions to have been much dreaded. 
Among the sculptures is an ' Apollo ' statue of Parian marble ; it belongs to 
the Samo-Naxian group, and most nearly resembles the Apollo of Thera. 
As the earliest inscription mentioning Asclepius is of the fourth century, 
Rubensohn concludes that this terrace with its spring was originally sacred 
to Apollo Pythius, who was replaced at the end of the fifth century by 
Asclepius and Hygieia. 

A Treaty with Thasos. [n Athen. Mitth. XXVII, 1902, pp. 273-288, 
O. RUBENSOHX publishes an inscription from Paros containing a treaty 
between Paros and Thasos. The stone is fragmentary, containing little 
more than a portion of the oaths of the contracting parties. The character 
of the writing and the pure Ionic dialect indicate a date not later than the 
early part of the fourth century. A consideration of the history of the last 
years of the Peloponnesian War, combined with the scanty indications of the 
inscription, leads to the conclusion that the treaty is connected with the 
revolt of the two islands in 411 B.C. The union of the mother city and 
the colony seems to have been dissolved somewhat later, as they entered the 
second Athenian league separately. It was renewed later by the democracy, 
for in an inscription from the Asclepieum the Parian proxeny is conferred 
upon Krj(f)L<ro<f><i)v Ke<oAtWos, Athenian general in 340 and 339 B.C., for ser- 
vices Trept TOV Sfjfjiov TO/A IlapiW Ktu a<TiW. > The close relations of Paros to 
Athens are shown in another decree in honor of Athenian Amphictyons of 
the year 341-40. The inscriptions are to appear in /. G.Ins.V. 109, 116, 113. 

TEGE A. Excavations in 1900-01. B. C. H. XXV, 1901, pp. 241- 
281 (() pis.; 11 cuts), contains a summary report on the excavations at Tegea 
in 1900-01, by G. MENDEL. The first season was hampered by incomplete 
expropriation, so that only the foundations at the east end of the temple 
and a part of the north and south sides have been well cleared ; the central 
portion has not been touched, and the west end only cleared to the upper 
course of the foundations. The soil to a depth of about 2.50 m. is more or 
less recent, then comes a narrow layer of black earth rich in bronzes and 
pottery, all showing geometric or Mycenaean decoration. There is no 
example of Corinthian or black-figured ware in it. This layer is found 
inside the temple, and seems to extend some distance toward the north. It 
indicates probably an open temenos before the first temple attributed by 
Pausanias to Aleus. There seems evidence for believing that the temple of 
Scopas was the fourth, not the third, structure on the site. About the 
temple are many Byzantine walls of considerable size and depth, belonging 
to a palace or convent. They are built of old material, and their destruc- 
tion has yielded most of the sculpture found. The foundation walls show 
the dimensions of the peristyle to have been 50.05 m. x 21.30 m.; the temple 
proper was 35.45 m. x 11.90 m., and the cella was 26.95 m. long. There 
was a ramp at the eastern end and another on the northern side, leading 






GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 379 

apparently from a well, which perhaps corresponds to the sacred spring. 
The architectural fragments found are consistent with Pausanias's state- 
ment that all three orders were used in the building. A wall outside may 
confirm Milchhb'fer's theory of an Ionic colonnade outside the temple. The 
style of these fragments resembles that of the great temples of Asia Minor 
of the end of the fourth century, and indicates that it is through Scopas 
that the Greek architecture of the fifth century is connected with the Ionian 
and Carian of the fourth. Nine fragments of sculpture are briefly described, 
pending a more elaborate study. Six of these are mere fragments, but the 
seventh is a head of Heracles, showing all the characteristics of the heads 
already known, though the style is ruder ; the eighth is a female torso in a 
short tunic, which is probably the Atalanta of the east pediment, and the 
ninth is a female head almost perfectly preserved and of great charm. An 
appendix enumerates a number of other monuments in private houses or 
the little museums at Palaea-Episcopi and Piali. Five heads, eight reliefs, 
including two of Asclepius and Hygieia and one of the Dioscuri, and four 
capitals of Ionic antae are described. Only three fragmentary inscriptions 
were found, but thirty-four unpublished inscriptions from the neighborhood 
are given. Four are in the epichoric alphabet. Noteworthy is + + = , 
otherwise unknown. Most of them are very fragmentary, but one is an 
epigram from a public monument, probably of about 370-69 B.C., and there 
are three late metrical epitaphs. 

THEBES. Stelae with Engraved Decorations. In the Museum 
at Thebes, Vollgraff has discovered three funeral stelae decorated with 
figures drawn in outline. Two of them are well preserved and show a 
warrior with helmet and shield, a spear in his right hand and the sheathed 
sword in his left. One of them is young and wears a flowing chlamys, his 
helmet is wreathed with laurel, and his shield bears a representation of the 
conflict of Bellerophoii with the Chimaera. These monuments are of the 
first third of the fourth century B.C. The third stele is fragmentary. 
(HOMOLLE, C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 715-716.) 

THESPIAE. The Monument to the Muses. In B.C.H. XXVI, 
1902, pp. 129-160 (cut), P. JAMOT continues his account of the discoveries 
at Thespiae in 1888-1891 (see B.C.H. X, XV, XVIII, XIX), by a discussion 
of the 'Monument of the Muses in the Grove of Helicon and the Poet 
Honestus.' To the seven inscriptions from the base of the monument dedi- 
cated by the Thespians to the Heliconian Muses (C.I.G.S. I, 1797-1799, 
1802-1805) he has added two more, belonging to Melpomene and Calliope, 
and proposes to assign the sixth place to Erato and the seventh to Clio. 
Nos. 1800 and 1801 of the Corpus do not belong to this monument. The 
dedication and names of the Muses are in the Boeotian dialect, but the 
distichs by Honestus are naturally Ionic. Honestus seems to be the Corin- 
thian of the Anthology (IX, 216), and as another epigram by him from 
Thespiae is in honor of Julia, daughter of Augustus, his date and that of 
the monument is approximately fixed. The artist of the monument is 
unknown. Other inscriptions show this was riot the only monument of the 
kind, and there is nothing to connect it with those described by Pausanias, 
who at any rate does not give a complete description of the sanctuary. A 
small marble statue of a Muse of Graeco-Koman work is published. An 
appendix contains six more inscriptions. One is a dedication of the Thes- 



380 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [\ T OL. VII, 1903 

plans to Mnemosyne and the Muses, containing three elegiac couplets in 
which the Muses are said to sing various aspects of their mother, Mnemosyne.! 
This leads to a discussion of the division of functions among the Muses. 
Another is the tribute of Honestus to Julia. The last two are bases set up 
by Philetaerus, son of Eumenes, and Philetaerus, son of Attains. The 
latter is identified with the founder of the Pergamene dynasty, the former 
may be his nephew or a son of Eumenes I, who died before his father. 
This basis was later used to receive two elegiac couplets by Honestus. 

ITALY 

INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OP THE HISTORICAL SCI- 
ENCES. The Revue des Etudes Anciennes, V, 1903, pp. 192-195, contains 
a brief summary by G. RADET of the more important topics presented at 
the Congress at Rome, April 2-9, 1903. Archaeology held a prominent 
place. G. Boni explained the results of the excavations in the Forum on 
the ground, and also by an illustrated lecture. Other reports were by i 
P. Orsi on the results of fourteen years' study in southeastern Sicily, with 
special reference to the deposits of Sicilian, Mycenaean, and Greek pottery, 
and also on his recent discoveries in Bruttium and Calabria, at Sybaris, the 
necropolis of Spezzano, and Locri. G. Patroni described the work in Cam- 
pania and Lucania, especially at Xumistrone ; Quagliati, the excavations in 
Apulia ; and Savignoni, the discoveries at Norba and Sermoneta in 1901 
and 1902, including at the former a necropolis of the iron age, and at the 
latter four temples of the Roman period. Mengarelli gave an account of 
the excavations at Conca (Satricum) in Latium, and the researches in 
Cisalpine Gaul were discussed by Eusebio and Tamarelli. Montelius read 
an important paper on the relations between Italy and the Scandinavian 
peninsula from the early bronze age to the Roman period, which he held 
were continued without interruption by a trade route across Austria. 
Papers by Orsi and Ghirardini discussed Mycenaean products and influence 
in Italy. Collignon traced the type of the " Piangenti " from the Mycenaean 
idols to the Mourners of the Sidon Sarcophagi. Lafaye discussed funeral 
monuments with representations of dice-playing. Petersen gave the histori- 
cal results of the interpretation of Trajan's Column. Ashby presented some 
unpublished drawings of the Via Appia by Carlo Fabruzzi. Strzygowski 
described some basilicas of Asia Minor with hemispherical vaulting, in a 
paper on art in Rome, Milan, and Ravenna during the reigns of Diocle- 
tian and Constantine. Conway, in discussing the inscription from Praesos 
discovered by the British School, maintained that it was earlier than 
500 B.C., and in an Indo-European language presenting some analogies to 
Oscan. A general description of the Congress is given in the Nation, 
May 7, 1903. 

NEW LAW FOR THE PROTECTION OP ART TREASURES. 
The London Times, June 17, 1903, publishes a long letter from its Rome 
correspondent on the new Italian law for the protection of art treasures. 
The law is now uniform over the whole of Italy. The export tax is fixed 
at 5 % ad valorem for objects valued at less than 5000 lire, and increases by 
2% for each additional 5000 lire until the maximum of 20% is reached. 
Objects belonging to ecclesiastical and public collections are declared 
inalienable. A catalogue of all objects in public or private collections is to 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 381 

be made, and those objects which are considered of extreme importance will 
be declared inalienable. When any object is offered for sale, the govern- 
ment has the right of preemption on equal conditions with any would-be 
purchaser. The value of an object for export is estimated by the owner, 
checked by a government agent, and in case of dispute, determined by arbi- 
trators. The government is given the right to sell or exchange duplicates. 
Foreign institutions or citizens may now obtain permission to excavate, 
subject to rules similar to those in force in other countries. The letter 
discusses further the present unsatisfactory conditions, and, while noting 
some weak points in the new law, regards it as on the whole a great 
improvement. 

ANCONA. Discovery of a Necropolis. At Ancona, outside the 
Porta Cavour, a necropolis of the pre- Roman and Roman periods has been 
discovered. A detailed description of several tombs and their contents is 
given by E. BRIZIO in Not. Scad, 1902, pp. 437-463 (34 figs.). The pre- 
Roman tombs and their contents swords, fibulae, necklaces, etc. are of 
the Novilara type. The Roman tombs indicate in some cases the custom 
of burial, in others that of cremation. The first are chambers of brick or 
stone, in two of which were found considerable remains of the funeral 
couches. These are made of iron rods passing through cylinders of bone, 
the elevated head and foot of the couch being decorated with projecting 
heads cut from bone. A coin found in one of these tombs fixes its date 
approximately in the middle of the second century B.C. Another contained 
gold earrings of curious design, gold rings, and a gold necklace. The 
cremation tombs were simply holes containing the funeral urn. The urns 
were of various types. Remains of an ustrinum were discovered. These 
discoveries are also briefly described from the Vossische Zeitung in the 
Wochenschrift fur Mass. Philologie, 1903, col. 336. 

CORNETO. An Early Vase. In the Vienna Museum of Antiquities 
is a small pot of reddish yellow clay from Corneto. On the front is rudely 
modelled a complete human face, and the vase is also decorated with a dark 
brown paint. The face is colored, and on the sides are two flying swans. 
Color is also used on the foot, handle, and rim. Vases with human features 
are found in Etruscan ware, but other examples are of bucchero clay, and 
otherwise undecorated. This vase belongs in the period of the post- 
Corinthian black-figured technique. A similar, but much ruder, vase is in 
the Vienna Museum fur Kunsl und Industrie. (O. EGGER, Jh. Oesterr. A rch. L 
VI, 1903, pp. 66-68 ; 5 cuts.) 

FLORENCE. The Frangois Vase. The missing fragment of the 
Fran 9013 vase was returned to the Museum on March 1, 1903, by an 
unknown visitor, who placed it on a marble basin in one of the halls of the 
Egyptian section, where it was found the next morning by an attendant. 
It has been replaced in the vase, which is thus restored to its condition 
before the accident. (L. A. MILANI, Alene e Roma, VI, 1903, col. 59.) 

PAGANICA. Tombs and a Temple. At Paganica, tombs have 
been found, formed of stones which came, as is indicated by an inscription 
found in the neighborhood, from a temple of Hercules. (N. PERSICHETTI, 
Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 470-472.) 

POMPEII. Excavations in 1902. At Pompeii, in August, 1902, 
accumulations from earlier excavations were removed from Reg. VI, Ins. 



382 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903' 

XVI. With the excavation of this insula the excavation of the region will 
be complete. (R. PARIBENI, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 468-469.) 

Bronze Statuettes. In Bed. Phil. W. 1903, col. 156-158, F. HAUSER! 
describes two bronze statuettes recently found near Pompeii. One is a' 
seated Heracles of the type commonly referred to the Heracles Epitrapezius 
of Lysippus. It is rather poor Roman work, but very well preserved, lack- 
ing neither the little cantharus nor the club. The other has been already 
published, though poorly, in Not. Scavi, 1901, p. 299. It is certainly a 
Greek original, and represents Hermes standing, with wings on his heels 
and probably the caduceus in his left hand. His head is wound with bands, 
such as are found on athlete statues, and he is therefore considered as god^ 
of the palaestra. The head, however, is plainly the portrait of a Seleucid, 
and probably of Antiochus VIII, Grypus. Its value for the history of art 
lies in its being a work from Antioch in the last years of the second cen- 
tury B.C. 

ROME. Reconstruction of the Marble Plan. In Rome a new 
section of the Conservatori Palace has been opened in which the munici- 
pality has properly arranged works of art discovered on municipal territory 
since 1870. The contents are as far as possible arranged topographically, 
one room containing the objects from the Gardens of Lamia on the Esqui- 
line, another those from the Gardens of Maecenas, and so forth. On the 
north side of the garden the bare wall has been used for a partial recon- 
struction of the marble plan of Rome. Of the 1049 fragments, only 167 
have as yet been assigned to the proper places. The work has been under 
the charge of Lanciani, with valuable assistance from Hiilsen and others. 
(R. LANCIANI, Athen. 11)03, 2, p. 67.) The plan is the work of many 
hands, and shows differences both in the quality and thickness of the marble 
blocks and in the execution. While the scale is in general 1 : 250, the 
Palatine and Forum show a scale of 1 : 200. The greater part of the ninth 
region is now pieced together, from the Saepta Julia to the Island of the 
Tiber and the Theatre of Marcellus. Another section includes the Temple 
of Divus Claudius, parts of the Colosseum and the Thermae of Trajan and 
the Portions Liviae on the Esquiline. Only the ascent to the Capitol can 
be recognized, and nothing can be referred with certainty to the Palatine. 
Only about one-fifteenth of the whole plan has been recovered. (F. BRUNS- 
WICK, Bed. Phil. W. 1903, col. 766-767.) The new study of the fragments 
has resulted in the recognition of the so-called " Divorum," which lay be- 
tween the Saepta Julia and the Thermae of Agrippa. It was a long rec- 
tangle, with eighty columns on the sides and sixteen at the ends, within 
which was a grove and small altar. It was entered through a large double- 
gated arch between small chapels. Hiilsen considers the full name to have 
been Templum Dworum Aedes Divi Vespasiani et Titi, and the builder to 
have been Domitian. The Serapeum has also been found near by, and 
the Isaeum, its continuation. (F. BRUNSWICK, Bed. Phil. W. 1903, col. 
574-575.) 

Excavations near the Forum. The work in the Forum has been 
partly given to further investigation of the prehistoric necropolis, partly to 
repairing the Arch of Severus, and partly to connecting the Forum and the 
Palatine, in which great progress has been made. The road from the Arch 
of Titus to the Palatine has been followed further, and remains of build- 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 383 

ings earlier than the Domus Gaiana have been found. Excavations to the 
southwest of the temple of Augustus have not as yet yielded much except 
remains of tabernae and of a private house. On the Palatine excavation 
beyond the northeast end of the Stadium has uncovered some remains of a 
building, beneath which are large tanks to which water was brought by 
a branch of the Aqua Claudia. (T. ASHBY, JR., Cl. R. XVII, 1903 pp 
136-137.) 

In May two more graves were found in the Forum. Both were of young 
boys, and in each case the body had been enclosed in the hollow trunk of a 
tree. The usual red and black vases were also found. (L. A. cited in 
Wochenshcrift fur klass. Pliilologie, June 3, 1903.) The prehistoric graves 
found near the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina do not differ essentially 
from the graves of the Viminal and Esquiline. It is clear that they belong 
to a people who practised cremation on their first arrival, and subsequently 
changed this to inhumation. The two methods were not in vogue at the 
same time. (R. LANCIANI, Aihen. 1903, 2, p. 68.) 

In the excavations between the upper part of the Sacra Via and the Pal- 
atine a drain was found which had been repaired in later times with blocks 
from ruined monuments; Here was found a marble slab containing part of 
an inscription in honor of Thermantia, mother of the emperor Theodosius, 
erected apparently by Ceionius Rufius Albinus, praefectus urbi from 389- 
391 A.D. (G. GATTI, Rend. Ace. Lined, XI, 1902, pp. 587-591.) 

Mr. Lionel Phillips has made an additional gift of 4000 to the Italian 
government for the purchase of three more houses bordering on the Forum. 
This will make possible the complete excavation of the Basilica Aemilia, 
and the entrance to the Forum of Nerva, as well as a proper display of the 
Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. (Athen. April 18, 1903.) 

Excavations at the Piazza Venezia. The block between the Piazza 
di Venezia, Macello de' Corvi, Forum of Trajan, Piazza dei SS. Apostoli, 
and Via Nazionale has been destroyed. This has at once brought to light 
some interesting objects including a good bust of Didia Clara, daughter of 
the emperor Didius Julianus (A.D. 198). In the neighborhood seems to have 
been the house of a senator named Laurentius. (R. LANCIANI, Athen. Feb- 
ruary 7, 1903.) Further excavations between the Piazza di Venezia and the 
Forum of Trajan have led to the discovery of large foundations of an unknown 
building, a hoard of worthless fourth-century coins, and some remarkably 
delicate architectural carvings in marble. Many columns, capitals, stamped 
bricks, a bronze lamp inlaid with silver, and numerous inscriptions on slabs 
used in the construction of later buildings have also been found. (R. LAN- 
CIANI, Athen. 1903, 2, p. 68.) 

Monument of Avilius Teres. In the course of alterations in the 
Castle of St. Angelo further fragments from the monument of Avilius Teres, 
the chariot driver of the time of Domitian, came to light. A part of the 
inscription has long been known. It is now possible to restore about one- 
half of the text, which was in three parts. First came a list of the victories 
of Avilius, then the names of the horses he had driven, and lastly a list of 
his improvements in harnessing, etc., and the names of the vanquished 
charioteers. (R. LANCIANI, Athen. February 7, 1903.) 

Various Minor Discoveries. In the work on the new hospital for con- 
valescents near S. Stef ano Rotondo various architectural fragments have come 



384 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

to light. The pavement of an ancient street has been found in and near the 
Piazza'Colonna; the direction of an inscribed pipe found here confirms the pre- 
vious supposition as to the location of the station of the first cohort of the vigi- 
les. In the same place architectural fragments and fragmentary sepulchral 
inscriptions have been found. In A then. February 7, 1903, R. LANCIANI, in 
reporting this discovery, declines to accept this interpretation of the inscrip- 
tion on the water-pipe, which reads [sub cura ....] Phocbiani trib(uni) 
c(o)ho(rtis) pr(imae) vig(ilum). He holds that the pipe is connected with a 
system of hydrants for use against fires, which were under the control of the 
cohortes vigilum. In the Villa Torlonia, opposite Via Alessandria, remains 
have been found of a wall of opus reticulatum, which belonged to tombs that 
lined the ancient street ; also cinerary urns. (G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1902, 
pp. 463-465, 467-468.) Excavation has been continued in the church of 
S. Saba on the Aventine. In the right nave, besides the eight sarcophagi 
already reported, eight tombs have been discovered, and a common trench 
containing numerous remains of human skeletons ; also a large sculptured 
sarcophagus, a piece of ancient pavement of marble, tufa, and travertine, 
and remains of walls. (M. E. CAXXIZZARO and I. C. GAVIXI, ibid. pp. 465- 
466 ; 2 figs.) 

SAN MARZANO AND POGGIOMARINO. Professors Dall' Osso 
and Pais, who have been engaged in the archaeological investigations in Sail 
Mar/ano and Poggiomarino on the eastern slope of Mt. Vesuvius, report some 
exceptionally interesting finds. Among these are the remains of an exten- 
sive villa dating from the period of Augustus. This building was found 
several metres below the present surface, and had been completely covered 
by fields under cultivation. The excavated portions of the villa show an 
absolute absence of ashes or lava, and it is clear that they were not destroyed 
by the eruption. This is new evidence proving the correctness of Pliny's 
statement, that during the eruption of 79 A.D. a strong south wind blew all 
the ashes to the north side of the volcano, and that the eastern slope was 
left perfectly intact. But the special significance of the new find consists 
in this, that the foundation walls of the villa are separated by a stratum of 
I* metres from a stratum of ashes, beneath which prehistoric tombs were 
discovered. The ash stratum, then, was the result of an eruption that ante- 
dated by hundreds of years the famous destruction in the first century; in 
the valley of the Sarna are the remains of several villages destroyed by 
Vesuvius in prehistoric times. Professor Dall' Osso has undertaken exten- 
sive diggings to uncover these. (Nation, June 25, 1903.) 

SARDINIA. Primitive Tombs in Cagliari. In R. Paleln. ft. 1902, 
pp. 195-203 (4 figs.), E. MANXAI and R. LODDO report the discovery 
of primitive tombs and stone implements in the province of Cagliari, 
Sardinia. 

SICILY. RIVET AZZO. Excavation of a Necropolis. In B. 
Paletn. It. 1903, pp. 23-28 (plate), P. Ousi reports the result of excava- 
tions at Rivetazzo near Syracuse. The necropolis excavated there is the 
only one which represents all three phases of Sicel civilization. 

TIVOLI. Inscribed Pedestals. At Tivoli, near the mensae ponde- 
rariae found in 1883, two pedestals of statues set up by the freedman M. 
Varenua Diphilus to his master M. Lartidius and his mistress Varena Maior, 
have been recently found. On one pedestal is a relief of Hercules, in a 



FRANCE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 385 

trailing tunica, with sleeves, and a richly ornamented band under the arms. 
(R. LANCIANI, A then. February 7, 1903.) 

VAYES. A Neolithic Settlement. A neolithic settlement at Vayes 
in the Valle di Susa was excavated in November, 1900, and July, 1901. A 
partial report of the discoveries chiefly stone implements is given by 
A. TAKAMELLI in B. Paletn. It. 1903, pp. 1-23 (pi. ; 3 figs.). 

VERONA. Discovery of a Villa. At Verona remains of a subur- 
ban villa of the imperial period have been found. (C. CIPOLLA, Not. Scavi, 
1902, pp. 435-436.) 

VARIOUS MINOR DISCOVERIES. In B. Paletn. It. 1902, pp. 
247-256 (2 figs.), L PIGORINI notes the following discoveries. In Istria, in 
the exploration of the ancient Nesazio, stones with Mycenaean decoration 
have been found, indicating an earlier civilization than that hitherto dis- 
covered. (See p. 389 infra.) Pre-Roman antiquities, chiefly of terra-cotta, 
have recently come to light in Padua. A vase of the Villanova type, formed 
of bronze plates, found at Orvieto and now in the Chigi Museum in Siena, 
has been recently published by Pellegrini, who believes it to be an Etruscan 
product of the eighth or seventh century B.C. Pigorini thinks it an impor- 
tation from the East. Id. Ibid. pp. 38-39, reports the discovery of neolithic 
dwellings near Faenza, and, Ibid. pp. 42-43, the discovery of stone imple- 
ments indicating a neolithic settlement near Cagliari. 

SPAIN 

S ANTIPONCE. Statue of Diana. A statue of Diana, described as 
a good reproduction of a well-known Roman type, has been found at Santi- 
ponce, the ancient Italica, on the right bank of the Guadalquivir near Se- 
ville. Excavations at the site should prove profitable, as the place was 
important in ancient times. (DIEULAFOY, C. R. Acad. Insc. 1903, p. 38.) 

VILLANEUVA Y GELTRU. Terra-cotta Figure of a Goddess. 
The collection of Victor Balaguer in the Museum of Villaneuva y Geltru con- 
tains the upper part of the terra-cotta figure of a goddess. She wears a 
stephane and above this a high polos upon which appear a sheaf of wheat and 
feathers. The color is well preserved, but the work is poor, as the coroplast 
has scarcely retouched the figure, though it has been made in a worn mould. 
The lower part of the figure was closely wrapped, and does not seem to 
have had much resemblance to the human form. It seems to represent Isis- 
Demeter and to be a product of Alexandrian syncretism, though no exactly 
similar figures are known. (P. PARIS, Revue des Etudes Ancienne*, V, 1903, 
pp. 15-18; pi.) 

FRANCE 

COLLECTION OF BAS-RELIEFS OF ROMAN GAUL. The 
Minister of Public Instruction and the Fine Arts has decided to publish a 
collection of the bas-reliefs of Roman Gaul. All the monuments are to be 
photographed, and a text is to be added giving the provenience, size, etc. 
The work is to be prepared by Captain Esperandieu, in connection \yith the 
Museum of Saint-Germain. \R. Arch. I, 1903, p. 286.) 

ARLES. Discovery of Architectural Sculptures. At the pulling 
down of a block of old houses on the eastern side of the Roman Theatre at 
Aries, near the Roman city gates, numerous fragments of ancient architec- 
ture were discovered, which are supposed to have been built into the fortin- 



386 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

cations after the invasion of the Saracens in the eighth century. Some 
blocks of stone bore interesting chiselled decorations; one, almost complete 
and undamaged, is ornamented with a frieze of the heads of bulls and open 
jaws of lions in bas-relief, and must have formerly belonged to the outer 
wall of the theatre ; another, which is adorned with a chariot, led by winged 
genii, is assumed to have belonged to the Roman circus. Portions of col- 
umns were also found, which are encircled with vines, from which small 
human figures and birds peep out. Fragments of the bas-reliefs of an Arch 
of Triumph of the third century have been found in such quantity that it 
is almost possible to reconstruct the arch with them. (A then. March 1C, 
1903.) See also R. Arch. I, 1903, pp. 412-413, from Chron. d. Arts. 

CHASSENARD. A Roman Grave. In Auvergne, near Clermont, 
at Chassenard (Allier) and Martres-de-Veyre, were found, many years ago, 
two Gallo-Roman graves of special value. In the latter were preserved all 
the garments and ornaments, as well as the pottery, buried with a young 
Arvernian woman. The former is described by J. DECHELETTE in R. Arch. 
I, 1903, pp. 235-258 (13 cuts). The ashes had been buried in a bronze vase 
inside a large dolium of gray clay. The vase contained also a mask of iron, 
remnants of a lorica hamata, gladius, cingulum, torques, and corniculum. The 
mask as a piece of armor is discussed, and other examples cited. The cor- 
niculum is identified with small ornaments, lyre-shaped, with two serpents 
for the arms. It has hitherto been known only through the literature. 
There were also found bronze vases and strigils, two silver coins of Caligula, 
and two iron dies and their counters for coining money. Both were blank. 
This leads to a publication and discussion of six matrices found at Paray-le- 
Monial in 1863, and belonging to types of Augustus, Tiberius, and Caligula. 
These are associated with the visit of Caligula to Gaul in 40 A.D., and to 
the same period the grave at Chassenard is assigned. A grave at Xeuvy- 
Pailloux, in which two iron masks were found, is shown by the potters' 
stamps to belong between 25 A.D. and 70 A.D. Of six examples of these 
iron masks, the four which can be dated are earlier than 70 A.D. 

FONT-DE-GAUME. Palaeolithic Paintings. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1903, pp. 117-129 (5 cuts), Dr. CAPITAN and Abbe BREUIL describe a series 
of remarkable palaeolithic decorations in the cave of Font-de-Gaume, near 
Eyzies (Dordogne), discovered by them in 1901. They are partly carved 
and partly painted in red and black. In some cases, carvings have been 
later covered with paint. The animals represented include the aurochs, 
reindeer, antelope, mammoth, and others. They are drawn in the inmost 
recesses of the cave, and can only have been executed by artificial light. It 
is suggested that they were made i:i order to obtain some power over the 
animals, which are exclusively those useful to the primitive man. In Ibid. 
pp. 130-134, E. T. HAMY adds a brief discussion of this superstition, and 
notes that the paintings seem later than the carvings, and that in one case 
a good carving of reindeer has been colored in part by an artist who had 
never seen the animals. 

MEAUX. Relief of Venus and Adonis. In Revue des Etudes An- 
ciennes, V, 1903, pp. 79-8*0 (cut), G. GASSIKS publishes a relief representing 
Venus and Adonis, found at Meaux in 1899. It seems to be earlier than the 
third century of our era, and, like most of the Gallo-Roman reliefs, is of moder- 
ate size. Both figures are nude, and Venus holds a mirror in her right hand. 



FRANCE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 38? 

Such groups are due to the influence of Syrian cults under the Empire, and 
are frequent on funeral monuments. This relief seems to have formed part 
of a monument similar to that at Igel. 

PARIS. A Gallo-Roman Necropolis. There has been discovered, 
in the gravel pits on the Rue du Hameau in Paris, remains of a Gallo-Roman 
necropolis. Four trenches and two small pits were opened, between Feb- 
ruary 21 and March 27, 1903. All contained human bones, calcined and 
broken ; fragments of pottery, including so-called Samian ware ; and, espe- 
cially, many fragments of the bones of animals, on which various devices 
were engraved, chiefly combinations of V, I, and X. In only one case were 
the bones and ashes in an urn, but in all cases the remains seem to have 
been covered by a slab of stone or tiles. (E. RIVIERE, C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1903, pp. 142-151.) 

SAG-ONNE. Dedication to Soucona. In December, 1899, there 
were discovered near Sagonne the lower part of a statue, two Gallic and 
some small Roman bronze coins. The inscription on the base shows that 
the statue was dedicated to the goddess Soucona, the nymph of the Sagonne. 
The name appears in the forms Soucona, Saucona, and Sagona. (S. R., 
R. Arch. I, 1903, p. 62.) 

SAUJON. Inscription in Unknown Alphabet. In Revue des Etudes 
Anciennes, V, 1903, pp. 129-135 (pi..; 6 cuts), C. JULLIAN publishes an 
inscription found in the ruins of the Camp de Toulon, near Saujon. The 
six characters have some resemblance to the Celtiberian letters, and also to 
those of southern Gaul and northern Italy. It is possible that they are not 
ancient, but they are deeply cut, and do not resemble workmen's marks, of 
which a large collection is given. 

VENTABREN. Gallo-Ligurian Names in an Inscription. Near 
Ventabren, between Marseilles and Aix, a tomb has been found containing 
a sandstone coffer with the ashes of the dead, and above, two slabs bearing 
inscriptions. One, in Greek characters, reads Ovmrootrra KouaSpowta, two 
Celtic names; the other, in Latin, is Vectit(us) Biraci. (H. DE GERIX- 
RICARD and Abbe A. DAGNEL, C. R. Acad. Intc. 1903, pp. 58-61.) Accord- 
ing to ARBOIS DE JUBAIXVILLE the name Venitouta is Gallic, the first element 
being the same as the Irish Jin-, the second the same as iuath.. Quadrunia, 
however, is Ligurian, and equivalent to Oscan Petrunia, Latin Petronia. The 
first element is quadru, Oscan petru, Latin quatuor. This combination of 
names agrees with Strabo's statement that this region was inhabited by 
KeAroAi'yve?, i.e. Gallo-Ligurians. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 1903, pp. 108-111.) 

VILLELAURE. A Mosaic. At Villelaure (Vaucluse) a curious 
mosaic has been found. The border contains scenes of hunting, while the 
central picture represents the discovery by Artemis of Callisto's fault, and 
her punishment. Zeus and Callisto are represented on a silver vase found 
near Valentia in Spain. (HERON DE VILLEFOSSE, C. R. Acad. Insc. 1903, 
p. 168.) 

VARIOUS MINOR DISCOVERIES. At Apt (Apta lulia) has 
been found a small bronze bust, representing a bearded Bacchus crowned 
with ivy, as well as bronzes of Vespasian, Pomitian, and Trajan, one of 
which is a rare type. (R. Arch. I, 1903, pp. 282-283.) The Roman monu- 
ments of Arlon (Orolanum), after a long sojourn in obscurity, have been 
arranged in accessible and well-lighted rooms. All have been photographed, 



388 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

so that a complete catalogue can be easily made. (R. Arch. I, 1903, pp. 61- 
62.) It is reported that the remains of a Gallo-Roman villa have been 
discovered near La Borie (Dordogne). Excavations were to be undertaken 
by the Societe historique et archeologique du Perigord. (R. Arch. I, 1903, 
p. 75.) _ B. Arch. C. T. December, 1902, pp. ix-xi, contains five Latin inscrip- 
tions recently found in Lyons. One is from the base of a statue of a priest 
at the altar of the Caesars at the temple of Rome and Augustus ; two others 
are epitaphs. The first Roman inscription from Vitrolles, near Rognac, is 
published by M. CLERC in Revue des Etudes Anciennes, V, 1903, p. 196. It 
reads, \_I~\uliae m[atrif] \ [pie]ntissima[e'] \ Seruata \ annorum XXV. 

BELGIUM 

BRUSSELS. Busts from Asia Minor. The Museum of the Deco- 
rative Arts in Brussels contains two busts from Smyrna, of the kind which 
were placed on tombs. One is a female head in marble, of no great artis- 
tic value ; probably a work of the first century of our era. The other, 
also feminine, is of terra-cotta, and attracts attention by its evident por- 
traiture. There is good reason to believe that it has been moulded from 
a dea^h-mask, and retouched by the sculptor, who has opened the eyes and 
sought to give an appearance of life to the face. It thus differs from the 
bronze funeral masks or clay masks buried with the dead, and may be con- 
nected with the use of moulds in portraiture, ascribed by Pliny to Lysis- 
tratus, brother of Lysippus. The bust, which is of about the time of 
Augustus, is also interesting as an Asiatic example of the revived use 
of terra-cotta for statues, which is so marked in Italy about this time. 
(M. COLLIGNOX, R. Arch. I, 1903, pp. 1-11 ; 2 pis.) 

GERMANY 

BERLIN. Acquisitions of Sculpture. The recent additions to the 
collection of antiquities at Berlin, exclusive of finds from Asia Minor, which 
go to the new Pergamene Museum, are published by C. WATZINGER in 
Arch. Anz. 1903, pp. 29-41 (13 cuts). Among the most interesting are an 
inscribed fluted column from Melos, lacking the capital and votive statue 
that it supported : a small head from Selinunto, somewhat earlier than the 
heads from the Heraeum there ; a tufa head from Attica, resembling the 
stele of Aristion ; a statue with Roman portrait head, which has suggested 
the proper restoration of the " Aspasia " head in Berlin ; a head of Pericles 
from Lesbos, a faithful, but somewhat expressionless, copy of the head by 
Cresilas; an original Greek male head, of about 400 B.C., Argive school; a 
very beautiful bronze statuette of Hypnos, from Spain, the best one known. 
There are twelve grave-reliefs, chiefly Attic and Boeotian, a brightly painted 
early tufa sarcophagus from Italy, and a few other fragments of sculpture 
and inscription. 

Reproductions from the Berlin Museums. Reproductions can now 
be had of some of the most famous ancient bronzes and silver objects in 
the Berlin museums, the Dodona warrior, the Argive youth, a silver bowl 
with maenad from Herrnopolis, pieces of the Hildesheim silver treasure, and 
others. (Arch. Anz. 1902, p. 162.) 

DIEDENHOFEN. Gallo-Roman Inscription. At Diedenhofen 
(Thionville) the removal of Vauban's fortifications has led to the discov- 



GREAT BRITAIN] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 389 

ery of ancient remains, among them a Gallo-Roman inscription of the 
fourth century, referring to Coimagus and Dubna, daughter of Viredon, 
all Celtic names. (Wochenschrift fur klass. Philologie, 1903, col. 474.) 

S AALBURG. Discovery of a Mithraeum. The Kolnische Zeitung 
reports the excavation of a Mithraeum near the entrance to the necropolis 
on the right of the Roman road to Heddernheim. Near the entrance was a 
votive column dedicated by Condollius. The sanctuary had the usual form, 
a broad nave, and two side aisles. The entrance was at the south, and in 
the north wall was the place for the usual relief of Mithras killing the bull. 
The relief itself has not yet been found. (Berl. Phil. W. 1903, col. 861.) 

AUSTRIA 

CARNUNTUM. A Bronze Relief. Under the title ' Bronzereliefs 
vom Limes/ R. MUNSTERBERG publishes in Jh. Oesterr. Arch. 7. VI, 1903, 
pp. 69-78 (pi. ; 4 cuts) a curious series of representations of Ganymede and 
the eagle, from Carnuntum and other posts on the Roman frontier. The 
head and shoulders of Ganymede rise from a sort of calyx of leaves, while 
above his head appears the eagle, whose claws are sometimes visible below 
the boy's arms. In the field, which is usually circular or oval, appear various 
attributes, such as the shepherd's pipe, dog, etc. The design evidently is 
derived from Hellenistic originals. In one case it has been modified to rep- 
resent a bust of Athena with the aegis, and an eagle on her helmet. The 
exact use of these bronzes is not clear. They seem connected with military 
ornaments and may in some cases have adorned shields. The device of 
Ganymede and the eagle is frequent on funeral monuments, symbolizing the 
heroizing of the dead, but here it seems rather to symbolize the triumph of 
the Roman eagles. 

NESIACTUM. Excavations in 1900 and 1901. The results of 
excavations at Nesiactum, northeast of Pola, in 1900 and 1901, have been 
recently published by the director, Professor STICOTTI (' Relazione prelimi- 
nare sugli Scavi di Nesazio,' in Atti e Memorie della Societa Istriana di Arch, 
e Storia, and separately). Interesting private houses and public buildings 
have been found, with inscriptions, good architectual fragments, and many 
small objects. Near the city a pre-Roman necropolis containing various 
strata was excavated. Here were found fragments of situlae with decora- 
tions of the kind familiar in Venetia and the eastern Alps. More important 
is the discovery of stone slabs covered with Mycenaean, and " early Attic " 
patterns, such as spirals in various combinations and an interlaced mae- 
ander. They show the persistence of this style in these regions, where 
they are found even in the stone age. (M. HOERNES, Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. 
VI, 1903, Beiblatt, col. 67-72; 7 figs.) 

GREAT BRITAIN 

ROMAN BRITAIN IN 1902. Excavations were continued at Silches- 
ter, Caerwent, and Hadrian's Wall; and the Scottish Antiquaries; having 
completed Inchtuthill, dug at Castlecary. At Silchester considerable ground 
was excavated, but few buildings were found. A fragment of an inscription 
has letters about five inches high. At Caerwent a small building, thought 
to be a shrine, was excavated, and among other objects a peculiarly ugly 
sandstone head was found. At Hadrian's Wall, excavations at Castlesteads 



390 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VII, 1903 

showed that the Vallum passed south of the fort, which thus stood between 
Vallum and Wall. At Castlecary, on the Wall of Antoninus, a fort about 
350x450 ft. was found, and its outline traced, in spite of its much damaged 
condition. The ramparts were in part of fine dressed stone. Remains of 
stone buildings were found, and a pit containing many old boots. There 
are no traces of rebuilding or different periods of occupation. Several 
" villas " have been discovered in various localities, but have yielded noth- 
ing noteworthy. (F. HAVERFIELD, Athen. April 18, 1903.) 

A NEW FRAGMENT OF THE PARTHENON FRIEZE. In 
the Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects, X, 1902-1903, pp. 31- 
34 (4 cuts), A. S. MURRAY reports the recovery of a fragment of the frieze 
of the Parthenon. It was found in a rockery in Essex, at a place once the 
home of Thomas Astle, and seems to have been acquired by James Stuart 
in 1750. His collection was shipped to Smyrna, and there came into the 
possession of an English sea-captain, who brought it to London where it 
ultimately became the property of Thomas Astle. This fragment belongs 
to the left upper corner of a slab of the north frieze (XXXV Michaelis) 
and contains the heads of a youth and of a horse. It does not appear 
in the drawings of Faydherbe (Carrey), Stuart, or Pars. In the same place 
a little before was recovered the fragment of the inscription from the monu- 
ment erected by the Athenians to the volunteers from Cleonae, who fought 
at Tanagra (457 B.C.). It was published in 1771, but had since disappeared. 
In R. Arch. I, 1903, pp. 274-277, S. REINACH reports an article by Michaelis 
in the Allfjemeine Zeitung (Beilage, No. 296) of Munich, in which is given a 
history of this discovery and of others of a similar kind in previous years. 
The hope is expressed that the private collections in England may be 
thoroughly searched for fragments of the Parthenon and other works of art 
which have disappeared with the sale or removal of the buildings in which 
they were once kept. 

LONDON. Greek Art at the Burlington Fine Arts Club. The 
important loan exhibition of works of Greek art, which was opened in June 
in the rooms of the Burlington Fine Arts Club is described in Athen. June 
20, 1903, and by II. N. FOWLER in the Nation, July 30, 1903. The sculpture 
covers the period from the end of the sixth century to the Augustan age, 
and almost every object is a fine specimen of its kind. Conspicuous are the 
Petworth head of Aphrodite, ascribed to Praxiteles, the bronze head of 
Apollo from Chatsworth (Furtwangler, Intermezzi, pis. i-iv), and a female 
head of Parian marble from Chios now in the Warren collection. From the 
same collection comes a fine marble statuette of Heracles, of the type attrib- 
uted by Furtwangler to Myron. The exhibition includes marbles, bronzes, 
terra-cottas, vases, gems, and coins. 

A Marble Head from Arundel House. S. R. publishes in R. Arch. 
I,' 1903, pp. 427-428 (cut) a marble head in the possession of Judge Snagge 
of London. It was dug up in the garden of Arundel House, where it seems 
to have been left at the time when the Arundel marbles were transferred to 
Oxford. The head is probably that of an athlete in the style of the fourth 
century B.C., and is a good Greek work. 

A Roman Wall. While tearing down Newgate Prison, a part of the 
old Roman wall of London was discovered beneath the burial place of those 
who were executed in the prison. The wall was built in 305 A.D. by Con- 






AFRICA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1903 391 

stantine and repaired in 370 A.D. by Theodosius, (Wochenschrift fur Mass. 
Philoiogie, 1903, col. 726-727, from Vossische Zeituny.) 

CAERWENT. Excavations in IBOl. Archaeoloyia, LVIII, 1902, 
pp. 119-152 (5 pis. ; 8 cuts), contains the full report of the excavations oii 
the site of the ancient Venta Silurum in 1901, by T. ASHBY, JR., A. E. 
HUDD, and A. T MARTIN. See Am. J. Arch. VI, 1902, pp. 372-373. 

SILCHESTER. Excavations in 1901. Archaeoloyia, LVIII, 1902, 
pp. 17-36 (3 pis. ; 6 cuts), contains the full report by W. H. ST. JOHN 
HOPE of the excavations at Silchester in 1901, and an appendix on the 
* Plant Remains of Roman Silchester ' by CLEMENT REID. See. Am. J. Arch. 
VI, 1902, p. 373. 

STRANRAER. A Prehistoric Settlement. MR. MAGELLAN 
MANN of Glasgow has resumed his explorations of a prehistoric settlement 
near Stranraer. From these further researches he finds that no stone was 
employed in the building of the houses, and the dimensions of the huts were 
surprisingly small. The flooring had been supported on a massively con- 
structed foundation of pointed wooden logs set close together and more or 
less perpendicularly. One of the houses had more than sixty such logs in 
its foundation. The wood used was birch and oak, and the sharpening of 
the points had been done with some blunt-edged tool. Over traces of the 
flooring were evidences of a hearth, and many implements and utensils of 
stone and pieces of pottery were found. The walling was of wattle-work. 
The pottery is coarse, dark, and hand-made, without ornamentation. 
(A then. July 4, 1903.) 

THE WALL OF ANTONINUS. Progress is still being made in the 
excavations connected with the Roman wall of Antoninus. The Glasgow 
Archaeological Society has cut into a section of the wall at Hillfoot, Bears- 
den, Dumbartonshire, disclosing sixteen layers of turfing, with a stone base 
15 feet wide. The Scottish Society of Antiquaries is at present making cut- 
tings in and around the fort of Roughcastle, two miles west of Falkirk. 
Sir Alexander Muir Mackenzie of Delvine, Perthshire, proprietor of the 
most northern Roman station which has as yet been disclosed, that of 
Inchtuthill, has published a monograph on the subject. He expects to 
trace the Roman road from Grassy Walls to Coupar Angus this year. 
(Alhen. May 23, 1903.) 

AFRICA 

RECENT DISCOVERIES IN NORTH AFRICA. In Arch. Anz. 
1903, pp. 13-29, E. PETERSEN reviews the archaeological discoveries of the 
French in North Africa, as seen in a recent tour. In the Bardo at Tunis, 
as in the other museums, the floor mosaics are the most striking feature. 
With Egyptian and Romano- African rather than Alexandrine taste, they 
depict the wild life of land and sea and country scenes in endless and most 
instructive variety, but mythological or urban scenes are rare. In sculpture, 
on the contrary, late Greek influence overshadows either Punic or Roman, 
though it is often only the form that is Greek. Statues of gods, especially 
Baal and Tanit, and of important men, predominate over less serious sub- 
jects. Native ideas are more evident in the grave reliefs. The effigies on 
some fine sarcophagi are curiously designed rather as standing than as re- 
cumbent figures. The whole history of Carthage can be traced in its series 
of terra-cotta lamps. The puz